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The  Gift  of  Beatrix  Farrand 

to  the  General  Library 
University  of  Calif  ornia,Berkeley 





The  Gift  of  Beatrix  Farrand 

to  the  General  Library 
University  of  Calif 'ornia,  Berkeley 


SCIENTIFIC   PAPERS.     Selected  by  C.  S.  SARGENT. 

I.  Reviews  of  Works  on  Botany  and  Related  Subjects, 


II.  Essays,  Biographical  Sketches,  1841-1886. 

2  vols.  8vo,  each  $3.00. 

GRAY.  With  Portraits  and  other  Illustrations.  2  vols. 
crown  8vo,  $4.00. 





VOL.  I. 



Copyright,  1893, 

All  rights  reserved. 



The  Riverside  Press,  Cambridge,  Mass.,  U.  S.  A. 
Electrotyped  and  Printed  by  H.  O.  Houghton  &  Co. 

Add  to  Lib. 
Farrand  Otf t? 

v.  I 





IT  has  been  my  aim,  in  collecting  and  arranging  the 
"  Letters  "  from  Dr.  Gray's  large  correspondence,  to 
show,  as  far  as  possible  in  his  own  words,  his  life  and 
his  occupation.  The  greater  part  of  the  immense 
mass  of  letters  he  wrote  were  necessarily  purely  sci- 
entific, uninteresting  except  to  the  person  addressed  ; 
so  that  many  of  those  published  are  merely  fragments, 
and  very  few  are  given  completely.  I  have  made  no 
attempt  to  estimate  his  scientific  or  critical  labors, 
for  they  are  sufficiently  before  the  world  in  various 
printed  works  ;  but  something  of  the  personality  of 
the  man  and  his  many  interests  may  be  learned  from 
these  familiar  letters  and  from  even  the  slight  notes. 

Dr.  Gray  began  an  Autobiography,  but  went  no 
further  than  to  give  a  brief  sketch  of  his  early  life. 
This  fragment  is  placed,  with,  some  notes  illustrative 
of  the  early  conditions  in  which  his  youth  was  passed, 
at  the  beginning  of  the  work. 

It  is  owing  to  the  kind  assistance  of  many  friends 
that  the  Autobiography  and  Letters  are  thus  pre- 
sented ;  among  whom  should  be  especially  mentioned 
Professors  C.  S.  Sargent  and  Charles  L.  Jackson, 
Dr.  W.  G.  Farlow,  Mr.  J.  H.  Eedfield,  and  Mr. 
Horace  E.  Scudder, 

J.  L.  GRAY. 

July  1,  1893. 




I.  AUTOBIOGRAPHY.    1810-1843   ......      1 

II.   EARLY  UNDERTAKINGS.     1831-1838      ....        29 

III.  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.    1838-1839        ...    85 

IV.  A  DECADE  or  WORK  AT  HOME.     1840-1850  272 

NOTE  ON  THE  ILLUSTRATIONS.  The  frontispiece  portrait  of  Dr. 
Gray  is  a  photogravure  from  a  photograph  taken  in  1867.  The  por- 
trait facing  page  286  is  from  a  daguerreotype  taken  about  1841.  The 
view  of  the  Botanic  Garden  House,  facing  page  358,  is  from  a  drawing 
by  Isaac  Sprague. 




MY  great-great-grandfather,  John  Gray,  with  his 
family,  among  which  was  Robert  Gray,  supposed  to 
be  one  of  his  sons,  emigrated  from  Londonderry, 
Ireland,  to  Worcester,  Mass.,  being  part  of  a  Scotch- 
Irish  colony.1  The  farm  they  took  up  was  on  the 
north  side  of  what  is  now  Lincoln  Street. 

Robert  Gray,  my  great-grandfather,  died  in  Worces- 

1  This  colony  was  composed  of  rig-id  Presbyterians,  who  desired  to 
leave  Ireland  to  escape  various  persecutions.  They  sent  out  the 
Rev.  Mr.  Boyd,  early  in  1718,  with  an  address  to  the  Governor  of 
Massachusetts.  The  address,  now  in  the  Archives  of  the  New 
Hampshire  Historical  Society,  was  signed  by  three  hundred  and 
nineteen  persons,  nine  of  whom  were  clergymen.  The  report  brought 
back  by  Mr.  Boyd  of  his  reception  by  the  governor  and  of  the 
prospects  of  the  country  was  so  favorable  that  the  addressers  con- 
verted their  property  into  money,  and  embarked  in  five  ships  for 
Boston,  which  they  reached  August  4,  1718.  In  Boston  they  sepa- 
rated for  different  places,  but  the  larger  part  were  sent  to  Worcester, 
then  a  frontier  settlement  of  fifty-eight  dwellings  and  two  hundred 
inhabitants,  but  needing  a  larger  population  as  protection  from  the 
Indians.  John  Gray  —  there  were  two  of  his  name  in  the  original 
party  —  went  to  Worcester,  where  he  owned  considerable  land,  and 
was  evidently  a  man  of  influence  in  the  colony,  to  judge  from  the 
varioiis  public  offices  held  by  him. 

2  AUTOBIOGRAPHY.  [1810. 

ter,  January  16,  1766.  He  married  Sarah  Wiley1 
about  the  year  1729.  They  had  ten  children ;  the 
eighth  was  Moses  Wiley  Gray,  my  grandfather,  born 
in  Worcester,  December  31,  1745.  About  the  year 
1769,  he  married  Sally  Miller,  daughter  of  Samuel 
and  Elisabeth  (Hammond)  Miller,  of  Worcester, 
and  removed  to  Templeton,  Mass.  About  1787  he 
removed  to  Grafton,  Vermont,  where  his  wife  died  in 
1793.  In  1794  he  removed  to  Oneida  County,  N.  Y., 
and  settled  in  the  Sauquoit  Valley,2  where  he  died 
from  injuries  received  from  the  fall  of  a  tree,  May  8, 

My  father,  Moses  Gray,  was  the.  youngest  of  the 
(eight?)  children  of  his  mother.  There  were  three 
half-brothers  and  a  half-sister  by  a  second  wife,  born 
in  Oneida  County,  none  of  whom  survived  my  father. 
He  was  born  in  Templeton,  Mass.,  February  26, 
1786.3  He  was  therefore  in  his  eighteenth  year  when 

1  Robert  Gray,  one  of  John  Gray's  sons,  was  twenty  years  old  when 
he  came  to  America.      There  is  a  tradition  in  the  family  that  the 
acquaintance  and  courtship  began  on  the  voyage. 

2  Sauquoit  was  a  settlement  in  the   eastern  part  of  the  town  of 
Paris,  the  township  so  named  in  grateful  recognition  of  a  supply  of 
food,  sent  by  a  Mr.  Paris,  of  Oswego,  at  a  time  when  the   early 
settlers  were  near  starving.  —  A.  G. 

3  Moses  Gray  was  the  eighth  child,  —  a  boy  and  a  girl  were  born 
later,  —  and  one  step-brother,  Watson,  survived  Moses  Gray.     Moses 
Wiley  Gray  made  the  journey  to  Sauquoit,  on  horseback,  taking  be- 
fore him  his  son  Moses,  then  a  boy  of  eight.     The  Mohawk  Valley  at 
this  time  was  the  far  West,  with  only  slow  and  tedious  communication 
beyond  Schenectady,  but  opening,  in   its   lovely   tributary   valleys, 
tempting  regions  of  hill  and  valley,  well  wooded,  with  clear,  spar- 
kling streams.     The  land  offered  good   farming  opportunities  when 
cleared  of  trees,  and  the  rapid  streams  gave  good  promise  of  water 
power.     Here  Moses  Wiley  Gray  took  a  farm  on  the  top  of  a  hill,  and 
cultivated  the  land  for  ten  years.     He  was  injured  by  the  fall  of  a 
tree,  and  his  leg  was  amputated.    He  died  the  next  day,  May  8,  1803, 
leaving  his  son  Moses,  with  his  stepmother  and  her  children  largely 
dependent  on  his  assistance. 

1810.]  AUTOBIOGRAPHY.  3 

his  father  died.  He  used  to  say  that  he  had  only 
six  weeks  of  schooling;  whether  before  or  after 
his  father's  death  I  am  ignorant.  But  soon  after 
that  event  he  was  apprenticed  to  a  tanner  and  cur- 
rier (Mr.  Gier)  at  Sauquoit,  in  whose  employment 
he  must  have  been  for  a  part  of  the  time  after  he 
came  of  age,  for  I  was  born  in  a  little  house  which 
had  been  a  shoe-shop  on  the  premises  of  the  tan- 

The  fact  of  being  born  supposes  a  maternal  ancestry. 
July  30,  1809,  my  father  married  Roxana  Howard. 
She  was  born  in  Longmeadow,  Mass.,  March  15, 
1789 ;  was  a  daughter  of  Joseph  Howard,  who  was 
born  in  Pomfret,  Conn.,  March  8,  1766,  and  of 
Submit  (Luce)  Howard,  born  at  Somers,  Conn., 
April  3,  1767 ; 1  and  he  was  the  grandson  of  John 
Howard  of  Ipswich,2  Mass.,  and  of  Elisabeth  Smith, 
of  the  same  town.  He  was  the  descendant  of  Thomas 
Howard,  who,  with  his  wife  and  children,  came  from 
Aylesford  (or  Maidstone),  Kent,  in  the  year  1634. 

My  mother  came  with  her  parents  to  Oneida  County 
and  the  Sauquoit  Valley  when  only  a  few  years  old.3 
Her  father  there  joined  a  company  which  set  up  an 
iron-forge.  One  of  the  early  pieces  of  work  of  its 
trip-hammer  was  to  forge  off  three  of  my  maternal 

1  She  was  married  in  1788. 

2  The  house  is  still  standing  which,  built  in  1648  by  an  ancestor  of 
Ralph  Waldo  Emerson,  was  bought  by  William  Howard,  in  1669. 

3  Asa's  mother  was  but  four  years  old,  when  the  family  moved  to 
Sauquoit,  and  well  remembered  her  mother's  crying  at  the  crossing  of 
the  Hudson  River,  which  must  have  seemed  formidable  in  the  small 
boats  of  that  time.     Joseph  Howard  was   a  man  of  a  very  lovable 
character,  as  shown  from  the  affectionate  remembrances  of  him  by  his 
grandchildren,  the  eldest  of  whom,  Asa,  was  much  with  him.    He  was 
a  deacon  of  the  First  Church  in  Sauquoit  for  forty  years,  and  one  of 
the  leading  men  in  the  town.     He  died  in  1849. 

4  A  UTOBIOGRAPHY.  [1812, 

grandfather's  fingers.  This  appears  to  have  qualified 
him  to  be  the  clerk  in  charge,  or  manager,  of  the 
office  and  store  of  the  Paris  Furnace  Company,  which 
established  a  small  iron-smelting  furnace  on  the 
Sauquoit,  two  and  a  half  miles  above  the  village  of 
Sauquoit,  in  a  deep  and  narrow  valley  which  had  the 
name  of  Paris  Furnace  Hollow,  now  called  Clayville, 
the  furnace  long  since  having  disappeared,  a  natural 
consequence  of  the  exhaustion  of  the  charcoal  fur- 
nished by  the  woods  of  the  surrounding  hills.  My 
earliest  recollections  are  of  Paris  Furnace  Hollow, 
for  not  long  after  I  was  born,  as  aforesaid,  in 
Sauquoit,  on  the  eastern  or  Methodist  side  of  the 
creek,  on  the  18th  of  November,  1810,  my  father  and 
mother  removed  to  Paris  Furnace  with  me,  their  first- 
born, and  set  up  a  small  tannery  there.  Of  this  I 
retain  some  vivid  recollections,  especially  those  con- 
nected with  the  first  use  to  which  I  was  put,  the 
driving  round  the  ring  of  the  old  horse  which  turned 
the  bark-mill,  and  the  supplying  the  said  mill  with  its 
grist  of  bark,  —  a  lonely  and  monotonous  occupation.1 

1  Moses  Gray  was  a  man  of  great  activity  and  energy.  He  soon 
added  a  shoe-shop  to  his  tannery,  where  he  hired  a  few  hands  to  make 
shoes  from  the  hides  he  tanned,  taking  these  again  by  wagon  to 
Albany,  a  journey  of  many  days,  where  he  bought  his  skins  and  some 
necessary  supplies.  Money  was  scarce  in  the  newly  settled  country, 
and  the  things  needed  were  mostly  got  by  exchange.  Meantime,  as 
the  chance  came,  he  was  buying  land  on  the  hills  around.  Clay- 
ville is  where  the  valley  narrows  towards  the  source  of  the  Sauquoit 
Creek,  as  "  rivers "  are  called  in  that  neighborhood  in  old  Dutch 
fashion,  and  the  hills  are  sharper  and  rougher.  The  scenery,  how- 
ever, is  still  beautiful,  and  the  house  which  Moses  Gray  built  two 
or  three  years  later  yet  stands,  with  a  lovely  near  view  of  stream 
and  hill  and  wood.  Asa  Gray  remembered  his  father  building  it. 
Busy  as  the  father  was  out  of  doors,  the  mother  was  perhaps  busier 
still.  Asa,  the  younger  brother  by  the  first  wife,  was  dying  of  con- 
sumption ;  he  was  moved  on  a  bed  from  Sauquoit  to  Paris  Furnace, 


I  was  sent  to  the  district  school  near  by  when  three  years 
old ;  and  I  either  remember  some  of  my  performances 
of  that  or  the  next  year,  or  have  been  told  them  in 
such  way  as  to  leave  the  matter  doubtful.1  My  earliest 

and  died  very  soon  after,  in  May,  1811,  aged  twenty-three.  When 
the  child  was  born,  November  18,  1810,  it  was  carried  to  him  to 
see,  and  he  said  he  wished  they  would  call  it  Asa,  if  it  had  had 
no  name  as  yet  decided  on.  He  was  of  a  singularly  sweet  and  gentle 
character.  The  step-brothers  were  taken  in  turn  to  be  taught  and 
trained.  The  hands  employed  on  farm  or  in  trade  were  generally 
lodged  and  boarded.  Often  their  clothes  were  mended  or  made.  The 
wheat  and  grain  were  home-raised,  as  were  all  the  vegetables.  There 
was  little  fresh  meat,  except  when  a  sheep  or  beef  was  killed,  and 
that  meant  salting  and  curing.  Butter  and  cheese  were  all  home- 
made, and  could  be  taken  to  Albany  for  sale,  as  was  also  grain ;  as 
the  farm  grew,  more  cows  were  added.  Then  the  clothing  was  home- 
made. The  wool  for  flannel  sheets  and  underclothing  and  for  the 
men's  clothes  was  home-spun,  the  nicer  portions  taken  off  and  carded 
separately,  and  spun  as  worsted  for  the  children's  and  women's 
dresses ;  also  the  yarn  for  socks  for  the  whole  family.  A  spinning- 
girl  was  hired  for  part  of  the  year,  for  flax  was  also  spun  for  the 
house  linen  and  for  wearing-apparel.  The  weaving  was  hired  out. 
The  tailor  came  by  the  week  to  make  up  the  clothing  with  the 
mother's  help,  and  after  the  tannery  was  given  up,  the  shoe-maker 
came  at  intervals  to  make  the  shoes.  As  the  girls  grew  older  they 
took  their  share  at  the  wool  and  flax  wheels.  It  is  said  that  the  first 
spinning  of  flax  on  the  small  wheel  was  introduced  by  the  party  of 
Scotch-Irish  emigrants  of  1718  ;  that  the  women  gave  lessons  to  the 
women  of  Boston  on  Boston  Common,  and  the  fashion  was  so  set  for 
that  spinning.  It  is  also  said  that  the  Irish  potato  was  first  introduced 
into  New  England  by  these  same  colonists. 

A  widowed  sister  came  with  her  children  to  make  her  home  under 
the  same  roof  when  the  Grays  moved  later  to  a  larger  farm,  and 
there  seemed  always  some  boy  to  be  housed  and  taught  and  trained. 
Though  his  aid  might  tell  out  of  doors,  the  home  care  came  upon  the 
mother.  But  Mrs.  Gray  was  a  woman  of  singularly  quiet  and  gentle 
character,  with  great  strength  and  decision,  and  possessed  a  wonderful 
power  of  accomplishing  and  turning  off  work  ;  a  woman  of  thoughtful, 
earnest  ways,  conscientious  and  self -forgetting. 

The  father  was  quick,  decided,  and  an  immense  worker ;  from  him 
the  son  took  his  lively  movements  and  his  quick  eagerness  of 
character,  perhaps  also  his  ready  appreciation  of  fun. 

1  His  mother,  having  another  child,  was  probably  glad  to  have  the 

6  AUTOBIOGRAPHY.  [1817, 

distinct  recollections  of  school  are  of  spelling-matches, 
in  which  at  six  or  seven  years  I  was  a  champion.1 

active  boy  safe  for  a  few  hours.  Her  young  sisters  lived  not  far 
away,  and  the  youngest  aunt,  a  girl  of  ten,  was  proud  to  take  him  to 
school ;  she  had  already  taught  him  his  letters.  His  father  promised 
him  a  spelling-book  of  his  own  as  soon  as  he  reached  baker,  which 
was  a  marked  spot  of  advance  in  the  spelling-book.  A  few  weeks 
saw  him  far  enough  on,  and  the  coveted  prize  was  given.  He  went 
proudly  to  school  the  next  day,  and  as  he  could  not  speak  to  the 
teacher  to  proclaim  his  triumph,  he  walked  in  front  of  her  desk  to 
his  seat,  waving  the  book  with  a  great  flourish  before  her !  It  was 
just  before  he  was  three  years  old. 

1  Of  one  of  these,  his  friend,  now  over  eighty  years  old,  gives  an 
account  in  the  succeeding  letter :  — 

SAUQUOIT,  February  19,  1888. 

DEAR  A.  —  I  would  like  to  give  you  some  information  of  your  un- 
cle's early  life  if  I  were  well  informed,  but  I  have  only  one  little  inci- 
dent, and  perhaps  that  would  be  of  small  account  at  the  present  era, 
though  at  the  time  it  took  place  it  was  of  great  moment  to  us  both  as 
children.  Asa  lived  with  his  parents  at  Paris  Furnace,  now  Clayville. 
I  lived  where  Mr.  Bragg  afterward  built  his  new  house.  Well,  we 
had  a  lovely  teacher  that  summer  by  the  name  of  Sally  Stickney, 
living  at  Colonel  Avery's.  She  ruled  by  gentleness.  For  our  class 
she  had  an  old-fashioned  two-shilling  piece,  with  a  hole  through  to 
insert  a  yard  of  blue  ribbon.  She  put  this  over  the  head  of  the  one 
that  stood  first  in  our  class.  So  it  traveled  every  night,  all  that 
summer,  with  some  one  of  us,  until  the  ribbon  was  worn  and  faded. 
But  more  than  all  that,  the  one  that  stood  at  the  head  on  the  last 
day  of  school  was  to  be  the  owner  of  that  two-shilling  piece  that  we 
had  watched  with  jealous  eyes  so  many  weeks,  and  studied  Web- 
ster's old  spelling-book  so  hard  to  gain.  I  think  our  eyes  must 
have  magnified  it,  for  I  have  never  seen  a  coin  since  that  seemed 
so  large.  I  think  it  was  the  same  in  Asa's  eyes.  Well,  with  hearts 
beating  fast,  and  eyes  on  the  coveted  prize,  we  were  called  on  the 
last  day  of  school  to  spell ;  we  took  our  places ;  I  was  at  the  head, 
Asa  next.  I  missed  and  he  went  above  me ;  my  all  was  gone,  but 
it  was  worse  to  have  him  point  his  finger  at  me  and  say  out  loud 
"  kee-e-e.' '  I  braved  it  without  a  tear ;  a  few  more  words  would  end 
the  strife.  It  came  around  to  him,  and  he  missed ;  how  quick  I  went 
above  him  ;  but  in  an  instant  he  dropped  his  head  on  the  desk  before 
him  and  wept  as  though  his  heart  would  break.  School  was  dis- 
missed, scholars  were  leaving ;  still  he  did  not  move,  until  our  kind 
teacher  came  to  him,  whispered  to  him,  soothed  and  petted  him ;  then 

JET.  7.]  A  UTOBIOGRAPH  Y.  1 

There  was  a  year  or  two  of  early  boyhood  in  which  I 
was  sent  to  a  small  "  select "  or  private  school,  taught 
at  Sauquoit,  by  the  son  of  the  pastor  of  the  parish ; 
a  year  or  two  following,  in  which  I  was  in  my  maternal 
grandfather's  family,  near  by,  as  a  sort  of  office-boy ; 
and  at  the  age  of  twelve,  or  near  it,  I  was  sent  off  to 
the  Clinton  Grammar  School,  nine  miles  away,  where 
I  was  drilled  after  a  fashion  in  the  rudiments  of  Latin 

he  jumped  up  and  ran,  I  suppose  wishing  me  in  Halifax.  I  felt 
sorry  for  him  and  would  have  been  willing  to  divide  with  him  if  he 
had  not  crowed  over  me  so.  I  ran  nearly  all  the  way  home  —  a  good 
mile  —  with  my  treasure,  in  great  haste  to  have  some  one  tell  me  the 
best  way  to  invest  my  money.  I  was  told  to  go  another  three  quarters 
of  a  mile  to  Stephen  Savage's  store,  spend  it  for  calico,  piece  it  up,  to 
keep  forever.  I  could  get  only  one  yard  for  my  two-shilling  piece,  not 
nearly  as  good  as  can  be  bought  now  for  three  cents  a  yard.  Not  a  trace 
of  the  quilt  is  left,  nor  of  the  old  schoolhouse,  or  of  those  merry 
children ;  perhaps  a  few  have  wandered  on  to  fourscore  years.  So  it 
is  little  I  can  relate  of  his  childhood,  as  the  next  year  we  moved  from 
that  district,  but  as  years  passed  on  I  often  heard  of  his  rising  fame 
with  pleasure.  If  Eli  Avery  were  living  he  would  have  been  his  best 
biographer  in  this  place. 

The  time  has  flown  so  fast  since  all  this  transpired,  it  seems  as  if 
his  tears  had  hardly  dried  before  my  grandchildren  were  studying  his 

Two  years  ago  the  9th  day  of  September,  when  the  doctor  was 
visiting  in  Sauquoit,  he  called  here  and  remarked,  in  his  smiling  way, 
"that  he  had  got  all  over  feeling  badly  about  that.'1'1  I  said,  "And 
well  you  may  when  you  have  received  so  many  honors  since  then." 

Your  loving  friend, 


A  neighbor  who  survived  to  a  great  age  also  told  a  story  of  Dr. 
Gray's  boyhood,  which  he  said  he  had  from  Dr.  Gray's  father: — 

One  day  he  had  been  set  to  hoe  a  certain  amount  of  corn,  and  his 
father  found  him  reading  instead  of  at  his  work.  He  gave  him  his 
choice,  to  finish  his  task  and  then  read  comfortably,  or  to  sit  there  in 
the  field  all  day  in  the  hot  sun,  which  one  knows  is  no  pleasant  thing 
in  August,  and  read.  He  chose  the  reading,  and  his  father  said  then, 
"  I  made  up  my  mind  he  might  make  something  of  a  scholar,  but  he 
would  never  make  a  farmer !  "  And  so  his  farther  education  was  de- 

8  AUTOBIOGRAPHY.  [1825, 

and  Greek  for  two  years,  excepting  the  three  summer 
months,  when  I  was  taken  home  to  assist  in  the  corn 
and  hayfield.  For  my  father,  buying  up,  little  by 
little,  lands  which  had  been  cleared  for  charcoal,  had 
become  a  farmer  in  a  small  way,  an  occupation  to 
which  he  was  most  inclined.  So  about  these  times 
he  sold  out  the  tannery  and  bought  a  small  farm 
nearer  to  Sauquoit,  mainly  of  the  land  which  my 
maternal  grandfather  had  settled  on,  including  the 
house  in  which  he  had  married  my  mother.  To  it  he 
removed,  and  there  resided  until  he  bought  out  an 
adjacent  small  farm  in  addition,  with  an  old  house 
very  pleasantly  situated,  which  he  rebuilt  and  lived 
in  until  after  I  had  attained  my  majority.  But  soon 
after  that  he  bought  a  small  farm  close  to  the  Sauquoit 
village  on  the  western  or  Presbyterian  side,  hard  by 
the  meeting-house  the  family  had  always  attended. 
There  my  father  indulged  his  special  fancy  by  re- 
building another  old  house,  and  the  place,  after  his 
death,  and,  much  later,  after  that  of  my  mother,  fell 
to  my  eldest  brother,  who  still  possesses  it.1 

I  am  not  sure,  but  I  think  it  was  after  two  years 
of  the  Clinton  Grammar  School  that  I  was  transferred 
to  Fairfield  Academy.2  Fairfield,  Herkimer  County, 

1  Asa  Gray  was  the  oldest  of  eight  children,  three  sisters  and  four 
brothers,  of  whom  there  survive  two  sisters  and  two  brothers. 

2  Dr.  Gray  visited  Fairfield  again  in  the  summer  of  I860  or  1861. 
He  pointed  out  his  old  room,  and  told  about  some  of  the  pranks  he 
and  his  room-mate  Eli  Avery  had  played  there  as  boys,  especially 
once   when   they   barred   their   room,   escaped  through  the   window 
by  clambering   down   a  rope,  and   then  enjoyed  the  efforts  of    the 
master  to  break  the  door  down.     Oddly  enough  there  was  then  a  fresh 
panel  in  the  door,  as  if  a  later  generation  had  tried  the  same  trick. 
There  were  a  great  many  stories  told  of  his  exploits  as  a  boy.     But 
he  said  everything  had  been  fathered  upon  him,  and  that  few  were 
really   true.      He  was   no   doubt   restless   and   active,   and  learning 

^T.  14.]  A  UTOBIOGRAPHY.  9 

lies  high  on  the  hills,  between  the  West  and  East 
Canada  creeks,  seven  miles  north  of  Little  Falls. 
I  went  there  first  in  October,  1825,  the  date  I  fix  by 
that  of  the  completion  of  the  Erie  Canal.  For  that 
autumn,  I  think  in  November,  I  walked  one  after- 
noon, along  with  some  other  students,  down  to  Little 
Falls  to  see  there  the  arrival  of  the  canal-boat  which 
bore  the  canal-commissioners,  with  the  governor,  De 
Witt  Clinton  at  their  head,  on  their  ceremonious  voy- 
age from  Buffalo  to  New  York  city.  It  reached  Little 
Falls  near  sunset,  and  we  walked  to  Fairfield  that 
evening.  The  reason  for  my  being  sent  to  Fairfield 
Academy  was  that  the  principal  of  the  academy  was 
Charles  Avery,  uncle  of  my  companion  from  infancy, 
Eli  Avery,  of  our  town,  who  died  two  years  ago,  who 
had  been  educated  by  the  help  of  Eli's  father,  Colonel 
Avery,  one  of  the  owners  of  Paris  furnace.  Charles 
Avery  several  years  later  took  the  professorship  of 

quickly  and  easily  would  have  leisure  for  some  mischief,  but  he  said, 
"  I  always  learned  my  lessons."  He  loved  to  recall  the  long  rambles 
through  the  woods  on  Saturday  holidays,  and  how  in  early  spring  he 
and  his  companions  would  climb  to  a  lookout  and  see  where  columns 
of  smoke  could  be  seen  above  the  trees,  and  so  aim  for  the  spot  where 
they  were  making  maple  sugar.  There  they  would  beg  a  little  syrup, 
and,  boiling  it  down  over  their  own  fire  and  cooling  it  on  snow,  make 
a  candy  more  delicious  than  any  confectionery  of  after  life.  He  re- 
membered how  he  trained  himself  to  know  the  trees  by  their  bark  as 
he  ran  through  the  woods,  without  looking  up  at  the  leaves,  having 
then  the  keen  power  of  observation  though  no  especial  interest  in 
botany.  For,  as  he  always  said,  his  first  fancy  was  for  mineralogy 
rather  than  for  botany. 

And  he  told  how  when  he  was  a  medical  student,  as  so  many  about 
him  were  smoking,  he  tried  it  too  ;  it  made  him  very  sick  at  first,  and 
took  him  some  time  to  get  accustomed  to  it.  At  last,  as  he  sat  one 
evening  before  the  fire  and  smoked,  he  said  to  himself,  "  Really,  I  am 
beginning  to  like  it.  It  will  become  a  habit ;  I  shall  be  dependent 
upon  it."  And  so  he  threw  his  cigar  into  the  fire  and  gave  up 
smoking  entirely. 

10  AUTOBIOGRAPHY.  [1825, 

chemistry,  etc.,  at  Hamilton  College,  lived  to  over 
ninety,  I  think,  and  through  all  his  later  years  seemed 
to  be  very  proud  of  having  been  my  teacher.  I  cannot 
say  that  I  owe  much  to  him,  even  for  teaching  me 
mathematics,  which  was  his  forte.  My  capital  memory 
allowed  me  to  "  get  my  lessons "  easily,  and  that 
sufficed  ;  and  I  had  none  of  the  sharp  drilling  and 
testing  which  I  needed.  He  lingers  in  my  memory  in 
another  way.  He  was  sharp  at  turning  a  penny  in 
various  ways ;  among  them,  he  for  the  first  year  and 
more  jobbed  the  board  of  his  nephew  Eli  and  myself, 
who  were  chums,  paying  for  it  in  cooking-stoves  and 
the  like  from  Paris  furnace,  in  which  through  his 
brother  he  had  an  interest,  and  boarding  us  round, 
from  one  house  to  another  (we  had  our  room  in  the 
academy  buildings)  until  the  stove  which  cooked  our 
dinner  was  paid  for.  Sometimes  our  fare  was  good 
enough ;  but  one  poor  widow,  who  took  us  in  her  turn, 
fed  us  so  much  upon  boiled  salt  cod,  not  always  of  the 
sweetest,  that  the  sight  of  that  dish  still  calls  up  an- 
cient memories  not  altogether  agreeable.  I  think  it 
was  not  at  that  time,  but  at  a  somewhat  later  date,  and 
with  less  excuse,  that  we  mended  our  diet  upon  one 
occasion,  one  winter's  night,  by  carrying  off  the  princi- 
pal's best  fowls  from  the  roost,  skinning  them,  as  the 
most  expeditious  and  neatest  way,  and  broiling  them 
in  our  room  as  the  piece  de  resistance,  for  they  were 
tough,  in  a  little  supper  we  got  up. 

I  here  recall  a  favor  which  Mr.  Avery  did  me.  A 
year  or  two  after  I  had  taken  my  M.  D.,  my  dear 
old  friend  Professor  Hadley,  of  Fairfield  Medical 
College,  who  had  been  filling  the  place  at  Hamilton 
College  pro  tern.,  made  me  a  candidate  for  the  profes- 
sorship there  of  chemistry,  with  geology  and  natural 

^T.  15.]  AUTOBIOGRAPHY.  11 

science.  But  my  old  teacher,  Mr.  Avery,  an  alumnus 
of  the  college,  entered  the  lists  and  carried  the  day. 
I  wonder  if  I  should  have  rusted  out  there  if  I  had 
got  the  place. 

I  must  go  back  to  say  something  of  my  omnivorous 
reading,  which  was,  after  all,  the  larger  part  of  my 
education.  I  was  a  reader  almost  from  my  cradle, 
and  I  read  everything  I  could  lay  hands  on.  There 
was  no  great  choice  in  my  early  boyhood.  But  there 
was  a  little  subscription  library  at  Sauquoit,  the  stock- 
holders of  which  met  four  times  a  year,  distributed  the 
books  by  auction  to  the  highest  bidder  (maximum, 
perhaps,  ten  or  twelve  cents)  to  have  and  to  hold  for 
three  months ;  or  if  there  was  no  competition  each 
took  what  he  chose.  Rather  slow  circulation  this  ; 
but  in  the  three  months  the  books  were  thoroughly 
read.  History  I  rather  took  to,  but  especially  voyages 
and  travels  were  my  delight.  There  were  no  plays-, 
not  even  Shakespeare  in  the  library,  but  a  sprinkling 
of  novels.  My  novel-reading,  up  to  the  time  when  I 
was  sent  to  school  at  Clinton,  was  confined,  I  think,  to 
Miss  Porter's  "  Children  of  the  Abbey"  and  "  Thad- 
deus  of  Warsaw  "  —  the  latter  a  soul-stirring  pro- 
duction, of  which  I  can  recall  a  good  deal ;  of  the 
former  nothing  distinctly.  One  Sunday  afternoon,  of 
the  first  winter  I  was  at  Clinton,  I  went  into  the 
public  room  of  one  of  the  two  village  inns,  where  half 
a  dozen  of  the  villagers  were  assembled;  and  one 
was  reading  aloud  "Quentin  Durward,"  which  had 
just  appeared  in  an  American  (Philadelphia)  reprint. 
This  was  my  introduction  to  the  Waverley  novels. 
The  next  summer,  when  at  home  for  farm  work,  I 
found  "  Rob  Roy  "  in  the  little  library  I  have  men- 
tioned, took  it  out  and  read  it  with  interest.  In  the 

12  AUTOBIOGRAPHY.  [1826, 

autumn,  when  I  went  back  to  school,  some  college  (Ham- 
ilton College)  students  were  boarding  at  the  house 
where  I  boarded  and  lodged.  One  of  them,  seeing 
my  avidity  for  books,  introduced  me  to  the  librarian 
of  the  PhoBnix  Society  of  the  college,  which  had  a 
library  strong  in  novels,  which  I  was  allowed,  one  by 
one,  to  take  home  for  reading.  I  suppose  that  I  read 
them  every  one.1 

It  was  intended  that  I  should  go  to  college,  and  my 
father  could  have  put  me  through  without  serious  in- 
convenience ;  but  he  was  buying  land  about  this  time, 
and  he  persuaded  me  to  give  up  that  idea  and  to  go 
at  once  at  the  study  of  medicine,  which  I  did,  in  the 
autumn  of  1826,  beginning  with  the  session  of  1826- 
27  in  the  medical  college  (of  the  western  district),  then 
a  flourishing  country  medical  school  at  Fairfield.2  I 

1  In  later  life  the  novels  were  always  saved  for  long  journeys.    The 
novel  of  the  day  was  picked  out,  and  one  pleasure  of  a  long  day's 
ride  in  the  train  was  to  sit  by  his  side  and  enjoy  his  pleasure  at  the 
good  things.     The  glee  and  delight  with  which  he  read  Hawthorne, 
especially  the  Wonder-Book  and  Tanglewood  Tales,  make  days  to  re- 
member.    So  he  read  George  Eliot,  and  Adam  Bede  carried  him  hap- 
pily through  a  fit  of  the  toothache.    Scott  always  remained  the  prime 
favorite,  and  his  last  day  of  reading,  when  the  final  illness  was  steal- 
ing so  unexpectedly  and  insidiously  on,  was  spent  over  The  Monastery, 
which  he  had  been  planning  to  read  on  his  homeward  voyage  in  1887. 

2  It  was  established  as  a  college  in.  1812,  having  existed  as  a  school 
in  the  academy  since  1809.     There  were  then  only  five  others  in  the 
United   States :    Philadelphia,  New   York,  Boston,   Dartmouth,  and 
Baltimore.     The  war  of  1812  with  Great  Britain  made  a  demand  for 
army  surgeons  along  the  frontier,  and  New  York  and  Boston  were 
too  far  to  send  the  young  men  to  be  educated.     Dr.  Hadley  was  pro- 
fessor in  the  literary  academy,  and  Dr.  Willoughby,  who  had  a  wide 
medical  reputation,  was  also  in  Fairfield.     They  planned  a  medical 
college,  and  applied  to  the  legislature  for  aid  ;  the  sum  of  $5,000  was 
granted,  and  later,  in  1812,  $10,000.     The  first  Faculty  was  organ- 
ized by  the  Board  of  Regents  of  the  New  York  State  University, 
which  had  control  of  the  educational  institutions  in  the  State.     It 
grew  rapidly  in  favor,  and   soon  outnumbered  the  schools  of   the 

^T.  16.]  A  UTOBIOGRAPHY.  13 

had  already  attended  its  courses  in  chemistry,  given 
by  Professor  James  Hadley  (father  of  Professor 
James  Hadley  of  Yale  College,  then  a  lad),  my  earli- 
est scientific  adviser  and  most  excellent  friend.  I  had 
a  passion  for  mineralogy  in  those  days,  as  well  as  for 
chemistry.  The  spring  and  summer  of  1827  I  passed 
in  the  office  of  one  of  the  village  doctors  of  Sauquoit, 
Dr.  Priest,  and  on  the  opening  of  the  autumn  session  re- 
turned to  the  medical  school  at  Fairfield.  That  year, 

large  cities.  In  1820  the  school  had  one  hundred  students,  and  in- 
creased to  two  hundred  and  seventeen  later,  and  was  the  largest  med- 
ical school  in  the  country,  except  the  one  at  Philadelphia.  After  the 
Albany  and  Geneva  medical  schools  were  established,  it  was  seen 
there  was  no  need  of  three  so  near  together,  and  Fairfield  Medical 
College  was  discontinued  in  1840.  In  the  list  of  graduates  of  Fairfield 
Academy  were  Albert  Barnes,  the  noted  expositor,  General  Halleck, 
of  the  United  States  Army,  and  James  Hadley,  professor  of  Greek  at 
Yale  and  the  distinguished  linguist.  In  the  records  of  the  academy 
it  is  stated  that  "  Asa  Gray  entered  Fairfield  Academy  in  the  fall  of 
1825,  and  at  the  second  weekly  meeting  joined  the  Calliopean  Society 
of  the  institute.  His  handwriting  on  the  register  is  still  preserved,  as 
well  as  all  his  doings  as  a  boy  while  here,  since  he  entered  at  an  early 
age,  being  in  fact  much  younger  than  the  majority  of  the  students." 
He  graduated  from  the  medical  college  January  25,  1831,  in  a  class  of 
forty-four.  His  rank  was  seventeen  in  the  class  on  graduation.  The 
subject  of  his  thesis  was  "  Gastritis." 

Two  old  catalogues  are  preserved  at  Fairfield.  In  the  first  there 
is  the  programme  of  studies  at  the  academy  for  the  year  1826 ;  the 
other,  dating  January,  1832,  contains  a  list  of  the  professors  of  the 
medical  college,  the  cost  of  instruction,  and  the  outlines  of  two  courses 
of  lectures.  One  of  them  was  given  by  Dr.  Mather,  who  was  a  fel- 
low-student of  Asa  Gray's,  and  who  still,  at  over  eighty,  retains  a 
lively  recollection  of  the  eager,  active  young  man  whom  his  friends 
already  thought  would  make  his  mark  in  the  world ;  the  other  by  Dr. 
Gray  himself.  This  was  one  of  the  first  courses  of  lectures  which  he 
delivered.  The  ticket-fee  was  four  dollars.  He  kept  through  life  a 
certain  love  for  medicine  and  surgery,  and  a  lively  interest  in  its  sci- 
ence and  progress.  These  old  studies  and  the  country  practice  he 
had  with  the  physician  who  was  always  his  good  friend,  Dr.  Trow- 
bridge,  often  served  him  on  his  journeys,  when  a  regular  practitioner 
was  not  within  easy  reach. 

14  AUTOBIOGRAPHY.  [1828, 

in  the  course  of  the  winter,  I  picked  up  and  read  the 
article  "Botany"  in  Brewster's  "Edinburgh  Encyclo- 
paedia," a  poor  thing,  no  doubt,  but  it  interested  me 
much.  I  bought  Eaton's  "  Manual  of  Botany," 1  pored 
over  its  pages,  and  waited  for  spring.  Before  the 
spring  opened,  the  short  college  session  being  over,  I 
became  a  medical  student,  after  the  country  fashion, 
in  the  office  of  Dr.  John  F.  Trowbridge  of  Bridge- 
water,  Oneida  County,  nine  miles  south  of  my  pater- 
nal home ;  continued  there  for  three  years,  except 
during  the  college  sessions,  where  I  attended  four 
annual  courses  before  taking  my  degree  of  M.  D.  at 
the  close  of  the  session  of  1829-30.2  The  fact  will  ap- 
pear, which  I  did  not  reveal  at  the  time,  that  I  took  this 
degree  six  or  seven  months  (I  passed  my  examination, 
indeed,  eight  or  nine  months)  before  I  had  attained 
the  legal  age  of  twenty-one.  But  I  looked  older,  and 
was  in  fact  such  an  old  stager  in  the  school  that  no 
one  thought  of  asking  if  I  was  of  age.  That  degree 
gives  me  my  place  high  enough  on  the  Harvard  Uni- 
versity list  to  entitle  me  to  a  free  dinner  at  Com- 

I  have  mentioned  my  interest  in  botany  as  begin- 
ning in  the  winter  and  out  of  all  reach  either  of  a 
greenhouse  or  of  a  potted  plant.  But  in  the  spring, 
I  think  that  of  1828, 1  sallied  forth  one  April  day  into 
the  bare  woods,  found  an  early  specimen  of  a  plant  in 
flower,  peeping  through  dead  leaves,  brought  it  home, 
and  with  Eaton's  "  Manual "  without  much  difficulty 
I  ran  it  down  to  its  name,  Claytonia  Virginica. 

1  Amos   Eaton,   1776-1842.      Graduated   from   Williams   in   1799. 
Teacher,  lecturer,  and  author  of  Manual  of  the  Botany  of  North  Amer- 
ica, as  well  as  of  many  reports  on  geological  surveys. 

2  College  catalogue  of  Fairfield,  1830-31. 


(It  was  really  C.  Caroliniana,  but  the  two  were 
not  distinguished  in  that  book.)  I  was  well  pleased, 
and  went  on,  collecting  and  examining  all  the  flowers 
I  could  lay  hands  on ;  and  the  rides  over  the  country 
to  visit  patients  along  with  my  preceptor,  Dr.  Trow- 
bridge,  gave  good  opportunities.  I  began  an  herba- 
rium of  shockingly  bad  specimens.  In  autumn,  going 
back  to  Fairfield  for  the  annual  course  of  medical  lec- 
tures, I  took  specimens  of  those  plants  that  puzzled  me 
to  Professor  Hadley,  who  had  learned  some  botany  of 
Dr.  Ives  of  New  Haven,  and  had  made  a  neat  herba- 
rium of  the  common  New  England  and  New  York 
plants,  which  I  studied  carefully  that  winter.  At 
Professor  Hadley's  suggestion  I  opened  a  correspond- 
ence with  Dr.  Lewis  C.  Beck  of  Albany,1  who  was 
the  botanist  of  the  region.  The  next  summer  I  col- 
lected more  easily  and  critically.  The  summer  after, 
I  think,  or  probably  the  summer  of  1830,  I  had  an 
opportunity  to  make  a  little  run  to  New  York,  being 
sent  by  Dr.  Trowbridge  to  buy  some  medical  books, 
driving  in  a  one-horse  wagon,  with  my  own  horse, 
ninety  miles  to  Albany,  thence  by  steamer  to  New  York 
over  night ;  one  night  there,  and  back  next  day  by 
boat  to  Albany,  and  so  driving  back  to  Bridgewater 
in  company  with  a  man  of  business  who  joined  me  in 
this  little  expedition.  I  stopped  to  see  Lewis  C.  Beok 
at  Albany  Academy ;  there  I  first  saw  a  grave-look- 
ing man  who  I  was  told  was  Professor  Henry,  who 
had  just  been  making  a  wonderful  electro-magnet.  I 
had  procured  from  Professor  Hadley  a  letter  of  in- 
troduction to  Dr.  Torrey,  whose  "  Flora  of  the  North- 
ern United  States,"  vol.  i.,  was  our  greatest  help  so 

1  Lewis  C.  Beck,  1798-1853 ;  professor  in  Albany  Academy ;  author 
of  Botany  of  the  United  States  North  of  Virginia. 

16  A  UTOBIOGRAPHY.  [1830, 

far  as  it  went,  and  which  on  that  journey  I  bought 
a  copy  of.  I  took  also  a  parcel  of  plants  to  be  named. 
Finding  my  way  to  Dr.  Torrey's  house  in  Charlton 
Street  with  my  parcel  and  letter,  I  had  the  disap- 
pointment of  finding  that  he  was  away  at  Williams- 
town,  Massachusetts,  for  the  summer.  It  was  not 
until  the  next  winter  that  at  Fairfield  I  received  a 
letter  from  Dr.  Torrey,  naming  my  plants,  and  invit- 
ing the  correspondence  which  continued  thence  to  the 
end  of  his  life. 

In  addition  to  Dr.  Hadley's  summer  course  of  lec- 
tures on  chemistry,  Dr.  Lewis  C.  Beck  used  to  come 
and  deliver  a  short  course  of  lectures  on  botany.  He 
gave  this  up  the  year  in  which  I  received  my  M.  D., 
so  Professor  Hadley  invited  me  to  come  and  give  the 
course  instead.  The  course  was  given  in  five  or  six 
weeks,  beginning  in  the  latter  part  of  May.  I  pre- 
pared myself  during  the  winter,  gave  this  my  first 
course  of  lectures,  cleared  forty  dollars  by  the  opera- 
tion, and  devoted  it  to  the  making  of  a  tour  to  the 
western  part  of  the  State  of  New  York,  as  far  as 
Niagara  Falls,  Buffalo,  and  Aurora,  —  a  dozen  or 
more  miles  off,  —  where  I  visited  an  uncle,  my  mo- 
ther's brother,  a  well-to-do  country  merchant,  also  a 
chum,  Dr.  Folwell,  in  Seneca  County,  high  up  between 
the  two  lakes,  where  I  passed  a  week  or  two  ;  thence 
to  Ithaca,  and  across  the  country  by  a  stage-coach 
back  to  Bridgewater.  I  hardly  know  what  I  did  the 
next  autumn  and  winter,  but  in  early  spring  a  Mr. 
Edgerton,  a  pupil  of  Amos  Eaton,  at  Troy,  the  pro- 
fessor of  natural  sciences  at  the  flourishing  school  of 
Mr.  Bartlett  at  Utica,  died.  I  applied  for  the  va- 
cancy, received  the  appointment,  and  for  two  or  part 
of  three  years,  minus  a  long  summer  vacation,  I 

JET.  19.]  A  UTOBIOGRAPHY.  17 

taught  chemistry,  geology,  mineralogy,  and  botany,  to 
boys,  making  with  the  boys  very  pleasant  botanical 
excursions  through  the  country  round.  My  first  sum- 
mer vacation,  if  I  rightly  remember,  was  in  cholera 
year,  the  disease  being  very  fatal  in  Utica.  About 
the  time  it  made  its  appearance  in  New  York  I 
started  off  from  Bridgewater,  taking  a  little  country 
stage-coach  down  the  Unadilla  to  Pennsylvania ;  vis- 
ited Carbondale  and  made  a  collection  of  calamites 
and  fossil  ferns ;  thence  by  stage-coach  through  the 
Wind  Gap  to  Easton ;  thence  out  to  Bethlehem,  where 
I  passed  a  day  with  old  Bishop  Schweinitz,1  gave 
him  a  Carex  which  he  said  was  new,  but  I  told  him  it 
was  Carex  livida,  Wahl.  (and  I  was  right)  ;  back  to 
Easton ;  thence  up  to  Sussex  County,  N.  J.,  collect- 
ing minerals  (Franklinite,  etc.)  ;  thence  to  adjacent 
Orange  County,  N.  Y.,  collecting  spinelles,  etc.,  as 
well  as  botanizing ;  thence  down  to  New  York  early 
in  September;  there  I  met  Dr.  Torrey  for  the  first 
time,  and  we  took  a  little  expedition  together  down 
to  Tom's  River  in  the  pine  barrens,  and  back  to  New 
York  in  a  wood-sloop. 

The  next  year,  in  the  spring,  Dr.  Torrey  went  to 
Europe,  sent  to  purchase  apparatus  for  the  New  York 
City  University,  then  just  established.  He  engaged 
me  to  go  that  summer  to  collect  plants  in  the  pine 
barrens  of  New  Jersey,  he  to  take  the  half  of  my  col- 
lection, paying  what  would  be  required  to  defray  my 
very  moderate  expenses  in  the  field.  I  found  after- 
wards that  these  plants  went  to  B.  D.  Greene  and 
his  brother  Copley,  then  abroad  and  full  of  botany ; 

1  Lewis  David  Schweinitz,  1780-1834 ;  the  first  American  who 
studied  and  described  the  fungi  of  the  United  States.  He  wrote  also 
on  other  North  American  cryptogams  and  carices. 

18  AUTOBIOGRAPHY.  [1834, 

and  I  have  encountered  them,  i.  e.,  the  specimens, 
in  various  places,  especially  in  Herb.  De  Candolle, 
as  "  Coll.  Greene."  I  got  down,  I  hardly  now  know 
how,  to  Tuckerton  on  the  Jersey  coast,  botanized  at 
Little  Egg  Harbor,  Wading  River,  Quaker  Bridge, 
and  Atsion.  While  at  Quaker  Bridge  my  loneliness 
was  cheered  by  the  appearance  of  a  fine-looking  man, 
who  came  in  a  chaise,  looking  after  some  particular 
insect.  It  proved  to  be  Major  Le  Conte.1 

The  next  winter  at  Bartlett's  school.  In  the  spring 
went  north  to  Watertown ;  visited  Dr.  Crawe,  bota- 
nized on  Black  River,  made  mineralogical  excursions, 
and  back  to  Utica  via  Sackett's  Harbor  (lake  to  Os- 
wego,  and  canal  to  Utica).  After  the  spring  term  of 
school  there  —  I  think  it  was  that  year,  but  am  uncer- 
tain—  I  took  through  the  summer  Professor  Hadley's 
place  at  Hamilton  College,  Clinton  ;  gave  for  him  a 
course  of  instruction  in  botany  and  mineralogy.  This, 
I  have  reason  to  think,  was  a  ruse  of  my  good  friend, 
who  wished  me  to  succeed  to  that  professorship,  which 
he  was  on  the  point  of  resigning.  Fortunately,  Charles 
Avery,  my  old  academic  preceptor,  became  a  candi- 
date and  secured  the  election. 

These  years  are  a  good  deal  mixed  up,  and  I  cannot 
settle  their  dates  nor  the  order  of  events.  Only  I 
know  that  the  next  autumn  I  got  a  furlough  from  the 
school  until  toward  the  end  of  winter,  that  I  might 
accept  Dr.  Torrey's  invitation  to  be  his  assistant  dur- 
ing his  course  of  chemical  lectures  in  the  Medical 
School,  and  at  his  house  in  the  herbarium,  living  with 

1  John  E.  Le  Conte,  1784-1860 ;  formerly  major  in  United  States 
army.  His  first  botanical  publication  was  a  catalogue  of  the  plants 
on  the  island  of  New  York,  in  1810.  He  later  wrote  chiefly  on  ento- 

MT.  23.]  A  UTOBIOGRAPHY.  19 

him,  and  receiving  eighty  dollars  as  pay.  This  I  can 
fix  as  the  winter  of  1833-34  or  1834-35.  The  first 
century  of  my  "  North  American  Graminese  and  Cype- 
racese  "  was  got  out  that  winter,  and  it  bears  the  date 
of  1834.1  In  February  or  March  I  went  up  by  stage- 
coach from  New  York  to  Albany,  thence  to  Bridge- 
water,  and  so  to  Utica,  to  do  my  work  at  Bartlett's 
school.  That  finished,  made  a  second  trip  to  the 
northeast  part  of  the  State,  collecting  in  botany  and 
mineralogy  with  Dr.  Crawe,  extending  the  tour  to  St. 
Lawrence  County,  where  we  found  fine  fluor-spar  and 
great  but  rough  crystals  of  phosphate  of  lime,  idio- 
crase,  etc.  I  wrote  some  account  of  these  for  the 
"  American  Journal  of  Science,"  the  earliest  of  my 
many  contributions  to  that  journal.  Returning  to- 
ward autumn  to  Bridgewater,  I  there  received  a  letter 
from  Dr.  Torrey,  informing  me  that  the  prospects  of 
the  Medical  College  were  so  poor  that  he  could  not 
longer  afford  to  have  my  services  as  assistant.  Bart- 
lett's school  I  had  resigned  from  on  account  of  my 
prospects  in  New  York.  And,  in  fact,  the  school  was 
then  going  down,  and  he  [Bartlett]  was  transferred 
soon  after  to  Poughkeepsie,  where  he  flourished  anew 
for  a  time.  I  was  in  a  rather  bad  way.  But  I  deter- 
mined to  go  to  New  York,  assisted  Dr.  Torrey  as  I 
could,  got  out  the  second  part  of  my  "  North  American 
Graminese  and  Cyperaceae."  I  am  not  sure  whether  I 
was  in  Dr.  Torrey's  family  or  not,  or  for  only  a  part 
of  the  winter.  But  in  the  spring  of  1835,  I  went  up 
to  my  father's  house  for  the  summer,  with  some  books, 

1  It  appears  that  in  December,  1834,  I  read  to  the  Lyceum  of  Nat- 
ural History  my  first  paper,  Monograph  of  North  American  Rht/n- 
chosporce,  and  my  second,  New  or  Rare  Plants  of  the  State  of  New 
York.  They  must  have  been  printed  early  in  1835.  —  A.  G. 

20  AUTOBIOGRAPHY.  [1836, 

among  them  a  copy  of  De  Candolle's  "Organogra- 
phie  "  and  "  Theorie  Ele*mentaire."  These  or  at  least 
the  former  came  from  Professor  Lehmann,1  of  Ham- 
burg, with  whom  for  a  year  or  two  I  had  corresponded 
and  exchanged  plants,  or  received  books  in  exchange 
for  plants.  I  had  made  a  still  earlier  exchange  with 
Soleirol,  a  French  army  surgeon,  who  had  collected 
in  Corsica.  While  at  home  I  blocked  out  and  partly 
wrote  my  "  Elements  of  Botany."  He  turned  to  New 
York  in  the  autumn ;  went  into  cheap  lodgings,  ar- 
ranged with  Carvill  &  Company  to  take  my  book.  I 
think  they  gave  one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars,  which 
was  a  great  sum  for  me.  We  got  it  through  the  press 
that  winter.  John  Carey  had  then  come  down  to  New 
York,  and  was  a  great  help  to  me  in  proof-reading,  and 
the  little  book  was  published  in  April  or  May,  1836. 

I  think  it  was  in  the  autumn  of  1836  that  the  Ly- 
ceum of  Natural  History,  New  York,  having  with  a 
great  effort  erected  their  hall,  on  Broadway  just  below 
Prince  Street,  I  was  appointed  curator ;  had  a  room 
for  my  use,  some  light  pay,  proportioned  to  light 
duties,  and  this  was  my  home  for  a  year  or  two. 
There  I  wrote  my  papers,  "  Remarks  on  the  Structure 
and  Affinities  of  the  Ceratophyllacea3  "  (which  dates 
February  20, 1837),  —  not  a  very  wise  production,  and 
some  of  the  observations  are  incorrect ;  also  the  better 
paper,  really  rather  good,  "  Melanthacearum  Ameri- 
cse  Septentrionalis  Revisio,"  published  in  1837. 

Dr.  Torrey  had  planned  the  "  Flora  of  North  Amer- 
ica," but  had  not  made  much  solid  progress  in  it.  I, 
having  time  on  my  hands,  took  hold  to  work  up  in  a 
preliminary  way  some  of  the  earlier  orders  for  his 
use.  This  was  to  pass  the  time  for  a  while,  for  in  the 
1  J.  G.  C.  Lehmann,  1793-1860 ;  professor  at  Hamburg. 

*:T.  25.]  A  UTOBIOGRAPH Y.  21 

summer  of  1836  I  was  appointed  botanist  to  a  great 
South  Pacific  exploring  expedition,  which  met  with 
all  manner  of  delays  in  fitting  out,  changes  in  com- 
manders, etc.,  until  finally,  in  the  spring  of  1838, 
Lieutenant  Wilkes  was  appointed  to  the  command, 
the  number  and  size  of  the  vessels  cut  down,  and  the 
scientific  corps  more  or  less  diminished.  The  assis- 
tant botanist,  William  Rich,  an  appointment  of  the 
Secretary  of  the  Navy,  was  to  be  left  out.  I  resigned 
in  his  favor,  having  been  about  that  time  appointed 
professor  of  natural  history  in  the  newly  chartered 
University  of  Michigan.  As  I  had  thus  far  done 
fully  half  the  work,  Dr.  Torrey  invited  me  to  be  joint 
author  in  "  Flora  of  North  America."  The  first  part 
was  printed  and  issued  in  July,  the  second  in  October, 
1838,  at  our  joint  expense,  my  share  being  contributed 
from  the  pay  I  had  been  receiving  while  waiting 
orders  as  botanist  of  the  exploring  expedition. 

By  this  time  we  had  come  to  see  that  we  did  not 
know  enough  of  the  original  sources  to  work  up  the 
North  American  flora  properly,  and  as  Dr.  Torrey 
could  not  get  away  from  home,  I  was  determined 
to  get  abroad  and  consult  some  of  the  principal 
herbaria.  On  being  appointed  professor  in  the  Uni- 
versity of  Michigan,  which  had  as  yet  no  buildings,  I 
made  it  understood  that  I  must  have  a  year  abroad. 
The  trustees  of  the  university  in  this  view  gave  me, 
in  the  autumn  of  1838,  a  year's  leave  of  absence,  a 
salary  for  that  year  of  fifteen  hundred  dollars,  and  put 
into  my  hands  five  thousand  dollars  with  which  to  lay  a 
foundation  for  their  general  library.  I  sailed  early  in 
November,  1838,  in  the  packet-ship  Philadelphia,  for 
Liverpool ;  went  direct  from  Liverpool  to  Glasgow  ; 
was  guest  of  Dr.  William  J.  Hooker  till  Christmas  — 

22  AUTOBIOGRAPHY.  [1839, 

his  son,  Joseph  D.  Hooker,  was  then  a  medical  stu- 
dent ;  went  to  Arlary,  December  26-7,  to  visit  Arnott ; 
stayed  till  the  day  after  New  Year ;  thence  to  Edin- 
burgh for  two  or  three  days.  Greville  was  the  best 
botanist,  but  Graham  was  the  professor,  Balfour  then 
a  young  botanist  there.  Heard  old  Monro,  Wilson 
(Christopher  North),  Chalmers,  Traill,  Charles  Bell, 
etc.,  lecture.  On  way  south  stopped  at  Melrose  and 
Abbotsford ;  coach  to  Newcastle,  Durham  (over 
Sunday),  and  through  Manchester,  where  rail  was 
taken,  to  Birmingham  and  London.  Took  lodgings 
till  some  time  in  March.  Dr.  Boott  was  of  course  my 
best  friend  there.  But  Hooker  and  Joseph  came  up 
to  London  for  a  week.  Hooker  insisted  on  taking  me 
in  hand  as  of  his  party,  and  so  I  was  introduced  to  all 
his  friends ;  took  me  to  the  Royal  Society,  etc. ;  dined 
one  day  with  Bentham,  to  whose  house  I  often  went, 
and  who  gave  me  a  full  supply  of  letters  to  the  bota- 
nists on  the  Continent.  I  worked  a  good  deal  at  the 
British  Museum ;  Robert  Brown  was  very  kind  to  me, 
and  his  assistant,  J.  J.  Bennett,  very  useful,  putting 
me  up  to  all  the  old  collections  and  how  to  consult 
them.  At  Linnaean  Society,  thanks  to  Boott,  had  every 
facility  for  the  Linnsean  herbarium.  Old  Lambert 
too ;  he  had  the  Hookers  and  myself  at  dinner,  and 
gave  me  as  good  opportunity  as  he  could  to  consult  the 
Pursh  plants,  etc.,  in  his  herbarium,  which,  not  long 
after,  was  scattered,  but  it  was  in  his  dining-room, 
which  was  very  much  lumbered,  and  to  be  reached 
only  at  certain  hours.  Lindley  had  me  down  for  a 
day  to  his  house  at  Turnham  Green,  and  a  little  din- 
ner at  the  close.  First  visited  Kew  with  the  Hookers ; 
called  on  Francis  Bauer,  who  lived  in  a  house  near 
the  river ;  found  him  at  ninety  making  beautiful  micro- 


scopic  drawings  to  illustrate  the  genera  of  ferns;  and 
Hooker  then  arranged  for  their  publication  in  the 
well-known  volume  for  which  he  furnished  the  text. 
Saw  not  rarely  N.  B.  Ward,  who  lived  at  Wellclose 
Square  in  Wapping,  and  whose  cultivation  of  plants 
in  closed  cases  attracted  much  attention.  Went  with 
Ward  one  day  to  dine  with  Menzies,  then  over  ninety ; 
he  lived,  with  a  housekeeper,  at  Maida  Vale,  or  some- 
where beyond  Kensington. 

George  P.  Putnam,  of  the  firm  of  Wiley  &  Put- 
nam, was  then  resident  in  London,  and  through  him 
I  managed  the  expenditure  of  the  money  placed  in  my 
hands  for  the  purchase  of  books  for  the  University  of 
Michigan,  in  a  manner  that  proved  satisfactory. 

There  is  still  in  my  possession,  but  not  in  reach  for 
ready  reference,  a  file  of  letters  which  I  wrote  home  to 
the  Torrey  family  while  I  was  in  Europe.  If  I  were  to 
find  them  and  refresh  guy  memory  by  them,  I  should 
make  these  notes  quite  too  long.  I  will  therefore 
trust  to  memory  and  touch  lightly  here  and  there  on 
my  Continental  journey.  I  think  it  was  early  in 
March,  1839,  that  one  morning  I  took  passage  on  a 
small  steamer  from  London,  Bentham  coming  to  see 
me  off,  to  Calais;  thence  diligence  for  Paris.  My 
lodgings,  near  the  Luxembourg,  were  not  far  from  the 
house  of  P.  Barker  Webb,  to  whom  I  had  introduc- 
tions, and  who  was  very  useful  to  me  ;  he  owned  the 
herbarium  of  Desfontaines.  At  the  Jardin  des  Plantes 
were  old  Mirbel,  who  occupied  himself  only  with 
vegetable  anatomy,  Adrien  Jussieu,  with  whom  I  cor- 
responded as  long  as  he  lived,  Brongniart,  Decaisne, 
then  aide-naturaliste,  and  Spach,  curator  of  the  her- 
barium. Jussieu  had  his  father's  herbarium  in  his 
study.  Besides  Michaux's  herbarium  at  the  Jardin 

24  A  UTOBIOGRAPHY.  [1839, 

des  Plantes,  I  had  also  to  consult,  for  a  few  things, 
the  set  taken  by  the  actual  writer  of  the  "Flora," 
L.  C.  Richard.  This  I  found  at  the  house  of  his  son 
Achille  Richard,  botanical  professor  in  the  Medical 
School,  living  in  the  Medical  Botanic  Garden,  then 
occupying  a  piece  of  the  Luxembourg  grounds.  The 
other  French  botanists  I  recall  were  Dr.  Montagne, 
the  cryptogamist,  a  pleasant  man,  Gaudichaud,  whom 
I  saw  little  of,  Auguste  St.  Hilaire,  who  I  think  spent 
only  the  winter  in  Paris.  I  had  an  introduction  to 
Benjamin  Delessert,  who  lived  in  fine  style  in  a  hotel 
in  the  Rue  Montmartre.  Lasegue,  the  librarian,  acted 
as  curator  to  the  herbarium  (Guillemin  had  died  not 
long  before),  which  I  found  occasion  to  consult  only 
once.  I  should  not  forget  Jacques  Gay,  with  his 
large  herbarium  very  rich  in  European  plants.  I  never 
dreamed  then  that  so  many  of  them  would  find  their 
way  into  our  own  herbarium.  /  He  lived  close  to  the 
Luxembourg  Palace,  then  the  palace  of  the  House  of 
Peers.  Gay  was  the  secretary  of  the  Marquis  de  Se- 
monville,  who  was  a  high  official  there,  and  so  lived  near 
by.  He  held  a  weekly  reception  for  botanists,  etc., 
and  was  a  good  soul.  It  was  at  the  herbarium  of  the 
Jardin  des  Plantes  that  I  first  made  the  acquaintance 
of  a  botanist  of  about  my  own  age,  Edmond  Boissier 
of  Geneva,  who  was  studying  some  of  the  plants  of 
his  collections  in  Granada  and  other  parts  of  Spain, 
soon  after  brought  out  in  his  work  on  the  "  Flora  of 
Granada,"  etc. 

I  left  Paris  in  early  spring,  by  malle-poste  to  Lyons  ; 
passed  a  day  with  Seringe  ;  steamer  to  Avignon,  dili- 
gence to  Nimes,  and  thence  to  Montpellier,  where  I 
passed  two  or  three  days.  Delile  and  Dunal  were  the 
professors ;  saw  Bentham's  mother  and  sister,  then 

MT.  28.]  AUTOBIOGRAPHY.  25 

resident  there.  Diligence  to  Marseilles,  steamer  to 
Genoa,  Leghorn,  a  day  at  each ;  to  Civita  Vecchia ;  a 
carriage  to  Rome,  along  with  an  English  clergyman  ; 
thence  back  same  way  to  Leghorn,  Pisa,  Florence. 
Vetturino  to  Bologna,  Ferrara,  Padua  (Visiani  at  the 
garden),  Venice  ;  then  steamer  to  Trieste  ;  a  day  with 
Biasoletto,  including  a  botanical  excursion,  and  Tom- 
masini.  Fell  in  there  with  a  young  artist  of  New 
York,  whose  name  I  have  forgotten.  We  took  places 
in  the  malle-poste  together  to  Vienna,  but  went  on 
two  days  ahead  to  Adelsberg  ;  visited  the  grotto  on  a 
fete  day  when  it  was  all  lighted,  and  all  the  country 
people  there  in  gala  trim  ;  that  night  went  on  by 
malle-poste.  At  Vienna,  Endlicher,  and  his  assistant 
Fenzl,  but  the  latter  laid  up  with  lame  knee.  Never 
saw  him  afterward,  but  we  had  a  long  correspondence. 
Steamer  up  the  Danube  to  Linz,  tramway,  etc.,  to 
the  Gmunden  See,  and  so  to  Ischl ;  climbed  the  Zei- 
mitz,  all  alone,  picked  my  first  Alpine  flowers;  trav- 
eled over  night  to  Salzburg,  then  to  Munich;  fine 
times  with  Martius  and  Zuccarini,  joined  the  celebra- 
tion out  in  the  country  of  Linna3us'  birthday,  —  but 
not  the  24th  May ;  I  think  two  or  three  weeks  later. 
From  Munich  to  Lindau  on  Lake  Constance ;  thence 
to  Zurich;  up  the  lake  to  Horgen;  walked  over  to 
Art ;  walked  up  the  Rigi ;  descended  the  Rigi  to  take 
the  boat  up  the  lake,  missed  it,  got  a  man  to  put  me 
across  in  Canton  Unterwalden  ;  walked  to  Stanz,  slept, 
walked  next  morning  to  Engelberg,  and  then  over  the 
[Joch?]  Pass,  and  down  to  Meyringen  ;  next  day  to 
Interlaken  and  the  Staubbach,  next  over  the  Wengern 
Alp  to  Grindelwald,  next  over  the  Grand  Scheideck 
to  valley  of  Hassli,  up  to  the  Grimsel,  passed  a  Sun- 
day in  the  snow ;  walked  down  to  the  Rhone  glacier 

26  A  UTOBIOGRAPHY.  [1841, 

and  down  to  Brieg ;  thence  partly  on  foot,  partly 
char-a-banc,  to  Martigny ;  made  excursion  to  the  Col 
de  Balme  to  get  a  good  view  of  Mont  Blanc  ;  back  to 
Martigny,  down  to  Villeneuve,  and  steamer  to  Geneva. 
I  reached  there,  I  think,  July  4  ;  worked  there  ten 
days  or  so,  very  sharp  ;  De  Candolle,  father  and  son, 
and  Renter  1  the  curator ;  saw  again  Boissier.  Leav- 
ing boat  at  Lausanne,  diligence  to  Freiburg,  Berne, 
Bale.  Got  across  country,  I  hardly  remember  how,  to 
Tiibingen,  Stuttgart,  Heidelberg,  Frankfort ;  thence 
to  Leipzig ;  made  excursion  to  Dresden,  then  to  Halle, 
where  was  Schlechtendal,  and  where  I  looked  over 
old  Schkuhr's  originals  of  his  Carex  plates ;  thence 
through  Wittenberg  to  Potsdam  and  Berlin ;  worked 
diligently  a  week  in  herbarium.  Willdenow,  Klotzsch 
the  curator  ;  saw  old  Link,  Kunth,  and  Ehrenberg. 
Diligence  to  Hamburg,  where  was  Lehmann,  one  of 
my  very  earliest  correspondents.  Steamer  from  Ham- 
burg to  London,  late  in  September.  Toward  the  middle 
of  October  went  to  Portsmouth,  and  came  back  to 
New  York  in  a  London  packet-ship.  Steamers  were 
then  only  just  beginning  to  make  regular  trips. 

Returning,  Michigan  University  was  quite  ready 
to  give  me  a  furlough  of  a  year  or  two,  without  pay ; 
took  hold  sharp  of  "  Flora  of  North  America,"  and  in 
beginning  of  next  summer  (June,  1840)  we  issued 
the  parts  3  and  4  of  vol.  i.  Then  went  at  the  "  Com- 
posite ; "  was  interrupted  a  while  in  summer  of  1841, 
when  I  went  with  John  Carey,  and  James  Constable 
for  a  part  of  the  time,  on  a  botanical  trip  up  the  Val- 
ley of  Virginia  to  the  mountains  of  North  Carolina, 
getting  as  far  as  to  Grandfather  and  Roan. 

1  George  Francis  Renter,  1815-1873;  director  of  the  Botanical 
Garden  at  Geneva;  curator  of  Boissier 's  herbarium. 

^T.  30.]  AUTOBIOGRAPHY.  27 

It  was,  I  think,  in  the  spring  of  1841  that  the  first 
part  of  the  "  Composite  "  was  published,  i.  e.,  vol.  ii. 
pp.  1-184 ;  the  second  part,  to  p.  400,  was  out  the 
next  spring.  Sometime  in  January,  1842,  I  made  a 
visit  of  two  or  three  days  to  B.  D.  Greene  in  Boston ; 
the  first  time  I  ever  saw  Boston.  Came  out  one  day 
to  Cambridge,  dined  with  his  father-in-law,  President 
Quincy ;  the  company  to  meet  us  was  Professor  Chan- 
ning 1  and  Professor  Treadwell.2  Sometime  in  April, 
I  received  a  letter  from  President  Quincy,  telling  me 
that  the  Corporation  of  the  university  would  elect  me 
Fisher  professor  of  natural  history  if  I  would  before- 
hand signify  my  acceptance.  The  endowment  then 
yielded  fifteen  hundred  dollars  a  year.  I  was  to  have 
a  thousand  and  allow  the  rest  to  accumulate  for  a 
while.  Meanwhile  I  was  to  give  only  a  course  of  botani- 
cal lectures,  in  the  second  spring  term,  and  look  after 
the  Garden.  But  more  work  was  soon  added.  I  came 
in  July,  in  the  midst  of  vacation,  before  Commence- 
ment, which  was  then  in  September ;  got  lodgings,  with 
room  for  my  then  small  herbarium,  in  the  house  of 
Deacon  Munroe.  Went  late  in  September  on  an  excur- 
sion to  Mount  Washington,  by  way  of  the  Notch,  along 
with  Tuckerman,  then  living  at  his  father's  in  Boston. 
Worked  away  at  "  Compositse,"  and  in  the  winter 
went  to  New  York  and  carried  the  remainder  through 
the  press.  It  was  issued  in  February,  1843. 

I  must  not  forget  that  my  little  "  Elements  of  Bot- 
any" had  been  sold  out,  and  the  publishers,  Carvill,  had 
gone  out  of  business  or  died.  I  prepared  in  1841-42 

1  Edward  T.  Channing ;  professor  of  rhetoric  and  oratory  at  Har- 
vard University. 

2  Daniel  Treadwell ;  professor  in  Harvard  University  of   applied 
physics  ;  distinguished  inventor  in  mechanics,  especially  in  the  weld- 
ing of  steel. 

28  AUTOBIOGRAPHY.  [1843. 

the  first  edition  of  my  "  Botanical  Text-Book ; "  it  was 
in  the  course  of  printing  when  I  was  appointed  to  the 
Fisher  professorship,  so  that  I  could  put  that  title  on 
the  title-page,  and  have  a  text-book  for  my  class. 

My  first  session  of  college  work  was  over  about 
July  1,  1843.  The  treasurer,  Mr.  Samuel  Eliot,  had 
given  me  leave  to  spend  a  small  sum  in  replenishing 
the  Botanic  Garden.  I  met  my  friend  and  corre- 
spondent, William  S.  Sullivant,  who  had  taken  strongly 
to  mosses,  early  in  August,  on  the  Alleghanies  beyond 
Frostburg,  Maryland  (the  railroad  went  only  to  Cum- 
berland), he  coming  from  Columbus,  Ohio,  I  from 
Cambridge.  There  we  bought  a  span  of  horses  and 
a  strong  country  wagon,  and  set  out  on  the  mountain 
expedition,  some  sketch  of  which  is  given  in  the 
"  American  Journal  of  Science  "  for  January,  1846. 
(The  first  journey  is  more  particularly  detailed  in 
the  "  American  Journal  of  Science,"  xlii.,  no.  1 ; 
1842  ?)  When  Sullivant  left  me,  at  Warm  Springs 
on  the  French  Broad,  anxious  to  get  home,  I  was  left 
in  a  pretty  lonely  condition. 




DR.  GRAY'S  autobiographical  fragment  closes  ab- 
ruptly, and  is  valuable  chiefly  for  the  glimpse  which 
it  gives  of  his  ancestry  and  his  boyhood.  He  kept 
no  diary,  but  he  carried  on  a  voluminous  correspond- 
ence, and  his  letters  thus  contain  a  record  of  his 
hard-working,  eager  life.  The  earliest  tell  of  the 
struggle  for  position,  his  doubts  if  his  loved  science 
could  furnish  him  a  maintenance,  and  his  resolution 
to  make  any  sacrifice  if  he  could  devote  himself  to 
its  study.  His  wants  outside  of  appliances  for  scien- 
tific investigation  were  few,  and  he  had  a  hopeful 
temper.  He  said  in  later  life  that  when  he  was  ready 
for  anything  it  always  came  to  him,  and  he  never 
dwelt  upon  the  hardships  of  his  early  years ;  indeed, 
he  forgot  them. 

After  leaving  Fairfield  Medical  College  he  divided 
his  years  between  teaching  in  Bartlett's  school  in 
Utica  (some  of  his  old  pupils  still  recall  his  field 
excursions  with  his  class,  and  'his  eager  delight  in 
the  search  after  plants),  in  journeys  botanical  and 
mineralogical,  and  in  some  shorter  and  longer  stays 
in  New  York,  where  for  a  good  portion  of  the  time 
he  was  a  member  of  Dr.  John  Torrey's  family.  Dr. 
Torrey  was  a  keen  observer,  a  lively  suggester  of  new 

30  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1831, 

theories  and  explanations,  most  eminently  truthful  in 
all  inquiries,  and  a  devout  Christian.  Mrs.  Torrey 
was  a  woman  of  rare  character,  refined,  of  intellectual 
tastes  and  cultivation,  great  independence,  extremely 
benevolent,  and  with  a  capacity  for  government  and 
control.  She  was  devotedly  religious,  not  only  for  her- 
self and  her  own  household,  but  for  all  who  could 
possibly  come  within  her  influence.  It  was  a  new  ex- 
perience to  the  country-bred  young  man,  and  she  saw 
in  him  many  capabilities  of  which  he  was  as  yet  himself 
unconscious.  He  always  said  that  in  his  development 
he  owed  much  to  her  in  many  ways.  She  criticised 
and  improved  his  manners,  his  tastes,  his  habits,  and 
especially,  together  with  Dr.  Torrey,  exercised  a  strong 
influence  on  his  religious  life.  His  parents  and 
family  were  conscientious,  good  and  faithful  church 
members.  But  they  were  not  people  who  talked  much, 
and  indeed  had  little  direct  oversight  of  their  son 
after  he  was  fourteen  years  old,  when  he  left  home. 
He  never  returned  to  the  family  roof  after  that  for 
more  than  a  few  months  at  a  time,  and  his  youthf id 
surroundings  away  from  home  were  of  very  varied 
influence ;  some  of  them,  though  never  vicious,  were 
of  a  decidedly  irreligious  character.  When  he  en- 
tered the  Torrey  family,  the  difference  in  the  life,  the 
contrast  in  the  way  of  meeting  trials  and  sorrows 
struck  him  forcibly,  and  the  religious  side  of  his 
nature  was  roused,  a  serious  interest  awakened,  which 
from  that  time  on  made  always  a  strong  and  perma- 
nent part  of  his  character. 

Dr.  Torrey  saw  the  ability  of  the  young  student, 
and  writing  to  his  friend,  Professor  Henry,  in  Feb- 
ruary, 1835,  to  see  if  a  place  could  not  be  found  for 
him  at  Princeton,  says :  — 


"  I  wish  we  could  find  a  place  for  my  friend  Gray 
in  the  college.  .  .  .  He  has  no  superior  in  botany, 
considering  his  age,  and  any  subject  that  he  takes 
up  he  handles  in  a  masterly  manner.  .  .  .  He  is  an 
uncommonly  fine  fellow,  and  will  make  a  great  noise 
in  the  scientific  world  one  of  these  days.  It  is  good 
policy  for  the  college  to  secure  the  services  and  affec- 
tions of  young  men  of  talent,  and  let  them  grow  up 
with  the  institution.  .  .  .  He  would  do  great  credit 
to  the  college  ;  and  he  will  be  continually  publish- 
ing. He  has  just  prepared  for  publication  in  the 
Annals  of  the  Lyceum  two  capital  botanical  papers. 
.  .  .  Gray  has  a  capital  herbarium  and  collection 
of  minerals.  He  understands  most  of  the  branches 
of  natural  history  well,  and  in  botany  he  has  few 

His  friend,  Mr.  John  H.  Eedfield,1  recalling  him  in 
those  early  days,  writes  :  — 

"  He  had  worked  with  Dr.  Torrey  in  his  herbarium 
in  1834  and  in  1835,  and  in  1834  read  his  first  paper 
before  the  Lyceum,  a  monograph  of  the  North  Amer- 
ican Rhynchosporae,  which  is  still  the  best  help  we 
have  for  the  study  of  that  genus.  His  bachelor 
quarters  were  in  the  upper  story  of  the  building,  and 
there  he  diligently  employed  the  hours  not  occupied 
with  other  duties  in  studies  and  dissections,  the  re- 
sults of  which  appeared  in  several  elaborate  contribu- 
tions to  the  Annals.  Dr.  Gray's  residence  in  the 
building  and  his  position  as  librarian  brought  him 
into  frequent  and  pleasant  intercourse  with  the  mem- 
bers of  the  Lyceum,  and  in  this  way  began  my  own 
acquaintance  with  him.  The  interest  which  he  always 

1  John  H.  Redfield ;  curator  of  the  herbarium  of  the  botanical  de- 
partment of  the  Philadelphia  Academy  of  Natural  Science. 


manifested  in  making  easy  the  openings  to  the  paths 
of  knowledge  for  the  younger  men  impressed  me 
greatly.  In  describing  his  manner  I  should  use 
neither  the  terms  '  imperious '  or  '  impetuous,'  but 
enthusiastic  eagerness  would  better  express  its  char- 
acteristic. He  had  even  then  something  of  that  hesi- 
tancy of  speech  which  he  sometimes  manifested  in 
later  years,  a  hesitancy  which  seemed  to  arise  from 
thoughts  which  crowded  faster  than  words  could  be 
found  for  them,  and  I  associate  his  manner  of  speak- 
ing then  with  a  slight  swing  of  the  head  from  side  to 
side,  which  my  recollections  of  his  later  manner  do  not 
recall.  In  person  he  was  unusually  attractive,  his 
face,  bright,  animated  and  expressive,  lit  up  by  eyes 
beaming  with  intellect  and  kindness." 

Dr.  Gray  began  in  1834  his  contributions  to  the 
"  American  Journal  of  Science."  His  first  paper, 
printed  in  May,  was  "  A  Sketch  of  the  Mineralogy 
of  a  Portion  of  Jefferson  and  St.  Lawrence  Counties, 
N.  Y.,  by  J.  B.  Crawe  of  Watertown,  and  A.  Gray  of 
Utica,  N.  Y.," 1  and  from  that  time  until  his  death  he 
was  a  constant  contributor  of  original  articles,  reviews, 
and  notices  of  all  botanists  whose  deaths  occurred 
within  his  knowledge,  leaving  an  unfinished  necrology 
on  his  desk. 

In  1835  his  first  text-book  was  written,  "  Elements 
of  Botany,"  and  he  returned  to  the  same  title  for  his 
last  text-book  in  1887.  He  spent  a  summer  at  his 
Sauquoit  home  at  work  upon  it ;  and  he  once  gave  a 
lively  account  of  the  warm  and  noisy  discussions 
which  he  held  with  his  friend  John  Carey  over  style 
and  expressions  when  he  was  reading  the  proofs  in 
his  boarding-house  in  New  York,  to  the  great  interest 

1  American  Jour.  Sci.,  xxv.  346-350. 

JET.  25.]  TO  JOHN   TORREY.  33 

of  all  within  hearing.  He  admitted  that  it  was  one 
of  the  best  lessons  in  the  art  of  writing  he  ever  had. 

Dr.  Gray,  writing  for  the  "  New  York  World  "  an 
obituary  notice  of  John  Carey,  on  his  death  in  1880, 
says  of  him,  after  a  short  sketch  of  his  life  :  — 

"  Mr.  Carey  was  a  man  of  marked  gifts,  accom- 
plishments, and  individuality.  His  name  will  long  be 
remembered  in  American  botany.  There  are  few  of 
his  contemporaries  in  this  country  who  have  done 
more  for  it  than  he,  although  he  took  little  part  in 
independent  publication.  His  critical  knowledge  and 
taste  and  his  keen  insight  were  most  useful  to  me  in 
my  earlier  days  of  botanical  authorship.  He  wrote 
several  valuable  articles  for  the  journals,  and  when,  in 
1848,  my  4  Manual  of  Botany '  was  produced,  he 
contributed  to  it  the  two  most  difficult  articles,  that 
on  the  willows  and  that  on  the  sedges.  .  .  . 

"  Being  fondly  attached  to  his  memory,  and  almost 
the  last  survivor  of  the  notable  scientific  circle  which 
Mr.  Carey  adorned,  I  wish  to  pay  this  feeble  tribute 
to  the  memory  of  a  worthy  botanist  and  a  most  genial, 
true-hearted,  and  good  man." 

It  is  to  be  regretted  that  Dr.  Gray's  letters  to  his 
old  friend  are  no  longer  in  existence. 

His  correspondence  with  Sir  William  Jackson 
Hooker,  then  professor  at  Glasgow,  Scotland,  began 
in  1835. 

BRIDGEWATEB,  ONEIDA  COUNTY,  N.  Y.,  January  1,  1831. 

DEAR  SIK,  —  I  received  your  letter,  through  Pro- 
fessor Hadley,  a  few  weeks  since,  and  I  embrace  the 
earliest  opportunity  of  transmitting  a  few  specimens 
of  those  plants  of  which  you  wished  a  further  supply. 


I  regret  that  the  state  of  my  herbarium  will  not  ad- 
mit of  my  sending  as  many  specimens  of  each  as  I 
could  wish  or  as  would  be  desirable  to  you.  I  shall 
be  able  to  obtain  an  additional  supply  of  most  of  them 
during  the  ensuing  summer,  when  it  will  give  me 
pleasure  to  supply  you  with  those,  or  any  other  inter- 
esting plants  which  I  may  meet  with.  I  send  you  a 
few  grasses,  numbered ;  also  a  few  mosses,  etc.  When 
you  have  leisure,  you  will  oblige  me  by  sending  the 
names  of  those  numbered,  and  rectify  any  errors  in 
those  labeled.  If  you  should  be  desirous  of  additional 
specimens,  please  let  me  know  it,  and  I  will  supply 
you  in  the  course  of  next  summer. 

You  ask  me  whether  I  am  desirous  of  obtaining  the 
plants  peculiar  to  New  York,  New  Jersey,  etc.,  or  of 
European  plants.  I  should  be  highly  gratified  by  re- 
ceiving any  plants  you  think  proper  to  send  me  ;  and 
will  repay  you,  so  far  as  in  my  power,  by  transmitting 
specimens  of  all  the  interesting  plants  I  discover.  I 
know  little  of  exotic  botany,  having  no  foreign  speci- 
mens. I  am  particularly  attached  to  the  study  of  the 
grasses,  ferns,  etc.  If  you  have  any  specimens  to 
transmit  to  me,  please  leave  them  with  Mr.  Franklin 
Brown,  Attorney  at  Law,  Inns  of  Court,  Beekman 
Street,  who  will  forward  them  to  me  by  the  earliest 

During  the  next  summer,  I  intend  to  visit  the  west- 
ern part  of  this  State,  also  Ohio  and  Michigan.  I  shall 
devote  a  large  portion  of  my  time  to  the  collection  of 
the  plants  of  the  places  I  visit.  If  you  know  of  any 
interesting  localities,  or  where  any  interesting  plants 
could  be  procured,  please  inform  me,  and  I  will  en- 
deavor to  obtain  them  for  you. 

Respectfully  yours,  ASA  GRAY. 

JET.  20.]  TO  JOHN  TORRE  Y.  35 

BRIDGEWATER,  April  6,  1832. 

Having  a  convenient  opportunity  of  sending  to  you, 
I  improve  it  to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  your  letter 
of  October  6,  and  of  the  very  interesting  and  valua- 
ble package  of  plants  which  was  duly  received  a  few 
weeks  afterwards.  In  the  course  of  the  ensuing  sum- 
mer, I  shall  be  able  to  supply  you  with  an  additional 
supply  of  most  of  the  plants  mentioned  in  your  list. 
Many  of  these  were  collected  during  an  excursion  to 
the  western  part  of  the  State,  and  are  not  found  in  this 
section  of  the  country. 

I  have  given  a  copy  of  this  list  to  my  friend  Dr.  N. 
W.  Folwell  of  Seneca  County,  an  industrious  collec- 
tor, who  is  situated  in  a  section  rich  in  plants,  and 
requested  him  to  transmit  specimens  of  these  and  other 
interesting  plants  to  you.  I  think  he  will  be  able  to 
furnish  you  with  many  interesting  plants  from  that 
section  of  country,  and  I  shall  be  grateful  for  any 
favors  you  may  have  in  your  power  to  confer  upon 
him.  I  shall  be  engaged  the  ensuing  summer  at  Fair- 
field  arid  at  Salina,  where  I  hope  to  make  some  in- 
teresting collections  in  natural  history.  If  it  is  not 
too  much  trouble  and  the  specimen  is  within  your 
reach,  may  I  ask  further  information  with  regard  to 
No.  34,  in  my  last  package  to  you.  It  is  a  Carex, 
from  the  shore  of  Lake  Erie,  —  growing  with  C.  lu- 
pulina  but  flowering  later.  Is  it  not  a  var.  of  C. 
lupulina  ?  from  which  it  appears  to  differ  principally 
in  its  pedunculate  spikes  ?  It  flowers  a  month  later 
than  C.  lupulina  (August  6). 

Will  you  excuse  me  for  troubling  you  on  another 
subject  ?  I  shall  not  be  able  to  remain  much  longer 
in  this  place,  unless  I  engage  in  the  practice  of  medi- 
cine under  circumstances  which  will  altogether  pre- 

36  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1832, 

elude  me  from  paying  any  further  attention  to  nat- 
ural history.  My  friends  advise  me  to  spend  a  few 
years  in  a  milder  climate,  our  family  being  predis- 
posed to  phthisis,  although  I  am  perfectly  healthy 
and  robust ;  and  such  a  course  would  be  very  agree- 
able to  me,  as  I  could  combine  the  study  of  natural 
history  with  the  professional  business  which  will  be 
necessary  for  my  support.  I  have  thought  of  the 
Southern  States,  but  I  have  for  some  time  been  in- 
clined to  prefer  Mexico,  both  on  account  of  the  salu- 
brity of  its  climate,  and  of  its  botanical  and  minera- 
logical  riches,  which  so  far  as  I  know  have  never 
been  very  thoroughly  explored.  My  object  in  trou- 
bling you  with  all  this  is  merely  to  obtain  some  infor- 
mation with  regard  to  the  natural  history  of  that 
country.  Has  the  country  been  explored  by  any 
botanist  since  Humboldt  in  1803  ?  And  is  there  still 
room  enough  in  that  branch  to  repay  one  for  devoting 
a  few  years  to  its  investigations  ? 

I  am  young  (twenty-one),  without  any  engagements 
to  confine  me  to  this  section  of  country,  and  prefer  the 
study  of  botany  to  anything  else.  Although  I  have 
not  arrived  at  any  positive  determination,  I  have  com- 
menced the  study  of  the  Spanish  language,  and  find  it 
(with  the  aid  of  Latin  and  French)  quite  easy.  I 
should  be  pleased  to  have  your  advice  on  this  subject, 
as  you  have  many  sources  of  information  which  are 
beyond  my  reach.  I  should  be  highly  gratified  if  you 
would  state  to  me  what  you  think  of  the  prospects  in 
Mexico  for  a  person  under  my  circumstances,  and 
whether  any  other  section  of  country  or  any  other 
situation  presents  greater  inducements.  Under  what- 
ever circumstances  I  may  be  placed,  it  will  be  grati- 
fying to  me  to  continue  a  correspondence  which  has, 

^T.  21.]  TO  JOHN   TORREY.  37 

thus  far,  been  so  useful  to  me,  and  I  shall  always  wish 
to  do  all  in  my  power  to  render  it  interesting  to  you. 
I  shall  be  ready  to  leave  this  place  by  1st  of  Septem- 
ber next,  at  which  time  I  shall  probably  visit  New 
York.  Will  you  write  me  on  this  subject  as  soon  as 
convenient,  and  very  much  oblige, 

Yours  truly,  A.  GRAY. 

P.  S.  There  is  within  a  circuit  of  some  miles,  and 
at  this  place,  a  great  variety  of  fossil  organic  remains, 
and  I  am  collecting  them  as  extensively  as  possible. 
We  find  trilobites  (Asaphus,  and  occasionally  Caly- 
mene),  a  variety  of  bivalve  and  a  few  univalve  shells, 
etc.,  both  in  lime  rock  and  greywacke.  The  cele- 
brated locality  of  Trenton  Falls  you  are  of  course 
acquainted  with.  Would  a  suit  of  them  be  accepta- 
ble to  yourself,  or  the  Lyceum  of  Natural  History, 
New  York  ?  And  can  they  be  named,  so  that  I  can 
label  my  collection  from  them  ?  There  may  few  of 
them  be  of  any  interest,  but  if  you  wish  it  you  shall 
have  a  suit  containing  specimens  of  all  I  find. 

UTICA,  January  2,  1833. 

I  received  your  letter  of  December  25,  and  have 
given  the  subject  of  which  you  write  a  careful  con- 
sideration. I  may  say  that  I  have  no  objection  to  the 
situation  you  propose,  if  a  proper  arrangement  can  be 

The  terms  of  my  engagement  here  are  these.  This 
situation  became  vacant  by  the  death  of  Mr.  Edgerton 
in  April  last.  I  was  recommended  by  some  of  my 
friends,  and  finally  made  an  arrangement  for  one  year ; 
took  charge  of  a  class  in  botany  and  mineralogy  on 
20th  May;  closed  July  30.  Have  been  at  liberty 


until  now  ;  have  just  commenced  a  chemical  course, 
to  continue  nine  weeks,  which  will  conclude  my  duties 
for  the  year.  The  compensation  is  board,  room,  wash- 
ing, fuel,  and  all  other  expenses  of  the  kind,  for  the 
whole  year,  or  as  much  of  the  year  as  I  choose  to 
remain  here.  All  expenses  of  the  laboratory  are  de- 
frayed (which  by  the  way  are  not  likely  to  be  heavy), 
and  in  addition  I  receive  $300.  The  advantages  of 
the  situation  are,  leisure  and  the  means  of  a  comfort- 
able support.  The  disadvantages,  the  school  is  not 
incorporated  and  though  now  flourishing  may  not  con- 
tinue so,  the  scholars  are  too  young,  the  principal 
wishes  to  retain  too  much  of  the  Eatonian  plan  to 
suit  me,  and  they  have  not  furnished  the  means  for 
the  chemical  course  which  I  had  a  right  to  expect. 
No  arrangement  has  been  made  for  another  year,  but 
I  have  reason  to  think  I  shall  be  requested  to  remain 
another  year.  I  am  confident  my  leisure  time  would 
be  employed  to  greater  advantage  if  I  was  situated  so 
as  to  have  access  to  good  libraries  and  extensive  col- 

At  present  I  can  be  satisfied  with  a  moderate  in- 
come, sufficient  for  a  comfortable  support,  for  the 
purchase  of  a  few  books,  etc. ;  but  that  income 
must  be  sure ;  I  cannot  afford  to  run  any  risks  about 
it.  I  would  willingly  collect  plants  the  whole  sum- 
mer, take  on  my  hands  the  whole  labor  of  preparing 
and  arranging  them,  but  as  the  proceeds  would  be 
absolutely  necessary  for  my  support,  so  they  should 
be  certain.  I  am  now  advantageously  situated  for 
the  collection  of  plants,  etc.,  as,  if  I  choose,  I  can 
travel  every  year  with  a  class  who  will  defray  my  ex- 

If  you  still  desire  to  make  such  arrangement,  please 

JET.  22.]  TO  JOHN   TORREY.  39 

to  state  more  explicitly  the  duties  you  wish  me  to 
perform  ;  how  much  time  can  be  given  to  collecting 
plants;  what  compensation  you  can  afford  me,  sup- 
posing nearly  the  whole  summer  is  devoted  to  making 
collections,  and  three  fourths  of  the  whole  to  belong 
to  you,  —  or  propose  any  plan  which  would  be  satis- 
factory to  you,  and  I  will  let  you  know,  very  shortly  r 
whether  I  will  accept  it  or  not.  I  had  rather  leave  it 
to  yourself  than  to  make  any  definite  proposition  at 
present.  I  am  confident  we  can  make  an  arrange- 
ment which  will  be  mutually  beneficial. 

I  need  not  say  that  I  wish  to  hear  from  you  again 
on  this  subject  as  soon  as  possible,  as  I  must  soon 
make  my  arrangements  for  the  ensuing  season.  How 
large  is  the  class  at  the  Medical  College?  I  have 
just  returned  from  a  visit  at  Fairfield ;  they  have  a 
class  of  about  190.  In  haste, 

Yours  very  respectfully,  A.  GRAY. 

UTICA,  January  23,  1833. 

Excuse  me  for  troubling  you.  I  have  this  day  re- 
ceived from  Dr.  L.  C.  Beck  a  sheet  of  a  work,  now 
publishing,  entitled  a  "  Flora  of  the  Northern  and 
Middle  States,"  arranged  according  to  the  natural 
system.  I  have  the  sheet  commencing  the  species; 
commences  with  Ranunculaceae  ;  it  is  in  12mo. 

As  you  mentioned  that  Beck  has  been  very  secret 
in  all  his  proceedings,  it  occurred  to  me  that  very  pos- 
sibly you  have  heard  nothing  of  it,  and  I  thought  it 
right  to  let  you  know.  It  appears  to  be  after  the 
fashion  of  De  Candolle's  "Prodromus,"  condensed  de- 
scriptions and  fine  print.  He  still  keeps  his  Ranun- 
culus lacustris,  and  has  added  a  new  species  to  that 
genus,  which  he  calls  R.  Clintonii,  from  Rome,  Oneida 

40  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1833, 

County,  N.  Y. ;  the  same  as  published  in  fifth  edi- 
tion Eaton's  "  Manual "  under  the  name  of  R.  pro- 
stratus,  Lamk.  I  have  never  seen  their  specimens, 
but  have  little  doubt  it  is  a  form  of  K.  repens,  which 
flowers  with  us  from  April  to  September  and  assumes 
many  forms.  Dr.  Beck  wishes  me  to  send  him  any 
undescribed  or  interesting  plants,  localities  of  rare 
plants,  etc.  I  feel  somewhat  interested  in  the  work, 
as  I  wish  it  to  supersede  Eaton's  entirely.  (I  hear 
Eaton  is  coming  out  with  a  new  edition  in  the  spring. 
I  see  Beck  means  to  anticipate  him.)  But  all  the 
undescribed  plants  I  have  are  in  your  hands,  and  it 
would  be  improper  to  send  him  such  at  present.  He 
has  in  his  hands  an  imperfect  specimen  of  Nasturtium 
natans,  De  Candolle,  which  I  sent  him  two  years  ago. 
He  did  not  know  it ;  supposed  it  N.  palustre,  and  I 
do  not  know  whether  he  has  determined  it  or  no.  I 
will  tell  him  what  it  is.  He  has  that  Ophioglossum 
and  probably  will  publish  it.  If  you  please  you  can 
publish  this,  that  Scleria,  etc.,  in  Silliman,  that  is, 
if  you  think  them  new.  I  will  send  none  of  these  to 
Beck,  but  will  give  him  the  localities  of  some  of  our 
most  interesting  plants. 

I  have  not  heard  from  you  since  I  wrote  you  on  the 
subject  of  your  letter,  but  hope  you  will  write  me 
soon.  If  we  can  make  any  arrangement  for  a  year, 
by  its  expiration  you  will  know  whether  or  not  I 
shall  be  of  any  use  to  you.  I  wish  to  be  situated  in 
such  a  manner  as  will  enable  me  to  advance  most  rap- 
idly in  science,  in  botany  especially. 

I  succeeded,  some  days  ago,  in  making  the  chloro- 
chromic  acid  of  Dr.  Thomson  (of  which  you  spoke  to 
me  when  at  your  house),  with  chromate  of  lead,  in- 
stead of  bichromate  of  potash,  which  I  was  unable  to 

JET.  22.]  TO  JOHN   TORREY.  41 

obtain.  It  set  alcohol,  ether,  spirits  of  turpentine, 
etc.,  on  fire.  I  did  not  try  it  upon  phosphorus.  Shall 
prepare  it  again  in  a  few  weeks  for  class  experiments. 
I  am,  Sir,  Yours  respectfully, 

A.  GRAY. 

UTICA,  March  22,  1834. 

I  thankfully  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  your  letter 
of  the  1st  iiist.,  and  am  delighted  to  learn  that  you 
contemplate  giving  a  course  of  botanical  lectures  be- 
fore you  leave  the  city.  I  hope  the  plan  will  succeed, 
and  that  you  will  have  a  large  and  very  fashionable 
class.  My  journey  was  as  tedious  as  rain  and  bad 
roads  could  make  it.  The  first  night,  being  alone  in 
the  coach,  I  was  upset  by  the  carelessness  of  a  drunk- 
en driver.  The  top  of  the  coach,  striking  against  a 
stone  wall,  was  broken  in ;  but  I  escaped,  narrowly  in- 
deed, without  any  injury  excepting  a  few  rents  in  my 
clothes.  At  the  end  of  the  route,  I  had  the  satisfac- 
tion of  seeing  the  driver  dismissed  from  his  employ- 
ment. On  my  arrival  at  Bridge  water  I  found  a  child 
of  my  friend  and  former  medical  preceptor,1  a  favorite 
little  daughter,  dangerously,  almost  hopelessly  sick 
with  inflammation  of  the  brain.  I  was  consequently 
detained  several  days,  and  before  I  left  had  the  satis- 
faction of  seeing  the  little  patient  convalescent.  I 
am  now  in  fine  working  order  and  busily  engaged  in 
my  chemical  course. 

Dr.  Hadley  called  upon  me  yesterday  and  I  gave 
him  the  little  "  notions  "  you  sent  by  me.  He 
was  much  pleased,  but  was  especially  delighted  with 
the  condensed  sulphurous  and  anhydrous  sulphuric 

1  Dr.  Trowbridge. 

42  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1834, 

The  principal  object  of  this  letter  is  to  consult  you 
in  regard  to  some  propositions  made  me  by  Professor 
Hadley.  Besides  his  situation  in  the  Medical  College, 
you  are  aware  that  he  holds  the  .  professorship  of 
chemistry  and  natural  science  in  Hamilton  College. 
He  has  just  concluded  his  chemical  course  in  that 
institution,  but  in  the  early  part  of  summer  he  lectures 
to  the  senior  class  upon  botany  and  mineralogy.  As 
they  are  about  to  make  some  alterations  in  the  college 
building  at  Fairfield,  his  presence  will  be  required 
there,  and  he  wishes  me  to  take  his  place  for  the  ensu- 
ing term  at  Hamilton  College.  I  ought  also  to  state 
that  Dr.  H.  accepted  that  situation  with  the  intention 
of  holding  it  but  a  few  years,  until  the  college  should 
have  surmounted  the  trouble  in  which  it  was  (and  is) 
involved,  and  from  which  we  have  pretty  good  rea- 
son to  hope,  from  the  exertions  now  being  made,  it 
will  soon  be  extricated,  so  that  the  professorships  may 
be  properly  endowed.  He  has  given  notice  of  his  in- 
tention to  resign  about  a  year  hence  ;  by  which  time, 
if  ever,  the  college  will  be  able  to  place  several  profes- 
sorships upon  a  substantial  foundation.  Dr.  H.  has 
expressed  to  me  a  strong  desire  that  I  should  be  con- 
sidered a  candidate  for  the  place,  and  I  strongly  sus- 
pect that  to  further  that  object  is  one  reason  for  his 
wishing  me  to  act  as  his  substitute  during  the  ensuing 
summer.  My  presence  there  would  be  necessary 
from  the  1st  of  June  to  the  middle  of  July.  Dr.  H. 
has  been  acting  under  a  nominal  salary  of  §500, 
being  engaged  there  but  thirteen  or  fourteen  weeks. 
For  the  summer  course  I  should  receive  $ 200.  Dr.  H. 
insures  me  $100  immediately,  even  if  he  has  to  ad- 
vance it  himself,  and  the  whole  if  funds  are  in  the 
hands  of  the  treasurer;  if  not,  the  whole  would  be 

^T.  23.]  TO  JOHN   TORRE  Y.  43 

received  quite  certainly  within  the  year.  I  have  only 
to  say  further  that  the  college  has  now  one  hundred 
students,  is  situated  in  a  beautiful  village  nine  miles 
from  Utica,  has  the  best  college  buildings  of  any  in 
the  State,  has  a  good  faculty,  etc.  I  urged  the  prom- 
ise I  had  made  of  the  visit  to  Georgia,  which  this  plan 
would  entirely  frustrate,  but  promised  to  give  him  a 
definite  answer  within  a  fortnight. 

I  can  scarcely  think  of  postponing  my  southern 
tour  for  another  season;  but  the  question  comes  to 
this,  whether,  in  the  present  state  of  my  finances,  I 
had  better  expend  $100  in  that  visit  or  earn  $200  in 
the  same  time.  I  could  also,  I  think,  continue  my 
engagements  here  in  July  and  August,  by  which  a 
little  more  of  the  trash  might  be  pocketed,  and  return 
to  New  York  in  time  to  make  a  September  excursion 
to  the  dearly  beloved  pine  barrens  of  New  Jersey,  and 
spend  the  early  part  of  fall  in  botanical  work,  and 
the  winter  in  your  laboratory.  The  term  closes  here 
the  23d  of  April  (a  little  earlier  than  I  supposed)  ;  so 
if  the  original  plan  is  pursued  I  shall  be  in  New  York 
by  the  26th  of  that  month.  If  not,  I  shall  be  disen- 
gaged for  a  month,  a  portion  of  which  I  should  like  to 
devote,  with  my  friend  Dr.  Crawe,  to  the  minerals 
of  St.  Lawrence  County.  So  rests  the  case.  I  told 
Dr.  H.  that  I  should  write  immediately  to  you,  and 
be  governed  in  a  good  degree  by  your  answer. 

I  have  such  a  dislike  to  the  appearance  of  vacilla- 
tion which  results  from  changing  one's  plans  when 
fully  formed,  that  were  it  not  for  certain  ulterior  ad- 
vantages, and  that  I  wish  to  comply  with  the  wishes, 
as  far  as  may  be,  of  a  person  to  whom  I  am  much 
obliged,  I  should  promptly  decline  Dr.  Hadley's 

44  *  EARLY  UNDERTAKINGS.  [1834, 

An  idea  just  this  moment  strikes  me  which,  in  its 
crude  shape,  I  will  communicate.  In  eight  or  ten 
days  I  can  get  to  the  metals.  Suppose  I  could  then 
get  excused,  and  finish  my  course  here  next  summer 
in  connection  with  mineralogy,  which  for  these  young- 
sters would  do  pretty  well;  reach  New  York  early 
next  month;  set  out  immediately  for  Georgia,  and 
remain  there  until  the  latter  part  of  May ;  return  via 
Charleston ;  examine  Elliott's  herbarium,  and  return 
here  by  the  first  of  June.  I  may  be  quite  sure  that 
April  and  May  would  be  healthy,  but  could  there  be 
plants  enough  collected,  especially  Graminese,  to  make 
it  an  object  ?  Please  say  what  you  think  of  it.  If 
you  think  it  will  do,  I  see  no  insuperable  objection  to 
carrying  it  into  effect. 

A  few  days  ago  a  letter  reached  me  from  Professor 
Lehmann,  in  answer  to  my  communication  eighteen 
months  ago.  He  is  quite  desirous  of  continuing  the 
correspondence.  He  is  now  particularly  engaged 
with  Hepaticae,  and  is  anxious  to  obtain  our  species, 
and  especially  original  specimens  of  those  described 
by  the  late  Mr.  Schweinitz,  etc.  He  has  sent  a  box 
(which  by  this  time  I  hope  has  arrived  in  New  York) 
containing  about  five  hundred  species  of  plants  and 
several  botanical  books.  He  also  writes  that  he  has 
applied  to  Nees  von  Esenbeck  for  dried  specimens 
of  all  the  species  of  Aster  cultivated  in  his  garden 
in  order  to  transmit  them  with  the  monograph  by 
that  author ;  but  not  having  arrived  in  time  they 
will  be  sent  with  his  next  package.  I  wish  to  be  par- 
ticularly remembered  to  Mrs.  Torrey  and  to  Mr. 

Shaw,  not  forgetting  my  lively  little  friends  J , 

E ,  and  M ,  whom  I  very  much  long  to  see.  I 

had  intended  long  before  this  to  have  written  to  Mr. 

JET.  23.]  TO  JOHN   TORREY.  45 

Shaw,  but  have  not  yet  had  leisure.  Please  say  to 
him  that  I  ain  much  obliged  for  the  papers  he  has 
been  so  good  as  to  send  me.  I  wish  to  know  whether 
he  has  yet  apostatized  from  the  anti-tea-drinking  soci- 
ety, of  which  Mr.  S.  and  myself  were  ("par  nobile 
fratrum  ")  such  promising  members.  Please  say  to 
him  that  I  have  not  yet  drunk  tea,  but  am  doing  pen- 
ance upon  coffee,  milk,  and  water. 

May  I  trouble  you  for  the  very  earliest  possible 
answer  to  this,  which  will  much  oblige 

Yours  very  respectfully,  A.  GRAY. 

HAMILTON  COLLEGE,  June  9, 1834. 

Your  letter  of  the  13th  ult.,  with  the  bundle  of 
books,  was  in  due  time  received.  Yours  of  the  2d 
ult.  was  received  at  the  same  time.  I  can  send 
you  no  more  copies  of  "  Graminea3," l  etc. ;  all  I 
brought  up  are  subscribed  for  and  delivered.  "  Major 
Downing,"  who  subscribes  for  two  copies  (one  for 
himself  and  one  for  his  friend  the  Gin'ral,2  I  sup- 
pose), as  well  as  the  other  subscribers,  must  wait  until 
fall.  I  am  lecturing  here  to  a  small  but  quite  intelli- 
gent Senior  class,  twenty-six  in  number,  just  enough  to 
fill  three  sides  of  a  large  table,  and  time  passes  very 
pleasantly.  The  small  fund  for  the  support  of  this 
institution  will,  I  think,  be  secured,  but  the  trustees 

1  North  American  Graminece  and  Cyperacece,  of  which  Part  I.  was 
issued  in  1834,  Part  II.  in  1835.     This  was  the  first  separate  and 
individual  publication  by  Dr.  Gray.     Sir  W.  J.  Hooker  said  of  it :  — 
[It]  "may  fairly  be   classed  among  the  most  beautiful   and  useful 
works  of  the  kind  that  we  are  acquainted  with.     The  specimens  are 
remarkably  well  selected,  skillfully  prepared,  critically  studied,  and 
carefully  compared  with  those  in  the  extensive  and  very  authentic 
herbarium  of  Dr.  Torrey." 

2  Alluding  to  the  then  popular  squib  of  Major  Jack  Downing's 

46  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1834, 

do  not  act  in  concert  with  the  faculty,  and  it  is  ru- 
mored quarrel  among  themselves,  so  that,  unless  some 
changes  are  effected  in  the  board,  I  fear  the  college 
will  not  be  sustained.  I  shall  remain  here  five  weeks 
longer,  and  then  have  a  short  engagement  at  Utica. 
I  have  promised  to  make  a  visit  to  the  north  in  Au- 
gust. I  wish  very  much  that  I  was  able  to  remain 
there  six  or  seven  weeks,  to  examine  with  attention 
the  vegetation  of  the  primitive  region  in  St.  Lawrence 
and  Franklin  counties.  I  cannot  doubt  that  the 
mountains  and  the  banks  of  the  large  streams  of  that 
region  would  furnish  a  rich  harvest  of  plants.  That 
range  is  an  extension  of  one  from  the  far  north,  which, 
passing  between  the  Great  Lakes  and  Hudson's  Bay, 
crosses  the  St.  Lawrence  at  the  Thousand  Islands, 
and  passes  through  St.  Lawrence,  Franklin,  and 
Clinton  counties.  Consequently  many  sub  -  alpine 
plants,  such  as  Anemone  Hudsonica,  Trisetum  molle, 
Geum  triflorum,  etc.,  are  found  in  this  region  farther 
south  than  elsewhere.  The  mineralogy  of  the  region, 
also,  needs  to  be  farther  explored.  The  expense  of 
such  a  tour,  divided  between  Dr.  Crawe  and  myself, 
traveling  in  a  conveyance  of  our  own,  will  be  compar- 
atively trifling. 

I  find,  however,  that  further  supplies  of  several 
New  Jersey  grasses  are  absolutely  required  to  enable 
me  to  make  out  the  necessary  number  of  suits  this 
fall  of  the  first  part  of  my  "  Grasses."  I  see  also  by  the 
list  before  me  that  they  (with  few  exceptions)  are  in 
good  state  as  late  as  the  8th  or  10th  of  September,  and 
that  they  can  all  be  obtained  without  proceeding  far- 
ther south  than  Tom's  River ;  so  that  I  have  no  alter- 
native but  to  hasten  back  to  New  York,  and  make  a 
flying  trip  to  Tom's  River  (or  Howel  Works  at  least) 

JET.  23.]  TO  HIS   FA  THER.  47 

early  in  September.  If  you  meet  with  Panicum 
agrostoides,  Poa  obtusa  Muhl.,  and  Poa  eragrostis,  I 
shall  be  much  obliged  if  you  will  secure  for  me  the 
needful  quantity  of  specimens.  I  am  making  arrange- 
ments for  securing  the  bulbs,  tubers,  and  seeds  of  the 
rarer  plants  for  Lehmann.  I  shall  take  great  pleasure 
in  complying  with  your  desire  of  securing  as  many  as 
possible  for  your  little  garden.  Bulbs  and  tubers  I 
take  up  after  flowering,  and  place  in  dry  sand.  Can 
you  give  some  instructions  as  to  the  best  manner  of 
preserving  other  perennial  roots,  such  as  Asters,  etc.  ? 
If  you  will  give  me  the  necessary  instructions,  I 
promise  you  to  spare  no  exertions  to  carry  them  into 

I  have  nearly  finished  De  Candolle's  "  Theorie  Ele- 
mentaire."  I  have  devoured  it  like  a  novel.  It  ought 
to  be  translated,  that  it  may  be  more  generally  read 
in  this  country,  where  something  of  the  kind  is  much 
needed.  By  the  way,  as  soon  as  you  receive  Lindley's 
new  elementary  work,  I  hope  you  will  set  about  pre- 
paring an  American  edition. 

This  immediate  neighborhood  is  very  poor  for  bota- 
nizing. Excepting  Cyperacese,  it  furnishes  nothing 
of  interest.  I  shall  soon,  however,  make  more  distant 
excursions,  so  as  to  include  Oneida  Lake  and  the 
"  pine  plains."  When  I  return  I  shall  bring  with 
me  a  huge  bundle  of  plants,  which  will  show  that  I 
have  not  been  idle. 


November  21,  1834. 

The  class  at  the  Medical  College  is  very  small,  so 
that  I  have  no  salary  here  at  present.  But  I  have  a 
comfortable  and  pleasant  home,  and  fine  opportunities 

48  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1835, 

for  pursuing  my  favorite  studies,  and  for  acquiring  a 
reputation  that  must  sooner  or  later  secure  me  a  good 
place.  I  have  work  enough  thrown  into  my  hands  to 
support  me,  with  my  prudent  habits,  through  the  win- 
ter. I  spend  my  time  entirely  at  the  medical  college 
and  at  my  home  here  at  Dr.  Torrey's,  and  hold  little 
intercourse  with  any  except  medical  and  scientific  men. 
I  am  writing  two  scientific  articles  on  a  difficult  branch 
of  botany  for  a  scientific  journal  or  magazine,  which 
will  give  me  a  little  notoriety.  Dr.  Torrey  and  my- 
self went  last  month  to  Philadelphia,  where  we  stayed 
a  week.  We  spent  our  time  almost  entirely  in  the 
rooms  of  the  American  Philosophical  Society,  and  of 
the  Academy  of  Science.  We  met  most  of  the  scien- 
tific and  other  learned  men,  and  spent  our  time  very 
pleasantly.  You  shall  hear  from  me  again  before  long. 
It  is  not  probable  that  I  shall  be  up  before  next  sum- 


Saturday  Morning,  February  7,  1835. 

I  do  not  know  when  I  shall  see  you.  I  shall  be 
up  sometime  during  the  spring  or  summer  if  I  live 
so  long,  but  perhaps  not  until  July  or  August.  It  is 
very  probable  that  I  shall  stay  in  the  city  the  whole 
time.  I  wish  very  much  to  spend  a  few  weeks  in 
Georgia,  early  in  the  spring,  but  I  see  that  I  shall  not 
be  able  to  do  so.  My  time  is  spent  here  very  profit- 
ably, and  I  am  advancing  in  knowledge  as  fast  as  I 
ought  to  wish,  but  I  make  no  money,  or  scarcely 
enough  to  live  upon.  Just  at  present  I  am  rather 
behindhand,  but  think  that  by  next  fall  I  shall,  with 
ordinary  success,  be  in  better  circumstances.  It  is 
unpleasant  to  be  embarrassed  in  such  matters,  for  I 
should  like  much  to  be  independent,  and  this  with  my 

^T.  24.]  TO  HIS  FATHER.  49 

moderate  wishes  would  require  no  very  large  sum,  and 
I  have  110  great  desire  to  be  rich. 

Tell  father  I  am  very  glad  he  has  brought  home  the 
remainder  of  those  boxes  from  Utica.  The  burning 
down  of  one  of  the  buildings  of  the  gymnasium  has 
broken  up  that  school  entirely,  and  it  probably  will 
not  be  revived.  I  knew  Mr.  Bartlett  would  fail  soon, 
and  that  accident  has  only  hastened  the  time  a  little. 
He  has  been  insolvent  for  some  time.  There  was  a 
very  severe  fire  within  a  few  rods  of  us  last  week ; 
five  or  six  dwelling-houses  and  other  buildings  were 
burned  to  the  ground.  Although  it  was  so  near  us  we 
were  sitting  at  tea  entirely  unconcerned.  Everything 
is  done  by  the  fire  companies,  and  people  who  crowd 
about  fires  are  only  in  the  way,  without  doing  any 

Let  me  hear  from  you  soon,  and  you  will  hear  from 
me  again  in  due  season.  The  lectures  in  the  Medical 
College  will  be  finished  in  about  three  weeks,  and 
then  I  shall  be  a  little  more  at  leisure. 

I  am  very  affectionately  yours, 

A.  GRAY. 


NEW  YORK,  April  6, 1835. 

DEAR  FATHER,  —  I  have  been  waiting  for  some 
time  to  see  what  my  plans  for  the  season  would  be, 
expecting  as  soon  as  that  point  was  determined  to 
write  to  you.  All  my  arrangements  were  upset  last 
fall,  and  the  prospects  for  daily  bread  have  been  rather 
dark  all  winter  —  that  is  for  the  present ;  for  the 
future  they  look  as  well  as  I  could  expect.  It  is 
probable  now  that  I  shall  remain  here  during  the  sum- 
mer ;  prosecuting  the  same  studies  and  pursuits  in 

50  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1835, 

which  I  am  now  engaged,  unless  something  else  turns 
up  in  the  mean  time.  .   .  . 

Tell  mother  I  have  for  her  a  copy  of  Barnes's 
*'  Notes  on  the  Gospels,"  but  I  want  to  read  it  myself 
before  I  send  it  up.  Perhaps  I  can't  spare  it  until  I 
come  up.  I  think  you  will  all  be  very  much  pleased 
with  it.  I  wish  I  could  also  send  you  his  "  Notes  on 
the  Acts  and  Romans."  Please  ask  Mr.  Rogers,  or 
any  of  your  merchants  when  they  come  to  New  York 
this  spring,  to  drop  a  line  in  the  post-office  for  me, 
that  I  may  take  the  opportunity  of  sending  home  by 
them.  I  wish  I  could  come  up  this  spring,  but  I  see 
that  I  shall  not  be  able.  Do  you  take  a  religious 
newspaper  ?  Please  write  to  me  soon.  May  the  Lord 
prosper  you  and  keep  you  all. 

Yours  truly  and  affectionately, 

A.  GRAY. 

TO   W.    J.    HOOKER. 

NEW  YORK,  April  4,  1835. 

DEAR  SIR,  —  Your  kind  letter  of  December  11, 
with  the  parcel  of  books  you  were  so  good  as  to  send 
me,  were  in  due  time  received,  for  both  of  which  I 
beg  you  to  accept  my  thanks.  Perhaps  you  will  do 
me  the  favor  to  accept  a  copy  of  the  second  part  of 
the  "  North  American  Graminea3  and  Cyperacea3," 
being  a  continuation  of  my  attempt  to  illustrate  our 
species  of  these  families,  the  plan  of  which,  I  am 
gratified  to  learn,  meets  your  approbation.  I  inclose 
in  the  same  parcel  the  loose  sheets  of  an  unpublished 
portion  of  the  third  volume  of  the  "  Annals  of  the 
New  York  Lyceum  of  Natural  History,"  compris- 
ing an  attempt  at  a  monography  of  the  genus  Rhyn- 
chospora.  A  more  perfect  copy,  with  a  copy  of  the 

J5T.24.]  TO  JOHN    TORREY.  51 

engraving,  now  in  the  hands  of  the  artist,  will  be 
transmitted  to  you  by  the  earliest  opportunity.  I 
also  send  a  little  parcel  of  mosses,  nearly  all  of  which 
were  collected  in  the  interior  of  the  State  of  New 
York.  May  I  ask  you  to  look  them  over  at  as  early 
an  opportunity  as  may  suit  your  convenience,  and  to 
return  to  me  the  result  of  your  determinations.  I 
do  not  venture  to  think  that  you  will  find  among  them 
anything  of  especial  interest.  I  very  much  regret 
that  I  am  at  the  present  moment  unable  to  forward 
to  you  a  half  a  dozen  copies  of  the  work  of  "  Gra- 
mineae  and  Cyperaceae,"  the  number  you  so  kindly 
offer  to  take  charge  of.  A  few  species  are  wanting  to 
complete  further  suits  of  the  first  volume,  but  these 
I  hope  soon  to  obtain.  Not  to  permit  your  kind  offer 
to  pass  wholly  unimproved,  I  hereby  transmit  to  you 
three  copies  of  vols.  1  and  2  which  are  at  the  disposal 
of  any  of  your  botanical  friends  who  may  desire  to 
possess  the  work.  If  an  additional  number  of  copies 
should  be  needed  they  can  in  a  very  short  time  be 
furnished.  With  high  respect,  I  remain,  dear  sir, 
Yours  truly,  A.  GRAY. 


Regius  Professor  of  Botany  in  the  University  at  Glasgow. 


SAUQUOIT,  N.  Y.,  July  9, 1835. 

I  am  progressing  a  little  with  my  rather  formidable 
task;  in  fact  I  am  making  haste  quite  slowly,  and 
am  now  discussing  the  mysteries  of  exogenous  and 
endogenous  stems.  I  have  studied  little  this  week, 
for  I  found  that  close  confinement  was  spoiling  my 
health,  so  I  have  been  taking  quite  severe  exercise 
almost  constantly,  by  which  I  am  considerably  im- 

52  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1835, 

proved  already,  although  my  bones  ache  prodigiously. 
I  have  not  yet  botanized  largely.  When  at  Bridge- 
water  I  secured  all  I  could  find  of  the  new  Carex ; 
also  C.  chordorhiza,  which,  by  the  way,  Crawe  has 
found  in  his  region.  I  hope  soon  to  collect  more  ex- 
tensively, but  in  this  vicinity  there  are  no  plants  of 
especial  interest.  I  have  just  now  a  mania  for  exam- 
ining and  preserving  the  roots  and  fruits  of  our  plants 
(I  make  notes  of  everything  in  a  copy  of  your  "  Com- 
pendium "),  and  I  hope  to  bring  you  a  collection  in  this 
way  which  will  interest,  and  perhaps  be  of  some  use 
to  you.  Fruits  and  ripe  seeds  are  not  often  to  be  ob- 
tained, at  least  in  a  proper  state,  in  our  herbaria.  I 
have  been  examining  our  Smilax  rotundifolia.  It  is  a 
regular  endogenous  shrub,  although  it  sometimes  dies 
nearly  to  the  ground,  but  always  sends  out  a  branch 
from  the  uppermost  node  which  survives  the  winter. 
It  branches  just ,  as  any  endogen  would,  because  the 
terminal  bud  is  killed ;  the  branches  are  cylindrical, 
and  increase  very  little  in  diameter  after  their  pro- 
duction. A  cross-section  shows  the  same  structure  as 
the  rattan,  i.  e.,  the  vascular  and  woody  bundles  are 
arranged  equally  throughout  the  stem.  But  a  great 
part  of  the  stem  is  prostrate  beneath  the  surface,  and 
it  may  be  traced  back,  alive  and  dead,  for  several 
years'  growth.  In  fact  I  have  not  yet  succeeded  in 
tracing  the  stem  back  to  the  true  root ;  all  I  have  seen 
are  adventitious  roots  sent  off  by  the  nodes  of  the 
stem.  This  is  the  only  endogenous  shrub,  I  presume, 
in  the  Northern  States.  By  the  way,  the  term  rhizoma 
must  be  used  much  in  descriptive  botany,  and  be  ex- 
tended so  as  to  include  all  subterranean,  nearly  hori- 
zontal stems,  or  portions  of  the  stem,  which  produce 
roots  from  any  part  of  their  surface  and  buds  from 

JET.  24.]  TO  HIS  FATHER.  53 

their  extremity.  It  occurs  in  a  great  part  of  herba- 
ceous perennials,  and  can  always  in  practice  be  distin- 
guished from  the  root,  although  it  is  still  described 
as  root  in  all  the  books ;  witness,  Hydrophyllum, 
Act^ea,  Caulophyllum,  Trillium,  Convallaria,  and  so  on 
to  infinity. 

I  am  not  yet  perfectly  satisfied  about  our  Actseas  ; 
thus  the  red-berried  one  is  now  perfectly  ripe,  while 
the  berries  of  the  white  one  are  but  half -grown ;  all 
the  red  ones,  so  far  as  I  have  seen,  have  slender  pedi- 
cels also,  yet  the  leaves  and  the  rhizomata  are  exactly 
alike.  By  the  way,  while  I  was  botanizing  this  after- 
noon, I  met  with  great  quantities  of  Orchis  specta- 
bilis,  by  far  the  largest  and  finest  I  ever  saw ;  their 
leaves  emulating  Habenaria  orbiculata.  If  you  care 
for  them  in  the  slightest  degree,  I  will  secure  a  suffi- 
cient quantity  to  fill  your  garden.  O.  spectabilis  will, 
while  in  flower,  be  a  very  pretty  spectacle.  .  .  . 
I  remain  cordially  and  truly  yours, 

A.  GRAY. 


NEW  YORK,  September  28,  1835. 

I  suppose  I  have  been  a  little  negligent  in  waiting 
so  long  before  I  wrote  home,  but  in  truth  I  did  not 
wish  to  write  until  I  had  something  certain  to  say, 
and  even  now  I  have  very  little.  I  met  Dr.  Hadley 
in  Utica  just  at  dusk  on  the  evening  of  the  day 
you  left  me  there,  so  I  stayed  all  night  there,  and 
went  to  Fairfield  next  day.  I  stayed  at  Fairfield 
until  Tuesday  afternoon,  then  went  to  Little  Falls, 
and  arrived  in  Albany  just  in  time  for  the  evening 
boat  next  day,  and  was  in  New  York  at  breakfast 
next  morning. 

54  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1835, 

Since  my  return  I  have  been  very  busy,  and  on  the 
whole  very  comfortably  situated.  I  have  got  back  to 
my  class  in  the  Sunday-school;  both  teachers  and 
scholars  have  mostly  returned,  for  they  all  get  scat- 
tered during  the  warm  months  of  the  summer ;  and  we 
are  now  going  on  very  well.  On  my  arrival  here  I 
found  a  very  fine  package  of  dried  plants  collected  by 
my  friend  the  Eev.  John  Diell,  chaplain  for  American 
seamen  in  the  Sandwich  Islands.  I  set  about  them 
immediately,  and  it  has  taken  me  nearly  all  my  time 
this  month  to  study  them,  but  I  have  now  finished 
them.  I  shall  send  my  notes  about  them  to  Professor 
Hooker  of  Glasgow,  Scotland,  that  he  may,  if  he 
pleases,  publish  them  in  the  "Journal  of  Botany,"  of 
which  he  is  the  editor.  They  are  of  more  interest  to 
the  people  on  that  side  of  the  water  than  to  us.  I 
have  again  sat  down  to  writing  upon  the  work  in 
which  I  have  been  engaged  all  summer,  and  I  do  not 
mean  that  anything  else  shall  tempt  me  from  it  until 
it  is  finished,  although  a  nice  little  parcel  of  weeds 
from  China,  sent  by  S.  Wells  Williams 1  (son  of  Wm. 
Williams),  lies  at  my  elbow.  As  to  my  book,2  I  am 
trying  to  make  a  bargain  with  two  publishers ;  the 
prospects  seem  pretty  fair,  and  I  shall  probably  get 
$300,  which  is  the  sum  I  insist  on.  I  shall  have  a 
definite  answer  in  a  few  days.  As  to  my  course  and 
occupation  for  the  winter  I  can  say  nothing,  for  I 
have  not  hit  upon  any  certain  plan.  One  thing  is 
pretty  certain  after  thinking  over  the  matter  quite 
seriously,  and  consulting  with  Dr.  Hadley,  who  is  my 

1  S.  Wells  Williams,  1812-1884.     Went  as  missionary  to  China  in 
1833.     Wrote  a  Chinese  dictionary  and  other  works ;  translated  Gene- 
sis and  Matthew  into  Japanese  also.    Later  was  secretary  of  the  Amer- 
ican Legation  to  China ;  returned  to  America  in  1875. 

2  Elements  of  Botany. 

JKT.  24,]  TO  HIS   FATHER.  55 

firm  friend  in  all  these  matters  :  I  am  determined  to 
persevere  for  a  little  while  yet  before  I  give  up  all 
hopes  from  science  as  a  pursuit  for  life.  I  have  now, 
and  expect  to  have,  a  great  many  discouragements, 
but  I  shall  meet  them  as  well  as  I  can,  until  it  shall 
seem  to  be  my  duty  to  adopt  some  other  profession 
for  my  daily  bread.  I  have  several  plans  before  me, 
some  of  which  you  would  think  rather  bold  ;  but  I 
have  not  yet  settled  upon  any  of  them.  As  soon  as 
I  take  any  steps  at  all  I  will  let  you  know.  .  .  . 

I  know  little  of  what  is  going  on  in  the  town.  I 
have  not  been  down  into  the  business  part  of  the  city 
over  five  or  six  times  since  I  have  been  here.  When 
Mr.  Rogers  comes  down,  if  he  will  let  me  know  where 
he  stops  in  season,  I  will  see  him.  I  shall  write 
again  to  some  of  you  in  a  very  short  time.  Let  me 
hear  soon  from  some  of  you,  and  though  I  have  here 
little  time  for  writing  letters,  I  will  give  punctual 
answers.  I  remain,  with  love  to  mother  and  all  the 
rest,  Very  truly  yours, 

A.  GRAY. 

NEW  YORK,  November  17,  1835. 

To-day  when  I  go  down  town  I  shall  subscribe  for 
the  "  New  York  Observer  "  for  you,  and  pay  for  a 
year.  The  "Observer"  and 'the  "Evangelist"  are 
both  excellent  papers,  and  I  hardly  know  which  to 
choose.  I  would  send  the  "  Evangelist,"  did  not  Mr. 
Leavitt  fill  it  up  too  much  with  anti-slavery.  One 
should  if  possible  read  both. 

I  am  now  boarding  at  286  Bleeker  Street,  but 
when  you  write  to  me  you  may  direct  as  before,  as 
I  am  at  Dr.  Torrey's  a  part  of  almost  every  day.  I 
have  a  very  comfortable  and  quiet  place,  for  which 

56  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1836, 

I  pay  $4  per  week,  and  keep  a  fire  besides,  which  I 
suppose  will  startle  you  a  little.  I  hope  to  obtain 
the  situation  of  curator  to  the  Lyceum  of  Natural 
History  in  the  spring,  when  their  new  building  is 
finished.  The  duties  of  the  situation  will  take  up 
only  a  part  of  my  time.  I  shall  have  under  my  charge 
the  best  scientific  library  and  cabinet  in  the  city,  a 
couple  of  fine  rooms  to  live  in,  and  a  salary  of  about 
'$300.  But  although  I  can  secure  pretty  strong  influ- 
ence, the  best  members  of  the  society  offering  me  the 
place  and  wishing  me  to  take  it,  yet  it  is  not  certain 
that  we  shall  bring  it  about,  so  I  say  nothing  about  it. 
I  shall  let  you  know  whenever  any  changes  offer  in 
my  situation. 


NEW  YORK,  July  11,  1836. 

DEAE  DOCTOK,  —  Since  your  departure  several 
memoranda  of  more  or  less  consequence  have  accu- 
mulated around  me,  and  (having  not  yet  heard  from 
you)  I  will  now  communicate  them,  together  with 
whatever  intelligence  I  think  will  interest  you.  To 
begin  with  the  most  important.  I  have  now  (5  P.  M.) 
just  returned  from  your  house,  where  I  found  a  parcel 
for  you  (received  by  mail  from  Philadelphia,  postage 
the  mere  trifle  of  $1.14|),  with  the  Hamburg  seal, 
and  the  handwriting  of  our  old  correspondent,  Pro- 
fessor Lehmann.  Suspecting  it  to  contain  advice  of 
packages  of  plants  or  books,  I  took  the  liberty  to  open 
it.  I  found  two  diplomas  in  high  Dutch.  Shade  of 
Leopoldino-Carolinese  Caesar,  academic  nature  curi- 
osorum !  Hide  your  diminished  head,  and  give  way  to 
the  Konigliche  Botanische  Gesellschaft  in  Regens- 
burg !  —  which  being  interpreted  means,  I  imagine, 
the  Royal  Botanical  Society  of  Regensburg.  Now  I 

^T.  25.]  TO    W.  J.  HOOKER.  57 

know  as  little  of  Regensburg  and  the  Regensburg  peo- 
ple who  have  done  us  such  honor  as  a  certain  old  lady 
did  of  the  famous  King  of  Prussia  ;  but  I  ratherly 
think  it  means  Ratisbon.  .  .  . 

Box  of  plants  and  box  of  bones  are  here  ;  the  plants 
certainly  look  the  more  antediluvian  of  the  two.  The 
specimens  are  wretched  and  mostly  devoid  of  interest. 
The  bones  will  be  served  up  at  the  Lyceum  this  even- 
ing. .  .  .  On  the  same  day  last  week  I  received  a 
letter  from  Dewey,1  and  another  from  Carey,  and  ac- 
cording to  both  their  accounts  they  must  have  been 
in  raptures  with  each  other.  Dewey  sends  love  to 
friend  Torrey,  and  Carey  kind  regards  to  Dr.  and 
Mrs.  T.  Dewey  says  Carey  is  rather  savage  upon 
species,  and  where  Carey  has  not  given  him  a  favora- 
ble opinion  upon  any,  it  would  amuse  you  to  see  how 
Dewey  has  detailed  them  to  me,  in  order  if  possible 
to  save  the  poor  creatures'  lives.  Dewey  has  a  good 
spirit  and  is  altogether  a  most  estimable  man,  and  I  am 
sorry  that  we  have  to  pull  down  any  of  his  work.  I 
must  write  him  a  few  things,  that  it  may  not  come 
upon  him  all  at  once.  ....  Yours  truly, 

A.  GRAY. 

TO   W.    J.    HOOKER. 

NEW  YORK,  April  7,  1836. 

DEAR  SIR,  —  I  take  the  opportunity  of  acknow- 
ledging the  receipt  of  your  two  kind  letters,  which 
reached  me  a  few  weeks  since  nearly  at  the  same  time, 
one  by  the  Liverpool  packet  and  the  other  by  the 
Lady  Hannah  Ellice.  Allow  me  also  to  thank  you 

1  Chester  Dewey,  1784-1887 ;  professor  in  Williams  College,  Massa- 
chusetts. Removed  to  Rochester,  N.  Y.,  1836,  where  he  died.  "  C^r- 
ried  on  the  study  of  Carex  and  published  on  them  for  more  than  forty 
years  "  [A.  G.j. 

58  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1836, 

for  the  trouble  you  have  taken  in  naming  the  set  of 
mosses,  and  especially  for  the  beautiful  parcel  of 
British  mosses  you  were  so  good  as  to  send  me,  which 
were  truly  welcome.  All  British  plants  are  so,  as 
I  have  next  to  none  in  my  herbarium ;  but  nothing 
could  be  more  acceptable  than  such  a  complete  and 
authentic  suit  of  the  mosses  of  your  country. 

As  to  the  Sandwich  Island  plants,  I  hardly  know 
what  to  say.  Supposing  they  might  be  of  some  use 
to  you  in  connection  with  other  collections,  I  copied 
the  brief  notes  I  made  on  studying  them  very  hur- 
riedly indeed,  and  placed  them  at  your  disposal.  I 
did  not  possess  sufficient  means  for  determining  them 
in  a  satisfactory  manner,  and  fear  I  have  committed 
errors  in  many  cases.  You  will  doubtless  detect  these 
at  once,  and  if,  on  the  whole,  you  think  proper  to  pub- 
lish them  in  the  "  Companion  to  the  Botanical  Maga- 
zine," may  I  ask  you  to  revise  the  paper,  and  freely 
make  such  corrections  and  alterations  as  you  think 
proper.  In  that  case,  if  you  think  the  notes  worthy 
of  publication,  I  should  not  object ;  yet  you  are  equally 
at  liberty  to  use  them  in  any  other  way.  The  parcel 
contained  a  specimen  of  a  Composita  (from  Mouna 
Kea)  which  puzzled  me  extremely,  and  I  was  unable 
to  ascertain  its  genus  by  Lessing.  The  anthers  are 
free,  or  slightly  coherent,  in  all  the  flowers  I  examined. 
Since  the  parcel  was  transmitted  to  you  I  have  seen  a 
specimen  of  Rhus  (from  Sandwich  Islands)  resem- 
bling the  one  in  the  parcel,  except  in  having  pubescent 
leaves.  The  latter  is  therefore  improperly  charac- 
terized, and  perhaps  will  prove  to  be  a  well-known 
species.  I  shall  hope  to  receive  other  and  more  com- 
plete specimens  from  Mr.  Diell,  and  if  I  am  so  fortu- 
nate will  gladly  share  with  so  esteemed  a  correspond- 

^T.  25.J  TO    W.  J.  HOOKER.  59 

ent  as  Dr.  Hooker.  I  hope  to  send  you  a  parcel  by 
the  first  opportunity  that  occurs  of  sending  direct  to 
Glasgow  ;  when  I  will  put  up  specimens  of  the  mosses 
you  desire,  and  will  send  a  copy  of  the  "  Gramineae 
and  Cyperaceae "  for  the  gentleman  at  Paris  who 
wishes  it. 

It  is  so  troublesome  and  expensive  to  get  them 
bound  that  I  should  much  prefer,  if  any  of  your 
friends  and  correspondents  should  desire  them,  to  send 
the  specimens  with  labels  and  loose  title-pages,  at  $4 
per  volume,  each  comprising,  as  you  are  aware,  one 
hundred  species.  I  may  in  that  way  furnish  larger  and 
often  more  perfect  or  more  numerous  specimens  than 
in  the  bound  copies.  I  hope  to  publish  the  third 
(and  perhaps  also  the  fourth)  volume  early  next 

Allow  me  to  express  my  thanks  for  your  kind  assist- 
ance in  various  ways,  and  to  say  that  I  shall  hereafter 
(D.  V.)  prosecute  the  study  of  our  lovely  science  with 
increased  zeal.  I  remain,  with  sentiments  of  the  high- 
est esteem, 

Your  much  obliged  friend,  ASA  GRAY. 

October  10,  1836. 

I  also  beg  your  acceptance  of  a  copy  of  a  little  ele- 
mentary botanical  work  published  last  spring.  I  do 
not  expect  it  to  possess  any  particular  interest  in  your 
eyes;  but  in  this  country,  unfortunately,  no  popular 
and  at  the  same  time  scientific  elementary  treatise 
has  been  generally  accessible  to  botanical  students, 
and  such  a  work  was  so  greatly  needed  that  I  felt 
constrained  to  make  the  attempt,  since  no  better- 
qualified  person  could  be  induced  to  undertake  the 

60  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1836, 

A  letter  which  Dr.  Torrey  has  just  received  from 
Mr.  Arnott  gives  me  the  information  that  you  have 
honored  my  attempt  at  a  monograph  of  Rhynchospora 
by  commencing  the  reprinting  of  it  in  the  "  Companion 
to  the  Botanical  Magazine."  I  might  justly  be  proud 
that  my  first  attempt  should  be  thought  worthy  such 
notice  ;  but  I  wish  it  had  been  delayed  until  you  could 
receive  the  monograph  "  Cyperacese  of  North  America  " 
of  Dr.  Torrey,  in  which  I  had  occasion,  in  the  revision 
of  our  Rhynchosporae,  to  make  some  important  altera- 
tions and  corrections,  as  well  as  to  introduce  a  new 
species  and  specify  some  additional  localities.  The 
paper  referred  to  I  hope  you  will  receive  with  this 

Except  a  few  extra  copies,  all  the  sheets  of  the  mon- 
ograph "  Rhynchosporae  "  were  destroyed  by  fire  soon 
after  being  printed,  and  when  reprinted,  about  a  year 
since,  I  added  a  few  observations,  notes  of  additional 
localities,  etc.  But  owing  to  a  want  of  careful  revi- 
sion I  find  there  are  several  errors  (several  of  which 
are  quite  material),  some  of  the  pen  and  others  of  the 
types.  I  hope  these  have  been  detected  and  corrected 
in  the  course  of  the  reprint.  I  send  herewith  the 
sheets  of  the  paper  as  published  here,  with  such  typo- 
graphical corrections  as  now  occur  to  me.  Would  it 
not  be  proper  to  append  a  reprint  of  the  revision  of 
Rhynchosporae  in  Dr.  Torrey 's  monograph,  a  copy  of 
which  I  hope  will  reach  you  with  the  present  letter. 
If  the  specimens  I  send  please  Mr.  Webb  I  shall  be 
glad.  It  is  the  last  perfect  set  I  have.  Please  make 
no  remittance,  since  the  sum  is  too  trifling,  and  more- 
over I  may  soon  have  some  favors  to  ask  as  to  its  dis- 
posal. Indeed,  I  know  not  why  I  should  not  state 
that  there  is  some  probability  that  I  may  soon  visit 

^T.  25.]  TO  HIS  FATHER.  61 

the  islands  of  the  South  Pacific  Ocean  as  a  bota- 
nist, in  the  exploring  expedition  now  fitting  out  un- 
der the  orders  of  our  government.  I  am  anxious  to 
engage  in  this  work,  and  I  suppose  may  do  so  if  I 
choose,  but  I  fear  that  the  expedition,  which,  if  well 
appointed  and  conducted,  may  do  much  for  the  ad- 
vancement of  the  good  cause  of  science,  may  be  so 
marred  by  improper  appointments  as  to  render  it  un- 
advisable  for  me  to  be  connected  with  it.  I  therefore 
at  present  can  merely  throw  out  the  intimation  that 
I  may  possibly  accompany  the  naval  expedition  which 
is  expected  to  sail  early  in  the  spring,  and  to  spend 
two  years  in  the  southern  portions  of  the  Pacific 
Ocean.  If  so  I  hope  to  decide  the  matter  in  time  to 
procure  many  needed  works,  etc.,  from  England  and 
France.  I  must  here  close  by  subscribing  myself, 
with  the  highest  respect, 

Your  obedient  servant,  ASA  GRAY. 


NEW  YORK,  October  8,  1836. 

You  may  recollect  that  I  intimated  to  you  that  there 
was  some  probability  of  my  changing  my  situation  be- 
fore a  great  while.  Matters  are  now  in  such  a  state 
that  it  becomes  proper  to  inform  you  that  I  shall  prob- 
ably be  offered  the  situation  of  botanist  to  the  scien- 
tific exploring  expedition,  now  fitting  out  for  the  South 
Sea  by  the  United  States  government.  This  is  to  be 
a  large  expedition,  consisting  of  a  frigate,  two  brigs, 
a  store-ship,  and  a  schooner  ;  it  is  to  be  absent  i  about 
three  years.  It  will  sail  possibly  in  the  course  of  the 
winter,  but  very  probably  not  until  spring.  The  scien- 
tific corps  will  consist  of  several  persons,  in  different 
departments  of  science,  and  the  persons  who  will  prob- 

62  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1836, 

ably  be  selected  are  mostly  my  personal  friends  :  two 
of  them  at  least  having  been  recommended  at  my  sug- 
gestion. The  quarters  offered  us,  and  the  accommoda- 
tions, will  be  ample  and  complete,  and  the  pay  will 
probably  be  considerable.  We  hope  to  obtain  over 
$ 2500  per  year.  Had  I  room  here  I  would  write  you 
further  particulars,  but  this  will  do  for  the  present. 
I  ask  whether,  if  everything  is  arranged  in  a  satisfac- 
tory manner,  you  are  willing  and  think  it  best  that  I 
should  go.  I  think  it  not  unlikely  that  the  appoint- 
ments will  be  made  during  the  present  month.  A 
few  days  ago  I  was  offered  the  professorship  of 
chemistry  and  natural  history  in  the  college  at  Jack- 
son, Louisiana  (in  the  upper  part  of  that  State,  near 
the  Mississippi  River),  with  a  salary  of  $1500  per 
year.  This  I  at  once  declined.  I  do  not  like  the 
Southern  States. 

Yours  affectionately,  A.  GKAY. 

NEW  YORK,  November  21,  1836. 

No  appointments  are  yet  made  in  the  scientific  corps 
of  the  South  Sea  expedition.  The  difficulties  as  to 
the  naval  officers  are  only  just  settled.  There  are  so 
many  who  wish  to  command  that  it  is  impossible  to 
please  them  all.  Captain  Jones,  the  commander,  is 
now  in  town,  and  I  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  him  this 
evening  at  the  Astor  hotel.  He  goes  to  Boston  to- 
morrow to  look  after  the  two  brigs  fitting  out  at  the 
navy  yard  there. 

The  Secretary  of  the  Navy  has  written  me  that 
when  the  appointments  are  made  in  the  scientific 
corps,  the  chief  naturalists  will  be  called  to  Washing- 
ton for  a  few  days,  for  the  distribution  of  duties 
among  them.  If  the  place  for  which  I  ask  is  given 

^T.  26.]  TO  HIS  FATHER.  63 

me,  it  is  not  unlikely  that  I  may  be  in  Washington 
early  next  month.  I  think  you  cannot  expect  E. 
and  myself  before  about  Thanksgiving  Day,  when  if 
she  should  have  recovered  we  shall  have  one  reason 
more  than  usual  for  returning  thanks  to  the  Author  of 
all  good.  You  did  not,  it  appears,  think  it  a  matter 
of  sufficient  consequence  to  say  anything  about  my 
contemplated  voyage ;  or  to  offer  even  an  opinion 
about  the  matter.  Perhaps  you  thought  that,  like 
most  people,  I  only  asked  advice  after  I  had  made  up 
my  own  mind ;  and  you  are  not  far  from  correct  in 
this  supposition.  Still  I  should  have  been  glad  to 
know  that  you  take  some  interest  in  the  matter. 

As  soon  as  anything  is  determined  upon  at  head- 
quarters I  will  let  you  know.  .  .  . 

March  21,  1837. 

Since  I  wrote  you  last  I  have  been  to  Washington. 
I  was  there  at  the  inauguration  and  for  a  few  days 
afterwards.  We  were  not  sent  for  by  the  Secretary 
of  the  Navy,  so  we  had  to  bear  our  own  traveling  ex- 
penses, which  were  not  small.  When  the  secretary 
chooses  to  convene  us,  which  he  seems  in  no  great 
hurry  to  do,  we  shall  probably  be  directed  to  meet  at 
Philadelphia,  or  perhaps  at  New  York.  There  seems 
to  be  no  doubt  but  that  we  shall  be  here  until  July. 

As  they  do  not  choose  to  advance  us  any  pay  yet, 
money  will  be  very  scarce  with  me  for  a  month  or  two 
at  least.  My  engagement  at  the  Lyceum  terminated 
at  the  close  of  their  year,  that  is,  on  the  last  Monday 
of  last  month.  So,  although  I  occupy  my  rooms  here 
until  the  first  of  May,  I  draw  no  salary. 

64  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1837, 


NEW  YORK,  November  9,  1837. 

DEAR  DOCTOR,  —  Your  letter  and  that  of  Mrs.  T., 
dated  November  7,  reached  me  this  afternoon,  to  which 
I  hasten  to  reply,  as  I  have  been  just  on  the  point  of 
writing  you  for  a  week  past,  but  have  waited  from  day 
to  day,  in  the  expectation  of  being  able  to  afford  you 
more  definite  information  than  I  could  have  done.  It 
is  this,  rather  than  want  of  time  or  inclination,  that 
often  causes  the  delay  in  writing  to  my  friends.  The 
intelligence  which  concerns  us  and  interests  our  friends 
comes  in  little  by  little,  day  by  day.  Thus,  for  in- 
stance, the  scientific  corps  were  ordered  to  report  here 
to  Commander  Jones  nearly  three  weeks  ago,  and  they 
have  been  here  waiting  for  a  long  time,  for  the  secre- 
tary had  neglected  to  inform  Jones  of  the  fact,  and  he 
had  come  back  to  his  home,  and  only  returned  here  this 
week.  t  However,  we  have  now  reported  and  shall  take 
possession  of  our  quarters  in  a  fortnight.  They  are 
now  undergoing  some  alterations.  We  have  appointed 
a  caterer,  advanced  each  $120,  and  our  stores  will  now 
be  soon  laid  in.  The  purser  of  our  squadron  to-day 
paid  us  four  months'  pay  in  advance,  a  very  seasona- 
ble assistance.  My  bills  having  been  approved  by 
the  government  I  am  now  paying  them  off,  and  must 
see  to  getting  all  my  materials  packed  up  and  sent  to 
the  vessels,  which  are  now  lying  at  the  navy  yard, 

This  will  employ  me  for  a  day  or  two.  It  is  impos- 
sible even  now  to  tell  you  the  time  of  sailing  with  any 
certainty.  My  opinion  is  that  we  shall  get  off  about 
the  first  or  before  the  10th  of  December.  It  is  certain 
that  the  ships  and  stores  will  not  be  ready  within 

^ET.  27.]  TO  JOHN  F.   TROWBRIDGE.  65 

three  weeks,  and  it  would  not  surprise  me,  after  what 
I  have  seen,  if  we  should  be  kept  back  longer  than 
you  expect.  Let  us  once  get  to  sea  and  you  will  not 
see  or  hear  of  so  much  dilatoriness  from  us. 

November  10.  I  was  prevented  from  closing  my 
letter  last  evening  by  the  calling  of  Professor  Henry, 
who  has  just  returned  from  a  visit  of  nine  months  to 
France  and  Great  Britain.  I  have  been  very  much 
engaged  all  day,  and  sit  down  now  for  a  little  time, 
hoping  to  finish  a  few  letters  which  have  been  delayed 
too  long  already. 

December  5. 

I  am  here  yet,  and  am  like  to  be  for  a  month  or  so. 
Commander  Jones  has  been  sick  for  two  or  three 
weeks,  and  I  am  sorry  to  say  there  seems  little  proba- 
bility that  he  will  be  much  better  ever.  He  has  a  bad 
cough,  and  raises  blood  —  is  of  a  consumptive  habit. 
As  he  has  been  growing  worse,  he  this  morning  left 
for  Philadelphia,  on  his  way  home.  It  is  thus  most 
probable  that  we  shall  have  a  new  commander,  and  a 
considerable  delay  is  unavoidable.  I  think  the  secre- 
tary will  be  put  right  this  winter  by  Congress. 

Do  let  me  know  how  Mrs.  Trowbridge  is.  Please 
send  this  note  to  my  father,  as  it  is  a  week  or  more 
since  I  wrote.  As  soon  as  anything  further  is  known 
I  will  let  you  know. 

Yours  very  tridy,  A.  GRAY. 

July  18,  1838. 

DEAR  TRO,  —  I  find,  by  turning  over  some  books 
that  have  been  lying  on  my  table,  four  reviews  which 
certainly  ought  to  have  been  sent  you  long  ago,  but 
which  have  been  forgotten  in  my  great  hurry  for  the 

€6  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1838, 

last  week  or  two.  I  will  send  them,  with  this,  to-mor- 
row ;  so  look  out  for  them.  I  have  not  heard  from 
you  since  I  wrote  you  a  pretty  long  epistle. 

On  the  10th  instant  I  tendered  my  resignation,  or 
rather  requested  to  be  left  out  in  the  new  arrangement. 
I  supposed  that  it  would  have  been  accepted  and  no 
words  made  ;  but  instead  Mr.  Poinsett  sends  me  word 
to  come  on  to  Washington  and  have  a  talk  with  him, 
to  learn  more  definitely  what  their  plans,  etc.,  are, 
and  thinks  he  will  be  able  to  remove  my  present  dis- 
satisfaction, and  if  not  says  I  may  have  leave  to  with- 
draw, but  urges  me  not  to  insist  upon  resigning 
without  coming  on  to  Washington.  Dana  and  Cou- 
thouy  are  also  invited  to  come  on,  Pickering  being 
already  there.  Though  this  request  reaches  me  in 
such  a  form  that  I  cannot  claim  my  traveling  ex- 
penses, and  probably  shall  not  get  them  (which  is  just 
like  this  nasty  administration),  yet  I  suppose  I  must 
go  on.  The  only  difficulty  is  that  I  am  afraid  they 
will  ply  me  with  such  strong  reasons  as  to  prevail  on 
me  to  hold  my  situation,  particularly  as  their  new 
plan  has  the  advantage  of  leaving  home  all  the  block- 
heads and  taking  the  best  fellows  ;  and  moreover  some 
other  very  promising  offers  that  I  had  have  not  been 
brought  to  bear  very  directly ;  in  fact  I  see  that  I 
should  get  nothing  satisfactory  from  them  for  a  year 
or  two.  I  intend  to  set  out  for  Washington  to-mor- 
row afternoon.  I  shall  endeavor  to  make  a  very  short 
stay,  and  if  I  come  to  any  determination  there  I  will 
try  to  let  you  know. 

I  have  scarcely  time  to  write  another  letter;  so 
please  send  this  up  to  my  father,  who  has  not  heard 
from  me  in  a  good  while. 

Yours  very  truly,  A.  G. 

JET.  27.J  TO  MRS.   TORREY.  67 


NEW  YORK,  August  6,  1838. 

I  have  resigned  niy  place  in  the  exploring  expedi- 
tion !  So  that  job  is  got  along  with.  I  have  been 
long  in  a  state  of  uncertainty  and  perplexity  about  the 
matter ;  but  I  believe  that  I  have  taken  the  right 
course.  I  leave  here  to-morrow,  and  am  obliged  to 
travel  as  fast  as  I  can  go  to  Detroit.  I  shall  drop 
this  note  on  the  road  somewhere :  probably  at  Utica. 
I  must  get  as  near  to  Detroit  as  possible  by  Saturday 
evening.  I  hope  to  return  in  the  latter  part  of  the 
month ;  and  intend  to  make  you  a  visit  on  my  way 


Friday  morning,  August  10,  1838. 

MY  DEAR  MRS.  TORREY,  —  The  place  from  which 
I  write  is  a  very  pleasant  and  flourishing  country  vil- 
lage ;  the  shire-town  of  Genesee  County,  forty-four 
miles  from  Buffalo  and  about  thirty-four  from  Roch- 
ester. Here  is  your  humble  servant  and  correspond- 
ent "  laid  up  for  repairs."  This  is,  you  may  say,  my 
first  stopping-place  since  I  left  New  York,  from  which 
place  I  am  distant  418  miles.  But  I  may  as  well 
begin  at  the  beginning.  I  left  home,  as  you  remem- 
ber, on  Tuesday  evening;  breakfasted  in  Albany, 
dined  at  Utica,  took  stage  immediately  for  Buffalo. 
We  took  our  supper  at  Chittenango,  which  Dr.  T. 
will  recollect  as  the  Ultima  Thule  of  our  peregrinations 
in  the  summer  of  1836,  and  near  which  place  we 
found  the  Scolopendrium.  Riding  all  night  we  were 
at  Auburn  (a  lovely  village)  by  daybreak,  and,  pass- 

68  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1838, 

ing  through  Geneva,  arrived  at  Canandaigua  in  time 
for  dinner.  We  reached  Avon,  on  the  Genesee 
Kiver,  by  sunset.  Here  is  a  famous  sulphur  spring ; 
and  people  crowd  the  dirty  hotels  and  boarding-houses 
to  drink  nasty  water.  We  reached  the  next  consider- 
able village,  LeRoy,  early  in  the  evening ;  but  our  next 
stage,  which  brought  us  to  this  place,  only  ten  miles, 
was  two  and  a  half  hours ;  so  it  was  about  midnight 
when  I  arrived  here,  in  a  very  pitiable  plight,  so 
thoroughly  exhausted  I  was  obliged  to  leave  the  coach 
and  betake  myself  to  rest.  •  I  was  very  unwilling  to  do 
this  so  long  as  I  was  able  to  ride,  as,  had  I  continued 
with  the  coach,  I  should  have  reached  Buffalo  early  in 
the  morning  and  in  time  for  the  steamboat,  in  which 
case  I  could  expect  to  reach  Detroit  Saturday  after- 
noon, making  only  four  days  from  New  York. 

I  find  myself  much  better  this  morning,  though 
weak,  and  so  unstable  about  the  epigastrium  that  I 
scarcely  dare  take  any  food.  I  have  been  debating 
with  myself  whether  to  go  on  directly  to  Buffalo  to- 
day, and  take  the  steamboat  of  to-morrow  morning 
for  Cleveland,  or  some  other  port  in  Ohio  that  I  may 
be  able  to  reach  by  Saturday  evening  ;  or  to  go  from 
this  place  directly  to  Niagara  Falls,  which  I  could 
reach  before  evening,  and  remain  there  until  Monday 
morning.  I  have  pretty  nearly  decided  upon  taking 
the  former  course,  as  I  shall  save  some  time  thereby. 
But  I  dread  a  tedious  ride  in  a  stagecoach.  In  either 
case  I  hope  to  have  an  opportunity  of  writing  again 
to-morrow  evening. 

I  met  Professor  Bailey,1  of  West  Point,  on  board 

1  Jacob  Whitman  Bailey,  1811-1857;  professor  in  the  Military 
Academy  at  West  Point.  One  of  the  earliest  students  of  American 
Algae,  and  distinguished  also  for  his  microscopic  researches  in  botany. 

MT.  27.]  TO  MRS.    TORREY.  69 

the  boat  in  which  I  came  up  the  river.  He  had 
called  the  evening  previous,  when  both  Dr.  Torrey 
and  myself  were  out.  He  informed  me  that  the  pro- 
fessorship of  chemistry,  etc.,  was  now  established  by 
law  on  the  same  footing  with  the  other  professor- 
ships at  West  Point,  and  that  the  pay  of  all  was  in- 
creased, so  that  it  is  now  equivalent  to  that  of  a  major 
of  cavalry ;  and  more  than  this :  he  has  been  success- 
ful in  obtaining  the  place  for  himself.  The  stage  is 
nearly  ready,  and  I  must  hasten.  Did  the  doctor 
meet  Mr.  Herrick?  I  have  been  thinking  that,  as 
they  do  not  know  each  other,  the  chance  of  their 
meeting  at  the  Astor  House  is  but  slight.  I  must 
have  given  both  him  and  yourself  no  little  trouble 
with  my  expedition  trappings  ;  and  if  Herrick  should 
conclude  to  stay  at  home  after  all,  which  is  not  un- 
likely, we  shall  lose  our  labor.  However,  tell  Dr.  T. 
that  I  will  do  as  much  for  him  whenever  he  fits 
out  for  an  exploring  expedition  ! 

CLEVELAND,  OHIO,  August  12,  1838,  — 
the  4th  day  of  my  pilgrimage. 

Ere  this  reaches  you,  a  letter  which  I  sent  to  the 
post-office  in  Batavia,  New  York,  will  probably  have 
come  to  hand.  The  coach  called  for  me  before  I 
had  finished,  and  I  was  obliged  to  take  my  portfolio 
in  my  hand,  and  finish,  seal,  and  address  the  letter  in 
the  coach  during  a  moment's  delay  at  the  stage- 
office.  I  arrived  at  Buffalo  a  few  minutes  after  sun- 
set ;  stopped  at  a  hotel  not  very  much  smaller  than 
the  Astor  House,  with  accommodations  scarcely  infe- 
rior. Learning  that  a  boat  was  to  leave  for  Detroit 
and  the  intervening  ports  that  evening  at  eight  o'clock  I 
secured  a  passage.  The  internal  organization  of  the 

70  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1838, 

Bunker  Hill  (and  I  believe  the  other  boats  on  the 
lake  are  not  materially  different)  is  rather  odd,  but 
very  well  adapted  to  answer  the  purpose  for  which  it  is 
intended.  All  the  boats  carry  large  quantities  of 
freight,  and  the  whole  space  beneath  the  main  deck  is 
occupied  by  merchandise,  and  by  the  boilers  and  fuel. 
The  deck  is  crowded  with  boxes,  bales,  and  casks, 
many  of  which  are  directed  to  places  in  the  far  West 
yet  so  distant  that  they  have  hardly  commenced  their 
journey.  The  after  part  is  occupied  chiefly  by  a  sort 
of  cabin  for  deck  passengers  (equivalent  to  steerage 
passengers),  in  which  men,  women,  and  children, 
Dutch,  Irish,  Swiss,  and  Yankee,  are  promiscuously 
jumbled.  It  is  infinitely  better,  however,  than  the 
steerage  of  packet-ships.  The  bow  of  the  boat  is 
occupied  by  a  different  set  of  passengers,  viz.,  eight  or 
ten  horses,  destined  to  draw  sundry  wagons  which 
now  occupy  a  very  conspicuous  situation  in  front  of 
the  promenade-deck.  You  would  suppose  there  was 
no  room  left  for  cabin  passengers.  On  the  contrary, 
their  accommodations,  though  by  no  means  splendid, 
are  really  very  comfortable  and  complete.  They 
occupy  what  in  a  North  River  boat  forms  the  prome- 
nade-deck, which  here  extends  nearly  the  whole  length 
of  the  vessel,  has  a  ladies'  saloon  entirely  separate 
from  the  gentlemen's  cabin,  and  three  or  four  private 
state-rooms  for  families.  The  gentlemen's  cabin  is 
fitted  up  with  state-rooms  with  three  berths  in  each, 
and  as  there  was  only  a  moderate  number  of  pas- 
sengers I  was  so  fortunate  as  to  secure  a  whole  state- 
room to  myself,  where  I  enjoyed  very  comfortable 
rest.  When  I  rose,  we  were  approaching  the  town  of 
Erie,  Pennsylvania.  I  made  an  attempt,  while  we 
were  detained  at  the  wharf,  to  get  on  shore  to  botanize ; 

JET.  27.]  TO  MRS.   TORREY.  71 

but  time  would  not  permit,  and  I  consoled  myself 
with  the  comfortable  reflection  that  the  dry  and  ster- 
ile gravely  banks  of  the  lake  were  not  likely  to 
afford  me  anything  worth  the  trouble.  We  had  a 
strong  head  wind  nearly  all  day,  so  that  our  progress 
was  not  very  rapid  :  the  surface  of  the  lake  was  cov- 
ered with  white-caps,  and  the  boat  pitched  so  as 
sadly  to  disturb  the  equanimity  of  a  great  part  of  the 
passengers.  Indeed,  although  I  was  at  no  time  sick, 
I  found  it  the  most  prudent  course  to  pass  a  large 
portion  of  the  time  in  a  recumbent  position  ;  and  I 
was  heartily  glad  when,  a  little  before  sunset,  we  came 
in  sight  of  Cleveland.  One  or  two  passengers,  des- 
tined for  Detroit,  etc.,  landed  to  pass  the  Sabbath 
here,  among  whom  was  Mr.  Baldwin  of  Philadelphia, 
the  machinist,  a  member  of  Mr.  Barnes'  church,  a 
very  able  and  interesting  man.  We  are  both  at  the 
same  hotel,  and  it  being  much  crowded  we  occupy 
rooms  which  open  into  each  other.  I  had  a  little 
time  before  night-fall  to  walk  through  the  city  (which 
will  ultimately  be  a  very  pleasant  place,  and  is  now 
flourishing,  but  like  most  Western  towns  in  a  very 
unfinished  state).  The  people  show  some  signs  of 
civilization :  they  eat  ice-cream,  which  is  sold  in  many 
places.  I  tried  the  article  and  found  it-  very  good,  — 
nearly  the  same  as  what  I  might  just  at  this  moment 
be  enjoying  at  30  MacDougal  Street,  were  I  now 
there  (as  I  wish  I  was),  for  it  is  more  than  probable 
that  the  notes  of  the  peripatetic  vender  are  falling 
upon  your  ear.  Returning  to  the  hotel  I  consulted 
the  city  directory,  and  read  an  account  of  the  early 
settlement  of  this  portion  of  the  State,  which  is  the 
famous  Western  Reserve  once  owned  by  Connecticut 
and  settled  mostly  by  citizens  of  that  State,  who 

72  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1838, 

brought  with  them  the  heretical  doctrines  and 
measures  which  caused  the  expulsion  of  the  Western 
Reserve  synod  last  year.  But  the  evening  is  ad- 
vancing, and  I  must  break  off;  and  hoping  that  the 
approaching  Sabbath  may  be  profitable  to  both  of  us 
and  that  you  may  be  blessed  with  comfortable  health 
and  strength  to  enjoy  it,  I  bid  you  good-night. 

Sunday  evening.  —  I  attended  the  First  Presbyterian 
Church  this  morning,  expecting  to  hear  Mr.  Aikin, 
the  pastor,  formerly  of  Utica ;  but,  instead,  we  heard 
President  McGuffey  of  Cincinnati  College,  who  is 
quite  a  celebrated  man  in  this  State. 

Detroit,  Tuesday  noon.  —  I  improve  the  first  mo- 
ment I  could  secure  for  the  purpose  to  continue  my 
letter,  hoping  to  fill  the  sheet  in  time  for  the  next 

On  Monday  (yesterday)  morning  I  went  botaniz- 
ing, but  found  absolutely  nothing.  I  kept  near  the 
shore  of  the  lake  that  I  might  see  the  first  steamboat 
that  came  in  sight,  and  one  was  momently  expected. 
It  did  not  arrive,  however,  until  eleven  o'clock,  and 
it  was  a  little  after  noon  before  we  were  under  way. 
The  wind  was  very  fresh,  and  the  billows  of  Lake  Erie 
would  not  have  disgraced  the  Atlantic.  It  was, 
however,  in  our  favor,  and  we  made  good  progress ; 
but  for  about  two  hours  we  had  to  run  in  the  trough 
of  the  sea,  so  that  the  boat  pitched  and  rolled  sadly. 
At  sunset  we  arrived  at  Sandusky  in  Ohio.  The 
entrance  to  the  bay  is  very  beautiful.  The  lake  is 
studded  with  islands  of  various  sizes,  all  covered  with 
trees,  with  here  and  there  a  house  or  a  cultivated 
field  upon  the  larger  ones.  It  was  dark  before  we 
left ;  the  water  was  still  rough.  I  went  into  the  cabin 
and  read  until  it  was  time  to  occupy  my  berth.  I  am 

JET.  27.]  TO  MRS.   TORRE  Y.  73 

not  sure  whether  I  told  you  that  I  had  lost  Bishop 
Berkeley.  I  left  it  behind  at  Avon,  where  I  was  too 
sick  to  think  about  it,  but  the  driver  promised  me 
faithfully,  for  value  received,  to  look  it  up  and  send 
it  to  the  stage-office  at  Buffalo,  where  I  may  find  it 
on  my  return. 

I  was  roused  this  morning  just  at  daybreak.  We 
were  just  at  Detroit.  I  established  myself  at  a  hotel, 
got  my  breakfast,  and  sallied  forth  to  survey  the 
town,  which  is  larger  than  I  supposed  and  most  beau- 
tifully situated.  As  soon  as  I  thought  your  friend, 
C.  W.  Whipple,  l  might  be  at  his  office  I  called  to 
pay  my  respects  and  deliver  the  doctor's  letter.  He 
was  not  in  ;  but  arrived  in  a  few  minutes.  He  is  a 
good-looking  man,  but  I  suspect  rather  older  and  a 
good  deal  fatter  than  when  you  knew  him.  His  black 
hair  has  a  few  silver  threads  mingled  with  it,  but  his 
countenance  is  youthful  and  most  thoroughly  good- 
natured.  "We  had  some  conversation ;  then  went  to 
see  Dr.  Pitcher,  but  he  was  not  at  home :  thence  to 
Dr.  Houghton's  house,  which  is  entirely  occupied  as  a 
store-house  for  the  stuff  collected  in  the  State  survey. 
It  is  astonishing  what  a  prodigious  quantity  of  labor 
Dr.  H.  and  his  companions  have  done  and  what  ex- 
tensive collections  they  have  made.  Dr.  H.  is  not 
now  at  home  but  is  expected  to-morrow.  We  went 
next  to  the  State-House,  but  did  not  find  Governor 
Mason  at  his  office.  We  looked  through  the  building, 
at  their  commencement  for  a  State  library,  etc., 
where  we  met  some  of  the  dignitaries  of  the  State. 

1  Charles  W.  Whipple,  died  in  1855.  Was  educated  at  West  Point, 
where  probably  he  was  a  pupil  of  Dr.  Torrey.  He  was  never  in  the 
army,  but  studied  law  and  practiced  in  Detroit ;  was  made  Judge, 
then  Chief  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Michigan.  Ex-officio 
regent  of  the  State  university. 

74  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1838, 

We  ascended  into  the  cupola  which  crowns  the  build- 
ing, where  we  have  a  most  beautiful  view  of  the  town 
and  region  round  about,  the  roads  all  diverging  from 
the  centre,  the  noble  river,  which  we  could  trace  from 
its  commencement  in  Lake  St.  Clair.  The  people 
are  evidently  very  proud  of  the  prospect.  By  the 
way,  I  hear  that  the  doctor's  protege  Dr.  Fischer  has 
been  here,  and  has  gone  on  to  Indiana  to  astonish 
the  people  with  his  new  fashion  of  blowing  up  rocks. 
He  has  performed  wonders  in  this  way  between  this 
place  and  New  York.  Whipple  thinks  they  will  have 
some  place  for  him  next  winter.  The  university 
branch  in  this  place  has  a  vacation  soon,  and  a  public 
examination  is  now  going  on  ;  thither  we  next  directed 
our  steps.  I  was  introduced  to  the  principal,  Mr. 
Fitch,  to  whom  they  give  a  salary  of  $1500  per  annum. 
I  am  informed  that  they  employ  no  teachers  or  princi- 
pals in  any  of  the  branches  without  first  submitting 
them  to  a  thorough  examination.  We  stayed  until 
the  examination  suspended  for  dinner,  when  I  returned 
to  my  room,  and  here  you  see  me  engaged.  —  Sunset. 
After  dinner  Mr.  Whipple  called  for  me,  and  we  went 
to  see  Governor  Mason  at  his  house.  We  were  intro- 
duced to  his  sisters.  .  .  .  They  live  in  a  very  good 
house,  quite  elegantly  furnished.  We  stayed  only  a 
few  minutes,  all  going  to  Whipple 's  office,  where  a 
meeting  of  the  board  of  regents  was  appointed  to  be 
held.  It  was  known  that  there  would  be  no  quorum, 
so  they  adjourned  until  Thursday,  when  Mr.  Mundy  is 
expected  back  from  New  York,  and  a  meeting  of  con- 
sequence will  be  held.  I  was  introduced  to  Chancel- 
lor Farnsworth  (who  wrote  me  from  the  committee), 
Major  Kearsley,  Judge  Brooks  (Whipple's  father-in- 
law)  and  others.  We  all  went  to  the  examination, 

MT.  27.]  TO  MRS.   TORRE Y.  75 

which  was,  as  usual,  very  stupid,  and  as  it  closed  we 
stopped  in  at  the  Catholic  church  —  cathedral  as  it  is 
called  —  and  saw  the  pictures,  of  which  there  are  sev- 
eral, some  of  them  valuable.  I  was  struck  with  a  por- 
trait of  St.  Peter,  a  stout  Paddy-looking  fellow  with  a 
heavy  black  beard  and  mustachios,  bare-footed,  lug- 
ging a  pair  of  keys  as  large  as  he  could  grasp !  We 
expect  nearly  all  hands  to  go  to  Ann  Arbor  on  Fri- 
day. All  speak  in  glowing  terms  of  the  beauty  of 
the  location  for  the  university.  I  had  a  few  minutes' 
conversation  with  Whipple  as  to  the  plan  of  buildings, 
etc.,  which  satisfied  me,  but  I  wait  for  more  informa- 
tion before  I  attempt  to  write  you  about  the  matter. 

I  am,  so  far,  pleased  on  the  whole  with  the  pros- 
pects here,  and  think  they  are  more  promising  than  I 
had  at  first  supposed.  I  must  break  off  again,  as  I 
see  Governor  Mason  has  come,  as  he  promised,  to  give 
me  a  call.  I  had  hoped  to  conclude  and  fill  the  sheet 
ere  this.  I  find  that  we  had  the  fortune  to  come 
through  the  lake  in  rather  slow  vessels.  There  are 
several  upon  the  lake  which  make .  the  trip  between 
Buffalo  and  Detroit  in  twenty-six  or  twenty-seven 
hours.  These  are  large  and  really  splendid  boats, 
carrying  little  freight,  with  richly  furnished  cabins. 
I  will  try  to  arrange  matters  so  as  to  come  down  in 
one  of  these  boats.  To-morrow  I  hope  to  botanize  a 
little.  .  .  .  Mr.  Whipple  has  also  asked  me  to  take  a 
ride  up  to  the  foot  of  St.  Clair  Lake.  Now  I  have 
nearly  filled  this  very  large  sheet,  and  it  is  so  dark  I 
can  hardly  see  to  finish.  I  shall  look  at  the  office  to- 
morrow for  a  letter  from  home. 

I  was  asked  to-day  if  I  would  stay  here  until 
toward  winter !  I  said  I  had  rather  on  the  whole  be 
excused ! 

76  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1838, 

How  are  the  girls  ?  I  must  write  to  them  specially 
as  soon  as  I  can.  Does  the  doctor  go  regularly  to 
market  every  morning  ?  I  hope  to  get  away  from 
here  early  next  week.  Best  remembrances  to  the 
doctor.  Adieu. 

DETROIT,  August  16,  1838. 

My  last  letter  left  here,  I  suppose,  in  yesterday 
morning's  boat,  and  will  reach  New  York  in  four  days. 
Since  its  last  date  nothing  whatever  has  transpired 
here  of  any  interest.  Dr.  Houghton  arrived  here  yes- 
terday morning,  and  as  it  was  a  rainy  day  I  spent 
near  the  whole  time  at  his  house.  He  is  a  very  ener- 
getic little  fellow,  and  the  account  of  his  adventures  in 
exploring  the  unsettled  portions  of  the  State  is  very 
interesting.  He  has  slept  in  a  house  not  more  than  a 
dozen  nights  since  the  commencement  of  his  surveys 
this  season.  Mr.  Whipple  was  somewhat  unwell,  and 
I  saw  him  but  for  a  few  minutes.  I  am  now  going 
round  to  his  office  to  read  the  newspapers,  as  a  mail 
from  New  York  must  have  arrived  this  morning. 

Thursday  evening.  —  I  spent  the  whole  morning 
with  Mr.  Whipple,  who  is  really  a  downright  clever 
fellow  in  both  the  English  and  the  Yankee  senses  of 
the  term.  We  compared  notes  fully  about  the  uni- 
versity and  everything  about  the  matter  we  could 
think  of.  I  obtained  all  the  information  he  could 
afford  me  about  what  they  were  doing,  and  con- 
templated doing.  I  told  him  fully  what  I  wished 
to  do,  and  in  everything  I  believe  we  understood 
each  other  and  agreed  wonderfully.  This  is  im- 
portant, because  Whipple,  although  secretary  of  the 
board,  is  not  a  member  ;  yet  he  is  the  moving  spirit  of 
the  whole,  and  throws  his  whole  energy  into  the  work. 
We  owe  the  plan  adopted  as  to  the  arrangement  of 

^T.  27.]  TO  MRS.   TORREY.  11 

buildings,  etc.,  to  him,  and  he  carried  it  over  consider- 
able opposition.  As  I  know  it  is  just  what  will  please 
the  doctor  I  mention  it  here.  It  is  to  have  the  profes- 
sor's houses  entirely  distinct  from  both  the  university 
building  and  the  dormitories  of  the  students.  The 
grounds  are  nearly  square,  and  are  to  be  entirely 
surrounded  by  an  avenue.  He  proposes  to  have 
a  university  building  for  lecture-rooms,  library,  lab- 
oratory, etc.,  but  to  contain  no  students  and  no 
families;  to  have  two  lateral  buildings  for  students 
and  the  tutors  who  have  the  immediate  charge  of 
of  them.  Then  to  build  professors'  houses  on  the 
other  side  of  the  quadrangle,  fronting  the  main  build- 
ing, each  with  about  an  acre  of  land  for  yard  and 
garden,  by  which  the  houses  will  not  only  be  away 
from  the  students,  but  at  sufficient  distance  from  each 
other  to  render  them  retired  and  quiet.  It  is  quite  a 
point  with  him  that  the  professors  shall  have  retired, 
comfortable  houses,  so  that  they  shall  be  subject  to  no 
annoyance.  By  the  way,  Whipple  informed  me  to-day 
of  something  that  had  turned  up  quite  unexpectedly. 
Your  old  friend  is  about  to  be  made  a  judge.  The 
appointment  is  expected  to  be  made  by  the  first  of 
next  month.  He  is  induced  to  accept  this  place  be- 
cause it  will  release  him  from  the  drudgery  of  pro- 
fessional business  and  give  him  nearly  six  months  of 
leisure  each  year :  which  leisure  he  wishes  to  devote 
to  the  interests  of  the  university.  This  will  make 
him  a  member  of  the  board  of  regents,  of  which  the 
judges  are  ex-officio  members. 

There  was  to  be  a  meeting  of  the  regents  this  even- 
ing ;  but  as  Lieutenant-Go vernor  Mundy  had  not 
arrived  there  was  no  quorum.  It  seems  that  Mundy 
has  not  managed  well,  and  has  allowed  the  plans  to 

78  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1838, 

be  delayed,  and  Davis,  instead  of  sending  the  plan  he 
promised,  is  coming  out  here  to  see  for  himself.  So 
it  is  probable  the  plans  will  not  all  be  in  for  a  month 
or  so.  Chancellor  Farnsworth,  the  chairman  of  the 
committee  appointed  to  confer  with  me,  called  to-day, 
but  I  was  out.  I  saw  him  this  evening.  Whipple  had 
repeated  to  him  the  substance  of  my  conversation  with 
him,  and  I  am  desired  to  commit  my  plans  to  writing, 
that  he  may  embody  it  in  his  report  at  the  next  meet- 
ing of  the  regents.  This  I  am  to  do  to-morrow  (D.  V.) 
and  to  call  on  the  chancellor  to-morrow  evening,  with 
Whipple,  to  talk  over  the  matter.  There  is  every  rea- 
son to  believe  that  my  propositions  will  be  adopted. 
I  say  nothing  about  the  subject  of  salary,  and  avoid  the 
matter's  being  broached  until  the  rest  is  settled.  I 
shall  leave  it  for  them  to  propose.  If  they  employ  me 
according  to  the  plan  I  shall  present,  they  can't  well 
avoid  offering  to  pay  me  handsomely.  Prospective 
appointments  will  be  offered  erelong  (the  coming  fall 
or  early  in  winter)  to  Professor  Henry,  Professor  Tor- 
rey,  and  perhaps  one  or  two  others.  Whipple  expressed 
a  desire  to  attempt  to  secure  Professor  Douglass 1  for 
the  department  of  engineering,  etc.  Everything  looks 
well.  The  board  are  determined  to  prescribe  a  course 
of  studies  and  training  which  shall  bring  the  school  up 
at  once  to  the  highest  standard.  I  do  not  think  that 
there  exists  another  board  of  regents  in  the  country 
that  will  compare  with  this  for  energy  and  capability. 
But  I  must  break  off,  as  I  have  a  pretty  important  lec- 
ture to  prepare  to-morrow.  I  am  afraid  that  these  long 

1  David  Bates  Douglass,  1790-1849.  He  held  the  professorship  of 
natural  philosophy  and  civil  architecture  in  the  University  of  New 
York,  and  was  afterward  president  of  Kenyon  College.  He  laid  out 
Greenwood  Cemetery. 

JET.  27.]  TO  MRS.    TORRE  Y.  79 

letters,  in  which  I  set  down  everything  that  happens 
from  morning  to  night,  will  prove  very  tiresome  to  you ; 
but  I  have  nothing  else  to  write  about.  I  am  anxious 
to  get  through,  when  I  will  return  as  fast  as  steam- 
boats and  railroads  will  carry  me. 

ANN  ARBOR,  August  20. 

I  snatch  the  few  moments  that  are  left  me  ere  the 
arrival  of  the  stage  that  is  to  take  me  to  Detroit  to 
complete  my  journal.  I  broke  off,  I  think,  late  on 
Thursday  evening.  On  Friday  I  kept  close  to  my 
room  until  I  had  finished  my  letter  to  Chancellor  Farns- 
worth.  I  sallied  out  about  4  p.  M.,  showed  my  letter 
to  Whipple,  who  approved  it  altogether  and  insisted 
upon  our  calling  on  the  governor  and  showing  it  to 
him,  in  order  that  he  might  drive  the  committee  a  lit- 
tle, if  it  should  be  necessary.  The  servant  told  us  his 
Excellency  was  not  at  home,  but  Whipple  insisted 
upon  his  looking  into  his  private  room,  before  he  was 
too  confident.  And  there  sure  enough  we  found  him. 
Mason  will  be  down  erelong  to  take  a  wife.  With 
his  approval,  the  letter  was  sent  round  to  the  chan- 
cellor. Whipple,  Pitcher,  Houghton,  and  myself 
spent  the  evening  at  the  chancellor's  residence,  a  very 
pretty  place.  Mrs.  Farnsworth  is  very  ladylike  and 
agreeable.  Both  the  chancellor  and  his  lady  are  from 
Vermont,  and  are  more  than  usually  intelligent.  In 
the  morning  I  started  alone  for  Ann  Arbor,  —  thirty 
miles  by  railroad,  and  ten  (the  road  not  being  com- 
pleted) by  stagecoach.  I  left  Detroit  at  nine  A.  M. 
(after  going  to  the  post  office  and  being  much  disap- 
pointed and  grieved  to  find  no  letter,  —  please  tell  the 
doctor  so),  and  reached  this  place  about  noon.  The 
location  is  really  delightful,  and  in  a  very  few  years  it 

80  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1838, 

will  be  the  prettiest  possible  place  for  a  residence. 
But  I  must  reserve  all  particulars  until  I  see  you,  if  I 
am  allowed  that  pleasure ;  for  although  there  is  an  at- 
tempt to  keep  me  here  until  after  the  arrival  of  Mr. 
Davis,  the  architect,  who  is  to  be  here  in  about  ten  days, 
yet  I  am  anxious,  deeply  anxious,  to  get  back  again.  If 
I  wait  his  arrival  I  shall  necessarily  be  detained  here 
until  about  the  10th  of  September.  It  would  be  desir- 
able on  many  accounts,  but  —  I  don't  mean  to  stay. 

The  grounds  for  the  university  are  very  prettily 
situated.  The  only  possible  fault  I  can  imagine  is 
that  they  are  too  level.  I  have  contrived  a  plan  for 
the  arrangement  of  the  grounds  which  gives  satisfac- 
tion to  the  members  of  the  board  here,  and  I  think 
will  suit  all.  I  brought  letters  to  Chief  Justice 
Fletcher  and  Judge  Wilkins.  I  spent  the  evening  at 
Dr.  Den  ton's,  one  of  the  regents,  with  several  gentle- 
men and  ladies,  married  and  unmarried.  It  having 
been  ascertained  that  I  was  unmarried,  it  was  sug- 
gested that  I  might  possibly  lose  my  heart ;  but  I  assure 
you  I  was  never  in  less  danger.  On  Sunday  attended 
the  Presbyterian  church  here.  The  pastor,  an  amiable 
and  very  pious  old  man,  was  to  preach  his  last  sermon 
to-day,  the  people  having  grown  too  wise  for  their 
teachers.  His  morning  discourse  from  the  textr 
"  Christ  commended  his  love  to  us  in  that  while  we 
were  yet  sinners,  "  etc.,  —  a  very  good  sermon.  In  the 
afternoon  his  farewell  discourse  was  from  Acts  xx.  32, 
and  did  honor  to  his  heart.  (The  stage  is  ready.) 
At  twilight  I  in  fancy  transported  myself  to  30  Mac- 
Dougal  Street,  where  yourself,  the  doctor,  and  the 
children  were  singing  your  evening  hymns.  I  sang  to 
myself,  as  well  as  I  could,  all  the  hymns  you  were 
singing,  as  I  supposed,  and  wished  myself  with  you. 

JET.  27.]  TO  MRS.   TORREY.  81 

This  morning  I  have  been  botanizing,  and  have  se- 
cured for  the  doctor  some  specimens  (clusters  of 
Eshcol)  of  this  goodly  land.  So  be  prepared  for  a 
very  favorable  report.  My  pen  is  abominable,  and 
I  have  not  another  moment. 

(DETKOIT),  8.30,  Monday  evening,  August  20. 

A  pleasant  afternoon  ride  brought  me  back  again 
to  this  place,  where  my  first  care  was  to  run  to  the 
post  office,  nothing  doubting  that  I  should  find  a  let- 
ter ;  but  I  was  wof ully  disappointed,  and  yet  it  is  the 
20th  of  the  month !  This  is  too  bad.  Do  beseech  the 
doctor  to  write  ;  and  especially  if  I  should  be  detained 
here  until  the  fourth  or  fifth  day  of  next  month,  as  I 
fear  may  be  necessary,  ask  him  to  write  every  other 
day  until  you  hear  from  me  again. 

I  am  glad  to  get  back  here  again  on  one  account. 
The  fare  here,  which  is  no  great  matter,  I  assure  you, 
is  excellent  compared  with  the  hotel  at  Ann  Arbor. 
Indeed,  I  have  not  taken  my  place  at  a  single  dinner- 
table  for  ten  days  without  being  reminded  of  Charles 
Lamb  and  his  memorable  essay  on  Roast  Pig.  Here 
he  might  riot  in  his  favorite  dish  (which  is  in  my 
opinion  wretched  stuff),  as  one  of  the  aforesaid  juve- 
nile quadrupeds,  with  a  sprig  of  parsley  in  his  mouth, 
has  been  regularly  presented  to  my  eyes  ever  since  I 
left  the  State  of  New  York.  I  am  sadly  bothered  as 
to  the  course  I  should  take.  I  suppose  I  might  be 
able  to  leave  here  on  Thursday  of  this  week,  and,  stay- 
ing over  Sabbath  at  Oswego  (making  no  stay  at  the 
Falls),  arrive  at  my  father's  Tuesday  evening,  and  at 
New  York  on  Friday  morning.  But  before  I  could 
reach  New  York,  Mr.  Davis,  according  to  his  appoint- 
ment, would  be  at  Detroit,  and  it  is  possible  that  a 

82  EARLY   UNDERTAKINGS.  [1838, 

very  few  days  would  enable  us  to  settle  almost  every- 
thing about  the  arrangement  of  the  grounds,  the  in- 
ternal disposition  of  the  university  building,  and  the 
plan  of  professors'  houses.  I  feel  so  strong  a  hope 
that  the  doctor  will  be  persuaded  to  take  a  professor- 
ship that  I  have  fixed  upon  the  place  for  his  house, 
should  my  plan  for  the  arrangement  of  the  grounds 
be  adopted.  And  I  am  very  desirous  to  return  to  you 
with  the  plans  in  my  hands,  that  I  may  submit  them 
to  Dr.  T.,  Prof.  Henry,  etc.,  in  time  to  correct  our 
mistakes  and  suggest  improvements.  I  see  also  that 
if  I  leave  now  (although  I  have  explained  that  I  made 
arrangements  on  leaving  to  be  back  by  the  first  of 
September,  and  that  it  is  very  necessary  I  should 
return  by  that  time),  I  should  lose  much  of  the  in- 
fluence I  have  acquired,  and  it  is  more  than  probable 
that  some  error  would  be  committed  that  we  should 
not  see  in  time  to  rectify. 

I  am  anxious  that  the  proper  means  should  be 
adopted  to  supply  the  university  and  houses  with 
water  in  abundance,  and  at  such  a  level  that  it  can  be 
taken  into  the  second  story  of  the  professors'  houses ;  I 
think  you  may  imagine  one  reason  why  I  am  so  solicit- 
ous about  this  matter.  I  was  pleased  to  find  on  my 
arrival  here  that  this  subject  had  already  received 
much  attention,  and  there  is  a  determination,  on  the 
part  of  nearly  all  the  regents  I  have  conversed  with, 
to  effect  this  object  at  whatever  expense.  Of  the  dif- 
ferent plans  in  contemplation  only  one,  I  think,  will 
effectually  answer  the  purpose.  I  have  some  hope 
that  the  subject  will  be  acted  upon  at  the  first  meet- 
ing after  Mr.  Davis  arrives.  Before  that  time  I  sus- 
pect we  shall  not  be  able  to  secure  the  quorum  neces- 
sary for  the  transaction  of  this  and  other  matters  of 

JST.  27.]  TO  HIS  FA  THER.  83 

business.  I  hope  also  to  secure  an  appropriation  for 
the  library,  and  philosophical  and  chemical  appa- 
ratus. I  feel  pretty  confident  of  accomplishing  this 
result  by  early  autumn. 

This  is  my  last  entire  sheet  of  large  paper,  so  you 
may  expect  no  more  such  tedious  letters,  unless  I  find 
more  like  it.  But  if  I  do  not  hear  from  you,  and  that 
speedily,  I  shall  be  very  unhappy.  Ask  Dr.  T.  to 
open  any  letters  that  may  have  come  from  Norfolk  or 
Washington,  and  apprise  me  of  the  contents,  or  take 
any  steps  that  become  necessary.  Adieu,  my  dear 
friend.  May  our  Heavenly  Father  bless  and  keep  you 
and  yours  is  the  sincere  prayer  of  your  attached, 

A.  GRAY. 


NEW  YORK,  October  1,  1838. 

DEAR  DOCTOR,  —  My  arrangements  are  now  so  far 
completed  that  I  may  say,  with  as  much  confidence  as 
we  may  speak  of  any  event  subject  to  ordinary  con- 
tingencies, that  I  hope  to  sail  for  London  on  the  first 
of  next  month.  I  am  of  course  hard  at  work  ;  there  is 
no  need  to  tell  you  that.  The  second  part  of  "  Flora  " 
we  hope,  by  hard  work,  to  have  published  about  the 
20th  inst.  Yours  truly, 

A.  GRAY. 


NEW  YORK,  November  7,  1838. 

I  expect  to  sail  to-morrow  for  Liverpool  in  the 
packet-ship  Pennsylvania,  unless  the  weather  should 
prove  unfavorable,  which  is  not  unlikely.  The  sailing 
has  already  been  postponed  one  day,  much  to  my  relief, 
as,  although  I  have  not  taken  off  my  clothes  for  two 


nights,  I  am  not  yet  quite  ready.  I  hope  to  get  every- 
thing in  order  before  I  sleep.  You  can  write  to  me 
readily  at  any  time. 

I  have  worked  very  hard  for  a  few  weeks  past,  but  I 
shall  now  have  a  fine  time  to  rest.  I  am  in  very  good 
health  and  spirits. 

Mrs.  Torrey  has  a  fine  boy  a  few  weeks  old,  and  is 
doing  well.  Kind  remembrances  to  all,  in  haste, 

Good-by,  A.  G. 


SHIP  PENNSYLVANIA,  9th  November,  1838. 
MY  DEAR  MOTHER,  —  These  few  lines  will  be  sent 
on  shore  in  a  few  minutes  by  the  pilot,  and  will  soon 
reach  you.  We  shall  be  out  of  sight  of  land  in  less 
than  two  hours  more,  with  a  fine  breeze.  The  ship 
has  some  motion,  but  I  am  not  at  all  sick  yet.  We 
have  a  fine  ship  and  every  prospect  of  a  speedy  voy- 
age. I  shall  write  at  once  from  Liverpool.  Good-by 
again  to  all.  Letters  are  called  for.  Good-by;  re- 
member me  in  your  prayers. 

Your  affectionate  son,  A.  GRAY. 




IT  has  been  deemed  expedient  to  give  a  somewhat 
fuller  narrative  of  Dr.  Gray's  first  visit  to  Europe 
than  of  his  subsequent  ones.  It  was  then  that  he 
formed  many  personal  acquaintances  which  ripened 
into  lifelong  friendships,  and  received  his  first  im- 
pressions of  scenes  in  nature  and  art  which  were  to 
become  very  familiar.  His  letters  home  took  the  form 
of  a  very  detailed  journal,  and  it  is  in  extracts  from 
this  journal,  supplemented  by  letters  to  other  friends, 
that  this  narrative  consists. 


ADELPHI  HOTEL,  LIVERPOOL,  12  M.,  December  1,  1838. 
We  came  up  the  Channel  with  a  gentle  breeze,  and 
anchored  at  half-past  nine.  At  ten  minutes  past  ten 
I  set  my  feet  on  the  soil  (or  rather  the  stone)  of  Old 
England.  We  were  very  fortunate  in  our  ship,  hav- 
ing made  our  voyage  in  twenty-one  days ;  while  the 
England  (in  which,  you  may  remember,  I  once  had  in- 
tended to  sail),  which  left  New  York  on  the  first  of 
November,  came  to  anchor  just  ten  minutes  before  us 
(thirty  days).  The  Garrick,  which  sailed  on  the 
twenty-fifth  of  October,  arrived  here  only  on  Saturday. 
I  must  close  this  letter  early  in  the  morning.  .  .  . 

86  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1838, 

Evening.  —  This  short  English  day  has  been  occu- 
pied in  good  part  in  getting  my  luggage  from  the  ship 
and  through  the  custom  house.  I  sallied  out  a  little 
past  nine  in  the  morning ;  went  first  of  all  to  a  tailor 
and  ordered  a  coat  (which  is  to  be  finished  and  de- 
livered this  evening) ;  then  dispatched  my  letters  for 
home  by  the  United  States ;  found  our  own  ship  just 
going  into  dock  (what  docks  they  are  !  but  as  we 
have  always  plenty  of  water  we  do  not  so  much  need 
them  in  New  York) ;  arranged  my  luggage,  and  then 
proceeded  all  hands  to  the  custom  house  (a  large 
new  building,  rather  imposing  in  appearance),  where 
I  was  detained  until  past  three  o'clock.  I  had  fifteen 
pounds  of  books  to  pay  duty  upon  (fifteen  shillings), 
and  nothing  to  complain  of  as  to  the  manner  of  the 
examination.  .  .  .  After  dinner,  visited  the  market, 
which  on  Saturday  evening  is  full  and  busy.  It  is 
about  twice  the  size  of  all  the  New  York  markets  put 
together,  and  a  sight  well  worth  seeing.  I  examined 
everything  scrutinizingly,  but  will  not  trouble  you 
with  my  observations.  .  .  . 

Sunday  evening,  December  2.  —  Went  this  morn- 
ing to  the  chapel  of  the  school  for  the  blind.  The 
chanting  and  singing  was  very  fine,  and  the  sight  an 
interesting  one.  But  to  me  the  solemnity  of  the 
church  service  is  by  no  means  increased  by  being 
chanted  ;  heard  a  tolerable  sermon.  In  the  evening 
heard  Dr.  Raffles.1  His  chapel  is  a  gloomy  structure 
externally,  but  very  neat  and  comfortable  within.  Dr. 
R.  preached  the  first  of  a  series  of  discourses  "  On  the 
most  remarkable  events  in  the  early  history  of  the 
Israelites,"  commencing  with  the  bondage  in  Egypt, 

1  Dr.  Thomas  Raffles ;  a  distinguished  Congregational  clergyman 
in  Liverpool  from  1812  to  1863. 

MT.  28.]  JOURNAL.  87 

which  was  the  subject  this  evening;  a  very  good 
sermon,  delivered  in  an  impressive  (but  rather  pom- 
pous) manner.  I  am  very  anxious  to  get  to  Glasgow. 
I  have  been  living  in  society,  for  the  last  three  weeks, 
by  no  means  to  my  taste,  and  most  of  them  are  still 
here.  It  is  not  very  pleasant  to  spend  a  Sabbath 
alone  at  a  hotel ;  but  I  suppose  I  must  needs  become 
accustomed  to  it. 

I  was  not  fully  aware,  until  yesterday,  how  much 
cause  we  had  for  thankfulness  at  our  safe  arrival.  The 
gales  which  we  encountered  off  the  Irish  coast  have 
caused  a  great  number  of  shipwrecks,  and  it  is  feared 
that  many  lives  are  lost.  The  England  escaped  most 

Feather's  Inn,  Chester,  Monday  evening.  —  I  have, 
my  dear  friend,  the  singular  pleasure  of  writing  and 
addressing  to  you  another  leaf  of  my  journal  from  a 
city  which  was  founded,  according  to  the  directory 
which  lies  before  me,  "  in  the  year,  917  B.  c.,  at  which 
time  Jehosaphat  and  Ahab  governed  Israel  and 
Judah,"  —  the  only  walled  and  fortified  city  in  Eng- 
land of  which  the  walls  are  yet  in  a  state  of  preserva- 
tion. The  city  was  rebuilt  by  Julius  Caesar,  and  was 
an  important  Roman  station ;  and  there  yet  remain 
many  vestiges  of  Roman  occupancy ;  a  hypocaust  is 
still  to  be  seen  under  the  hotel  in  which  I  am  now 
staying,  —  so  it  is  said,  for  I  have  not  yet  seen  it, 
having  arrived  here  after  dark.  But  I  expect  to  be 
very  much  interested  in  this  queer  old  town,  for  which 
I  owe  thanks  to  Dr.  Torrey,  since  it  was  his  recom- 
mendation that  induced  me  to  come  here.  I  have 
scampered  about  the  streets  this  evening,  bought  some 
lithographic  views,  studied  the  directory,  and  am  pre- 
pared for  a  busy  day  between  Chester  and  Eaton 

88  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1838, 

Hall,  should  I  live  till  to-morrow.  But  it  is  time  I 
should  tell  you  briefly  how  I  got  here.  This  morning 
soon  after  breakfast  I  walked  out  to  the  Botanic 
Garden,  delivered  a  note  of  introduction  to  Shep- 
herd,1 who  received  me  rather  politely,  inquired  after 
Dr.  Torrey,  and  showed  me  through  the  greenhouses. 
The  establishment  is  not  where  it  was  when  Dr.  T. 
was  here,  but  was  removed  further  out  of  town,  two 
or  three  years  ago.  The  garden  occupies  eleven  acres ; 
the  site  is  well  chosen ;  but  being  newly  planted  there 
is  of  course  little  to  see.  The  hothouses  are  very 
well,  but  not  extensive ;  the  collections  not  particu- 
larly interesting,  except  for  some  old  plants  that  have 
belonged  to  the  establishment  many  years. 

I  took  my  cloak  and  umbrella  (necessary  articles 
these  !),  and  at  3  P.  M.  crossed  the  Mersey  in  a  small  un- 
comfortable black  steamboat,  about  as  much  inferior 
to  our  Hoboken  or  Brooklyn  ferry-boats  as  a  Barne- 
gat  wood-schooner  is  to  a  packet-ship  ;  and  at  Birk- 
enhead  took  an  outside  seat  for  Chester  (ten  miles), 
though  it  rained  often  and  blew  hard  and  cold ;  had 
a  good  view  of  the  country  until  about  five  miles  from 
Chester,  when  it  grew  dark ;  saw  little  villages,  farm- 
houses and  cottages,  cows,  etc.,  all  of  which  is  much 
more  interesting  to  me  than  the  smoky  town  of  Liver- 
pool. I  have  seen  several  little  things  that  are  new 
to  me.  Let  us  see  what  I  can  recollect  at  the  mo- 
ment. Hedges  of  holly  —  those  I  am  pleased  with, 
particularly  when  sheared  and  clipped.  The  prettiest 
fence  is  a  stone  wall  over-topped  with  a  close  hedge  of 
holly.  Ivy  in  profusion  covering  great  walls,  trees, 
etc.,  etc.,  —  we  have  nothing  to  compare  with  it ;  a 

1  John  Shepherd,  b.  1764.  For  thirty-five  years  at  the  Liverpool 
Botanic  Garden. 

JET.  28.]  JOURNAL.  89 

flock  of  rooks,  —  very  like  crows,  but  larger ;  an 
English  stagecoach,  — more  of  that  anon ;  a  coach  and 
four  with  postilions,  —  fine.  But  I  must  stop 

P.  S.  —  Liverpool  again,  Tuesday  evening.  —  I  have 
accomplished  a  good  day's  work  to-day.  Rose  early, 
made  the  circuit  of  the  city  of  Chester  on  the  walls 
before  breakfast,  explored  all  about  the  town  ;  visited 
the  cathedral,  walked  to  Eaton  Hall,  four  miles  and 
back  again ;  and  then,  finding  there  was  no  coach  in 
the  morning  until  nine  o'clock,  took  an  evening  coach, 
and  returned  here  ten  p.  M.,  much  gratified,  but  a 
little  fatigued ;  so  good-night.  A.  GT. 

GLASGOW  (WOODSIDE  CRESCENT),  December  12,  1838. 

I  do  not  just  now  feel  like  a  traveler.  I  have  been 
for  almost  a  week,  if  not  at  home,  yet  the  next  thing 
to  it,  in  the  truly  hospitable  mansion  of  our  good 
friends  here,  where  I  was  received  with  that  cor- 
dial kindness  which  you,  having  experienced  before 
me,  can  well  understand.  Indeed  I  owe  it  chiefly  to 
you,  who  I  assure  you  are  not  forgotten  here.  Ecce 
signum.  Both  Sir  William  and  Lady  Hooker  call  me, 
oftener  than  anything  else,  by  the  name  of  Dr. 
Torrey.  I  answer  to  the  name  promptly,  and  am 
much  flattered  to  be  your  representative. 

I  have  just  stuck  fast  here,  busy  among  the  plants 
from  morning  till  night.  I  have  been  out  of  the  house 
but  twice  (except  to  church  on  Sunday)  :  once  a  walk 
into  town  with  Mr.  Hooker,  Senior  (kind  and  amiable 
old  man,  who  insists  upon  taking  me  about,  and  show- 
ing me  whatever  he  showed  you),  and  once  with  Sir 
William  to  the  Botanic  Garden.  I  am  anxious  to  im- 
prove every  moment  here,  where  there  is  so  much  to 

90  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1838, 

be  done  and  such  ample  means.  Arnott  has  written, 
inviting  me  to  spend  some  time  with  him,  which  I 
hope  to  do,  visiting  him  from  Edinburgh,  there  being 
now  no  coach  to  Stirling  or  Kinross,  from  Glasgow 
direct.  .  .  .  Sir  William  has  given  me  many  interest- 
ing plants ;  we  have  settled  many  points  of  interest. 
He  had  our  new  Nuttallia  all  figured  for  the  Supple- 
ment to  "Flora  Borealis  Americana"  as  a  new  genus, 
and  we  have  recently  found  it  among  plants  from  the 
Snake  country,  which,  with  Douglas's  and  other  Cali- 
fornian  plants,  he  is  publishing  as  a  supplement  to 
"  Beechey's  Voyage."  I  begged  him  to  adopt  the 
name  Nuttallia.  He  offered  at  once  to  publish  it  as  of 
Torrey  and  Gray,  but  I  would  not  consent  to  this,  and 
I  am  sure  you  would  agree  with  me.  He  has  in  dif- 
ferent ways  a  great  share  of  NuttalTs  so  far,  —  Pick- 
eringia  for  instance  (which  is  a  shrubby  Baptisia), 
Kentrophyta,  etc.  I  shall  be  kept  here  ten  days 
longer,  I  think ;  no  one  else  abroad  is  so  rich  in  North 
American  botany  or  takes  so  much  interest  in  it.  I 
am  requested  to  study  all  his  Sandwich  Island  plants 
(including  my  own  parcel  here),  and  make  an  article 
for  the  "  Annals  of  Natural  History  "  while  here.  I 
think  I  will,  if  on  looking  over  the  parcels  I  think  I 
can  do  the  subject  justice.  Can't  Knieskern  l  safely 
make  the  excursion  to  Sante  Fe  in  the  coming  spring  ? 
If  he  can,  and  will  work  hard,  he  will  make  $1000 
clear  of  expenses!  All  the  collectors  make  money. 
Hooker  is  very  anxious  about  it.  I  hope  to  find  the 

1  Peter  D.  Knieskern,  M.  D.,  1798-1871.  "  Botanized  over  the 
pine-barrens  of  New  Jersey  with  utmost  assiduity  and  skill,  a  simple- 
hearted,  unpretendingly  good  and  faithful  man.  .  .  .  Few  botanists 
have  excelled  him  in  their  knowledge  of  the  plants  of  the  region  in 
which  he  resided,  and  none  in  zeal,  simplicity,  and  love  of  science  for 
its  own  sake."  —A.  G. 

^T.  28.]  TO  JOHN   TORREY.  91 

fifty  copies  of  "  Flora  "  at  Wiley  &  Putnam's  on  reach- 
ing London.  I  hope  you  have  seen  the  partner  at 
New  York  on  the  subject,  and  that  the  "  Flora  "  will 
be  advertised  fully  in  London  before  I  reach  there. 
But  I  must  close.  Don't  fail  to  write  very  often.  Sir 
William  and  Lady  Hooker  and  all  the  family,  old, 
young,  and  middle-aged,  all  send  their  most  affection- 
ate regards.  I  sit  over  against  your  portrait  at  din- 
ner. It  is  very  like  you.  .  .  . 

KINROSS,  Wednesday  evening1,  January  2,  1839. 

My  journal  will  inform  you  of  all  my  movements 
and  doings,  and  also  of  the  arrival  of  your  welcome 
letter  by  the  Liverpool,  while  I  remained  at  Sir 
William's.  I  am  much  distressed  at  the  thought  of 
your  anticipated  engagements  with  Princeton,  and 
wish  very  much  that  you  could  have  felt  yourself 
warranted  in  delaying  until  after  the  expected  meet- 
ing of  the  regents  of  the  Michigan  university,  which 
was  to  take  place  on  the  10th  of  December.  While 
there  is  the  slightest  hope  remaining  I  do  not  like 
to  relinquish  the  thought  that  we  may  hereafter  work 
together  and  live  near  each  other.  The  fear  that  this 
may  not  be  the  case  has  of  late  rendered  me  much 
more  anxious  to  obtain  books  and  specimens,  in  order 
that  I  may  get  on  by  myself  in  case  I  shall  be  com- 
pelled to  work  alone.  I  need  not  attempt  to  tell 
you  how  much  I  have  enjoyed  my  visit  to  Hooker. 
He  is  truly  one  of  Nature's  noblemen.  We  worked 
very  hard  for  twenty  days,  and  I  would  have  been 
glad  to  have  stayed  as  much  longer ;  for  as  yet  I  have 
looked  into  few  books.  All  the  collections  of  Carex 
placed  in  Boott's  hands  have  been  returned  to  Hooker, 

92  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

and  I  assisted  him  in  arranging  them  and  selecting 
for  his  herbarium ;  in  the  course  of  which  I  have 
obtained  specimens  of  nearly  all  the  Northern  and 
Oregonian  ones,  including  one  or  two  which  have 
come  in  recently,  of  which  I  have,  when  there  were 
duplicates,  specimens  also  for  you.  The  return  num- 
bers of  those  sent  you  were  in  many  cases  strangely 
misplaced,  and  Boott  has  often  been  sadly  confounded. 
He  has  studied  the  genus  very  critically,  hypercriti- 
cally  I  may  say;  for  he  makes  new  species  where  we 
should  think  there  were  too  many  already.  We  went 
over  Hooker's  Grasses  in  the  same  way,  and  I  have 
obtained  numerous  specimens  and  much  useful  infor- 
mation which  we  shall  presently  require.  On  Christ- 
mas day  Joseph  Hooker  selected  from  a  large  Van 
Dieman's  Land  collection  a  suite  of  specimens  as  far 
as  they  have  been  studied  (to  Calyciflorae),  in  which 
there  is  in  almost  every  instance  a  specimen  for  each 
of  us.  .  .  . 

In  looking  over  the  recent  collections  from  the 
Snake  country,  and  Douglas's  Californian,  I  recog- 
nized a  great  portion  of  NuttalTs, 1  but  by  no  means 
all.  There  was  a  single  specimen  of  Kentrophyta  in 
excellent  fruit;  another  of  Astrophia,  with  neither 
flower  or  fruit,  collected  long  ago  by  Scouler  and 
mixed  in  with  a  species  of  Hosackia,  to  which  genus 
I  am  not  sure  that  it  is  not  nearly  allied.  Nuttall  has 
made  too  many  Hosackias  !  The  copy  of  "  Flora," 
with  my  notes,  has  gone  round  to  London,  so  that  I 
cannot  now  communicate  many  curious  things  noted 
in  the  second  part.  But  how  did  we  overlook  the 

1  Thomas  Nuttall,  1784-1859  ;  a  great  traveler  and  explorer.  Came 
to  the  United  States  in  1807.  His  writing's  are  intimately  connected 
with  the  development  of  North  American  botany. 

^T.  28.]  TO  JOHN   TORRE  Y.  93 

Hosackia  crassif olia  twice  over !  I  am  glad  you  have 
the  fruit  of  Chapmannia.  I  am  a  little  afraid  of  Sty- 
losanthes,  of  which  there  is  a  sort  of  monograph  by 
Vogel  in  the  current  volume  of  the  "  Linnaea ;  "  but  no 
plurifoliate  ones  appear.  Hooker  has  a  curious  new 
genus  of  Chenopodiacese,  from  the  Kocky  Mountains, 
figured  for  the  "  Icones,"  which  he  wishes  to  call 
Grayia!  I  am  quite  content  with  a  Pig-weed;  and 
this  is  a  very  queer  one. 

At  Glasgow,  although  my  stay  was  prolonged  to 
twenty  days,  I  was  unable  in  that  time  to  accomplish 
all  I  wished  with  Hooker ;  and  you  may  be  sure  we 
lost  no  time,  and  that  I  could  spare  very  little  to  visit 
those  objects  of  interest  passing  by.  I  did  not  omit, 
however,  as  you  may  well  suppose,  to  visit  the  High 
Church  (the  old  Cathedral),  where  I  spent  an  inter- 
esting hour,  having  contrived  to  go  there  alone  that 
I  might  enjoy  myself  in  my  own  way.  From  this  .1 
visited  the  new  cemetery,  which  occupies  the  summit 
of  a  hill  adjacent  to  and  overlooking  the  Cathedral. 
On  the  very  summit,  raised  on  a  tall  column,  is  a  co- 
lossal figure  of  old  John  Knox  in  the  attitude  of 
preaching,  but  ever  and  anon  he  seems  to  cast  a  scowl- 
ing look  down  upon  the  Cathedral,  as  if  he  were  in- 
clined to  make  another  attempt  to  demolish  its  walls. 
And  well  he  might,  for  if  what  I  hear  be  true,  I  fancy 
he  would  find  the  preaching  now  heard  within  its 
walls  almost  as  destitute  of  savor  as  when  the  shrine 
of  the  Virgin  Mary  occupied  its  place  in  the  chapel 
which  bears  her  name.  The  Cathedral  is  now  under- 
going some  repairs ;  the  seats,  etc.,  for  the  church 
which  occupied  the  nave  are  taken  away,  so  that  the 
fine  nave  presents  nearly  the  original  appearance. 
But  the  crypt,  said  to  be  the  finest  in  the  kingdom, 

94  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.         [1839, 

is  now  closed  and  the  key  in  the  possession  of  an 
architect  at  Edinburgh,  so  that  I  could  not  obtain 
admittance.  It  was  in  this  place,  perchance  you 
may  recollect,  that  the  first  meeting  of  Rob  Roy  with 
Osbaldistone  took  place.  My  Scotch  reminiscences 
have  been  greatly  revived  to-day.  To-day  I  have  for 
the  first  time  seen  and  tasted  —  only  tasted  —  the 
two  Scotch  national  dishes,  viz.,  singed  sheep's  head 
and  a  haggis ! 

I  had  arranged  to  leave  Glasgow  on  the  morning 
after  Christmas,  when  Sir  William  insisted  on  my 
staying  at  least  over  Wednesday  to  sit  for  my  por- 
trait !  I  contrived,  however,  to  sit  on  Tuesday  (Christ- 
mas day),  when  I  was  done  in  about  four  hours,  in  the 
same  style  as  Sir  William's  other  botanical  portraits, 
and  with  so  much  success  that  it  was  unanimously 
proclaimed  to  be  a  most  striking  likeness  ;  in  fact  the 
most  successful  of  all  the  artist's  attempts  are  said  to 
be  this  and  that  of  Dr.  Torrey,  by  whose  side,  it  seems, 
I  am  destined  to  be  suspended  !  —  a  compliment  with 
which  I  may  well  feel  highly  gratified.  I  believe  it  is 
a  capital  likeness. 

I  dined  out  only  once  at  Glasgow,  at  the  house  of 
Mr.  Davidson,  a  very  rich  don  who  has  made  all  his 
money  in  business  here. 

Late  in  the  day  I  went  into  town  to  secure  a  place 
in  the  early  coach  for  Stirling  and  also  a  bed  for  the 
night,  as  well  as  to  select  some  little  Christmas  pres- 
ents for  the  Misses  Hooker.  In  the  evening  Sir  Wil- 
liam had  several  friends  to  dinner,  and  soon  after  the 
breaking  up  of  the  evening  party  I  took  my  leave  of 
these  kind  friends  with  no  small  regret ;  my  contem- 
plated visit  of  ten  days  has  been  prolonged  to  just  twice 
that  number.  And  now,  as  we  have  fairly  bid  adieu 

J5T.28.]  JOURNAL.  95 

to  the  old  year,  I  must  also  bid  good-by  to  you  for 
the  present,  wishing  you,  not  as  the  mere  compliment 
of  the  season,  but  with  all  my  heart  and  soul,  —  a 
happy  New  Year.  The  last  New  Year  I  well  remem- 
ber ;  several  of  its  predecessors  also  I  have  had  the 
pleasure  of  spending  with  you.  I  pray  God  we  may 
be  preserved  and  have  a  happy  meeting  before  another 
new  year  comes. 


KINROSS,  Wednesday  Evening,  January  2,  1839. 

I  left  Glasgow  at  seven  o'clock  A.  M.  on  the  morn- 
ing of  the  26th  December,  on  the  top  of  a  stage-coach 
bound  for  Stirling,  so  famous  in  song  and  story, — 
distant  about  thirty  miles  from  Glasgow.  I  arrived 
about  half  past  ten,  in  the  midst  of  a  heavy  rain. 

On  leaving  Stirling  for  Perth,  I  took  an  inside 
place,  as  the  storm  still  continued,  but  it  shortly 
cleared  up,  and  I  rode  on  the  outside  nearly  the  whole 
journey.  The  only  place  worth  noticing,  or  rather 
which  I  have  time  to  notice,  through  which  we  passed 
was  Dumblane,  which  is  just  one  of  those  dirty  Scotch 
villages  which  defy  description.  If  "  Jessie  the  flower 
of  Dumblane "  lived  in  one  of  these  comfortless  and 
wretched  hovels  I  '11  warrant  her  charms  are  much 
overpraised  in  the  song.  Here  I  saw  for  the  first 
time  a  genuine  ruin  ;  that  of  the  large  and  once  im- 
portant Cathedral,  founded  in  1142.  During  the 
short-lived  establishment  of  Episcopacy  in  Scotland  I 
think  that  the  good  Leighton  was  for  a  time  rector 
of  Dumblane.  Just  beyond  Dumblane  we  passed  the 
field  of  Sheriff-muir,  and  beyond  this,  at  the  little 
village  of  Ardoch,  I  passed,  without  being  aware  at 
the  time,  the  finest  and  most  entire  Roman  camp  in 

96  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

Britain ;  we  passed  some  fine  country-seats  on  the 
road  ;  had  a  long  way  the  distant  Grampian  Hills, 
on  which  "  my  father  fed  his  flocks,"  in  full  view ; 
and  somewhat  late  in  a  fine  moonlight  evening  I  ar- 
rived at  Perth.  As  the  stage  which  passed  Arlary 
left  Perth  at  nine  o'clock  in  the  morning,  and  I  could 
not  afford  to  spend  a  day  here,  I  of  course  saw  little 
of  this  famous  town.  ...  A  pleasant  ride  brought 
me  to  Arlary  at  eleven  o'clock  A.  M.,  and  Arnott  was 
by  the  roadside  awaiting  my  arrival.  I  was  sorry  to 
learn  that  he  is  not  a  general  favorite  among  his 
brother  botanists  ;  but  although  most  of  them  possess 
greater  advantages,  he  has  but  one  superior  in  Great 
Britain,  and  in  most  departments  very  few  equals. 
He  received  me  with  great  kindness,  and  I  have  spent 
a  few  days  with  him  very  pleasantly  indeed.  He  is  a 
hearty,  good  fellow,  and  improves  vastly  on  acquain- 
tance. I  was  exceedingly  pleased  with  Mrs.  Arnott, 
who  is  exceedingly  amiable  and  lively.  On  Sunday  it 
stormed  terribly,  so  that  we  were  unable  to  leave  the 
house.  On  Tuesday  I  dined  with  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Arnott,  Mr.  Wemyss,  the  clergyman  of  the  parish,  an- 
other clergyman,  etc.,  at  Mr.  Barclay's,  Arnott's 
father-in-law,  about  six  miles  from  Arlary.  About 
one  o'clock  to-day,  taking  leave  of  Mrs.  A.  I  rode 
with  Arnott  to  Kinross,  and  leaving  Arnott  to  write 
some  letters  at  the  hotel  in  the  mean  time,  I  took  a 
boat  to  Loch  Leven  Castle,  —  the  prison  of  the  lovely 
and  ill-fated  Mary  Queen  of  Scots.  .  .  . 

On  returning  to  the  hotel  I  found  that  Arnott  had 
picked  up  the  dominie  of  his  parish,  and  had  our  din- 
ner in  readiness.  The  expected  coach  arrived  soon 
after,  but  was  crowded.  I  am  consequently  obliged  to 
wait  for  the  mail  which  passes  about  two  o'clock  in  the 

JET.  28.]  JOURNAL.  97 

morning,  and  by  which,  if  I  am  so  fortunate  as  to 
obtain  a  seat,  I  may  expect  to  reach  Edinburgh  be- 
fore daybreak. 

Thursday  evening,  January  3,  1839. 

This  is  my  first  day  in  Auld  Reekie ;  and  my  first 
business,  on  sitting  down  by  my  quiet  and  comfortable 
fireside,  shall  be  to  give  you  a  brief  account  of  this 
day's  work.  After  taking  a  reasonable  modicum  of 
tea  I  spent  the  whole  of  last  evening  at  Kinross  in 
writing,  until  two  o'clock,  at  which  hour  the  mail- 
coach  punctually  made  its  appearance ;  and  there  was 
fortunately  room  inside.  We  drew  up  at  the  post 
office  at  Edinburgh  at  half  past  six  in  the  morning 
(raining  as  usual).  I  took  possession  of  a  very  com- 
fortable, even  elegant  room,  very  different  from  the 
six  feet  by  nine  bedrooms  of  most  hotels.  This  is  the 
finest  hotel  I  have  yet  seen  ;  the  Adelphi  at  Liverpool 
is  not  to  be  mentioned  in  comparison.  I  threw  myself 
on  the  bed  and  slept  for  an  hour  or  two.  On  waking 
I  drew  up  the  curtains  of  my  windows,  arid  had  all  at 
once  a  magnificent  view  of  this  picturesque  city,  which 
startled  me.  From  descriptions  and  a  few  prints  I 
have  somewhere  seen  I  find  I  had  formed  a  very  cor- 
rect view  of  this  city,  as  far  as  it  went.  It  is  the  finest 
town  I  have  seen  or  expect  soon  to  see.  It  owes  much 
of  its  beauty  to  its  peculiar  site,  and  to  the  manner  in 
which  the  old  town  acts  as  a  foil  to  the  new.  Imme- 
diately after  breakfast  I  sallied  forth,  walked  down  the 
street,  uncertain  which  of  my  letters  of  introduction  I 
should  first  attempt  to  deliver ;  decided  for  Greville  ; l 

1  Robert  K.  Greville,  M.  D.,  1794-1866;    author  of  Scottish  Cryp-   9 
togamic  Flora,  Flora  Edinensis,  and  Algce  Britannicce. 

98  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

so  I  crossed  the  North  Bridge,  which  is  thrown  not 
over  a  river  but  over  a  part  of  the  town,  into  the  old 
town,  crossed  High  Street,  passed  the  huge  block 
of  buildings  occupied  by  the  university,  plain  and 
heavy  without,  but  the  spacious  court  within  very  im- 
posing ;  and  a  few  minutes'  walk  brought  me  to  Dr. 
Greville's  residence,  which  looks  in  front  upon  a  large 
public  square,  and  on  the  other  the  green  fields 
extend  up  almost  to  the  house,  —  a  complete  rus  in 
urbe.  Dr.  Greville  received  me  very  kindly,  and 
seemed  well  pleased  to  receive  Dr.  Torrey's  letter ; 
made  many  affectionate  inquiries,  and  urged  me  to 
stay  with  him  while  I  remained  in  town.  I  was  pre- 
determined to  decline  all  invitations  of  this  kind  in 
Edinburgh,  but  found  I  could  give  no  reasons  for 
doing  so  that  would  not  seem  strange.  Dr.  Gre- 
ville said  he  well  knew  I  should  be  obliged  to  stay 
either  with  him  or  Dr.  Graham,1  who  would  never 
let  me  off  ;  so,  as  I  thought  Dr.  Greville  would  prove 
the  most  useful  and  edifying  acquaintance,  I  ac- 
cepted his  invitation  and  promised  to  send  my  lug- 
gage sometime  to-morrow.  We  set  out  to  call  on 
Professor  Graham  ;  walked  over  into  the  New  Town, 
the  squares,  rows,  terraces,  and  crescents  all  very  fine ; 
called  at  Professor  G.'s,  who  was  as  usual  out ;  left 
Dr.  Torrey's  letter  and  my  own  card.  Left  to  myself 
again,  after  promising  to  meet  Dr.  Greville  at  dinner 
at  the  house  of  a  friend  of  his,  I  directed  my  steps  to 
the  Castle,  which,  crowning  a  high  cliff  much  like  that 
of  Stirling,  nearly  or  quite  perpendicular  except  on 
one  side,  is  visible  from  almost  every  part  of  the 
city.  .  .  .  Walked  far  away  to  Inverleith  Terrace  to 

J  Robert  Graham,  M.  D.,  1786-1845 ;    professor  of  botany  in  the 
University  of  Edinburgh. 

MT.  28.]  JOURNAL.  99 

leave  my  letters  for  Mr.  Nicoll ; l  returned,  dressed  for 
dinner,  passed  an  agreeable  humdrum  evening  at  a 
small  family  party ;  returned  to  the  hotel,  read  two 
American  newspapers  (little  news),  found  a  good  fire 
in  my  room,  and  sat  down  to  make  these  desultory 
notes.  As  to  all  the  rest  of  what  I  have  seen  I  may 
have  more  to  say  another  day.  Good-night ! 

ST.  GEORGE'S  SQUARE,  12  M.,  January  4,  1839. 
Before  I  retire  to  rest  I  must  hastily  and  very 
briefly  record  my  doings  to-day,  just  by  way  of  keep- 
ing in  good  habits  ;  as  I  am  engaged  to  breakfast  at 
an  early  hour  with  Dr.  Graham  I  must  soon  go  to 
bed.  Rose  at  half  past  nine  (recollect  I  had  not  slept 
the  previous  night), —  a  snowstorm.  Sight-seeing 
being  out  of  the  question,  went  to  the  university,  just 
in  time  to  hear  the  latter  part  of  Dr.  Hope's  lecture 
(Light  Carburetted  Hydrogen  and  Safety  Lamp)  ;- 
fine-studied  and  rather  formal  manner,  —  did  not 
wear  his  gown  or  ruffles  at  the  wrist !  Experiments 
few  but  rather  neat.  In  cutting  off  flame  with  wire 
gauze  he  varied  the  experiment  in  a  way  I  had  not 
previously  seen,  viz.,  by  throwing  a  jet  of  ether  upon 
the  gauze,  which  burnt  below  but  did  not  kindle 
above,  —  a  very  pretty  effect.  He  looks  to  be  not 
above  sixty-five,  although  he  must  be  ten  years  over 
that  age.  Next  heard  Professor  Forbes,2  a  handsome 
man  of  very  elegant  appearance  ;  a  most  elegant  and 
lucid  lecturer  ;  delivered  my  note  of  introduction  from 
Professor  Silliman  ;  received  me  very  kindly,  but  I 

1  William   Nicoll.     Invented  section-cutting  of   recent  and   fossil 
woods  in  1827. 

2  James  Forbes,  1809-1861 ;  professor  of  natural  philosophy  in  the 
University  of  Edinburgh. 

100  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [18^9. 

was  obliged  to  leave  at  once  to  hear  a  lecture  from 
Professor  Wilson,  the  famous  Christopher  North,  one 
of  the  most  extraordinary  men  living,  very  eccentric, 
a  gifted  genius,  and  a  man  of  the  most  wonderful  ver- 
satility of  powers.  The  subject  to-day  was  the  Asso- 
ciation of  Ideas.  The  lecture  was  rather  striking, 
original  in  manner,  with  a  few  flights  of  that  peculiar 
eloquence  which  you  would  expect  from  Christopher 
North.  Next  heard  Dr.  Monro  (Anatomy)  ;  very 
prosy  ;  the  class  behaved  shockingly,  even  for  medical 
students !  Lastly  I  heard  Professor  Jameson,1  a 
stiff,  ungainly,  forbidding-looking  man,  who  gave  us 
the  most  desperately  dull,  doleful  lecture  I  ever  heard. 
It  was  just  like  a  copious  table  of  contents  to  a  book, 
—  just  about  as  interesting  as  reading  a  table  of  con- 
tents for  an  hour  would  be;  I  may  add  just  as  in- 
structive !  Dined  in  a  quiet  way  with  Dr.  Pardie,  a 
young  physician  to  whom  I  brought  a  letter  from 
James  Hogg ;  his  wife  is  a  cousin  of  James ;  went 
from  the  table  to  the  college  to  hear  a  botanical  lecture 
from  Professor  Graham ;  returned  to  tea  and  spent  the 
evening.  I  found  I  had  quite  unexpectedly  met  with 
profitable  acquaintance,  as  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Pardie  were 
active  and  ardent  Christians,  of  the  Baptist  persua- 
sion, and  people  of  a  very  delightful  spirit.  They 
were  well  acquainted  with  Mr.  Cheever  of  Salem,  who 
spent  some  time  in  Edinburgh  previous  to  his  journey 
to  Palestine.  I  passed  a  very  pleasant  evening,  and 
promised  to  call  on  them  again  before  leaving  town. 
Returned  in  the  midst  of  a  violent  snowstorm  to  Dr. 
Greville's,  where  I  am  now  domesticated,  having  sent 
up  my  baggage  from  the  hotel. 

1  Robert  Jameson,  1774-1854 ;   professor  of  natural  history  in  the 
University  of  Edinburgh. 

/ET.  28.]  JOURNAL.  101 

Saturday  evening.  —  Rose  this  morning  at  half  past 
seven ;  and  at  half  past  eight,  according  to  engage- 
ment, went  over  to  the  other  side  of  the  town  with  Dr. 
Greville,  to  breakfast  with  Dr.  Graham,  and  then  visit 
the  Botanical  Garden  (deep  snow).  We  looked  about 
the  garden,  or  rather  the  greenhouses,  until  afternoon ; 
much  gratified  with  the  splendid  collections  ;  but  the 
Sabbath  draws  nigh,  and  I  cannot  go  on  to  tell  you 
more  about  it  now.  Called  on  Mr.  Nicoll  on  my  re- 
turn ;  made  a  provisional  engagement  to  meet  him  at 
breakfast  on  Monday  and  examine  his  sections  of 
woods.  Ran  about  the  streets;  left  a  note  at  the 
house  of  Arnott's  brother,  to  make  arrangements  (as 
we  have  done)  for  visiting  Parliament  House,  etc.,  on 
Monday ;  returned  to  Greville's,  dressed  for  dinner, 
and  looked  over  books,  etc.,  until  Professor  Graham 
and  Dr.  Balfour,1  secretary  of  the  Botanical  Society, 
arrived ;  dined ;  passed  a  pleasant  evening;  after  family 
worship  had  a  little  conversation  with  Dr.  Greville, 
retired  to  my  room,  and  now,  as  I  am  at  the  bottom 
of  the  page  and  my  watch  says  ten  minutes  to  twelve, 
—  to  bed.  Adieu. 

Monday  evening.  —  Two  days  have  passed  since  I 
have  taken  up  my  pen  to  communicate  to  you  my 
little  diary.  I  still  remain  domesticated  at  Dr.  Gre- 
ville's, where  I  am  received  with  the  greatest  kindness, 
and  am  as  happy  as  I  can  be  away  from  home.  I  like 
Dr.  G.  and  family  much,  there  is  so  much  true  Chris- 
tian feeling  and  simplicity.  Dr.  G.  seems  much  to 
regret  that  he  was  unable  to  meet  Dr.  Torrey  in  Edin- 
burgh. Yesterday  was  the  first  Sabbath  of  the  new 
year,  and  I  heard  two  sermons  adapted  to  the  season  ; 

1  John  Button  Balfour,  M.  D.,  1808-1885 ;  professor  of  botany  in 
Glasgow,  and  afterwards  in  the  University  of  Edinburgh. 

102  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

one  in  the  morning,  in  an  Episcopal  chapel  (the  one 
to  which  this  family  belong)  from  Mr.  Drummond, 
the  text  being  the  latter  clause  of  Hebrews  viii.  13  ; 
a  most  excellent,  faithful,  and  godly  sermon.  In  the 
afternoon  I  occupied  a  seat  Dr.  Greville  was  so  kind 
as  to  secure  for  me  in  the  Old  Greyfriars  (Scotch) 
Church,  which  is  so  crowded  that  without  this  precau- 
tion you  can  hardly  expect  to  get  into  the  church 
when  Dr.  Guthrie  preaches.  He  is  the  most  striking 
preacher  I  ever  heard.  I  could  not  help  comparing 
him  with  Whitfield.  The  text  was  the  first  clause  of 
Eccles.  ii.  11.  I  dare  not  attempt  to  give  you  any 
idea  of  the  discourse.  I  wish  you  could  have  heard 
it.  In  this  church-yard  the  remains  of  the  early  mar- 
tyrs of  Scotland  repose,  not  far  from  the  Grass- 
market,  where  they  were  mostly  offered  up.  I  stood 
upon  the  very  spot  to-day  where  they  suffered.  We 
had  a  terrible  wind  all  last  night,  which,  with  the  rain, 
carried  off  nearly  all  the  snow.  The  morning  was  so 
stormy  that  I  could  not  fulfill  my  conditional  engage- 
ment to  breakfast  with  Mr.  Nicoll  and  look  at  his 
curiosities.  So  I  repaired  to  the  university  at  ten ; 
heard  Sir  Charles  Bell,1  the  professor  of  surgery,  —  a 
decent  lecturer,  but  not  remarkable.  At  eleven  I 
heard  the  celebrated  Dr.  Chalmers,  the  professor  of 
divinity.  The  old  man  has  a  heavy,  strongly-marked 
Scotch  countenance,  which,  however,  brightens  very 
much  when  he  is  engaged  in  his  discourse.  His  man- 
ner is  rather  inelegant  and  his  dialect  broad  Scotch 
and  peculiar.  But  the  matter  is  so  rich  that  he 
carries  all  before  him.  Every  word  is  full  of  thought, 

1  Sir  Charles  Bell,  1774-1842  ;  a  very  distinguished  surgeon ;  author 
of  Anatomy  of  Expression  and  many  celebrated  works.  He  accepted 
the  chair  of  surgery  at  Edinburgh,  1836. 

*:T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  103 

and  he  occasionally  rose  to  a  very  powerful  eloquence. 
He  is  much  beloved,  and  is  considered  by  all  parties, 
perhaps,  as  the  strong  man  of  Scotland.  The  subject 
of  his  lecture  this  morning  was  the  advantage  (and 
the  abuse)  of  Scripture  criticism.  It  was  a  treat  to 
hear  him.  He  paid  a  high  compliment,  in  the  course 
of  his  remarks,  to  our  Moses  Stuart. 

The  weather  growing  by  this  time  more  tolerable,  I 
walked  about  town,  —  visited  the  Parliament  House, 
the  Library  of  the  Writers  to  the  Signet ;  passed 
through  the  Grassmarket,  returned  here,  looked  at 
plants  with  Dr.  Greville  ;  dined  ;  received  a  parcel 
from  Sir  William  Hooker  containing  a  few  plants 
I  had  accidentally  left  (a  few  he  had  given  me).  A 
very  kind  letter  informed  me  that  he  would  be  in 
London  about  the  same  time  with  me  (which  I  had 
in  part  expected,  and  about  which  hangs  a  tale  I 
must  write  soon),  and  also  a  fine  parcel  of  letters  of 
introduction  for  me,  both  to  persons  on  the  way  to 
London,  and  also  on  the  Continent,  — to  Delessert, 
De  Candolle,  Martius,  Endlicher,  Humboldt,  etc. 
Truly  he  is  a  kind  man ;  he  has  laid  me  under  lasting 
obligations.  He  asks  me  to  say  to  Dr.  Torrey  that 
his  Grace  of  Bedford  is  anxious  to  receive  also  the 
Hudsonia  ericoides  from  New  Jersey,  and  he  will  be 
greatly  obliged  if  he  will  send  a  box  of  it  to  Woburn 
early  in  the  spring.  Attended  this  evening  a  meet- 
ing of  the  Royal  Society,  Dr.  Abercrombie  1  (author 
of  "  Intellectual  Powers,"  etc.)  in  the  chair.  Dr.  A. 
is  at  the  head  of  the  profession  here ;  is  greatly  es- 
teemed, and  is  a  most  exemplary  Christian.  An  inter- 
esting paper  was  read  by  Professor  Forbes,  of  whom 

1  John  Abercrombie,  M.  D.,  1781-1844;    celebrated  Scotch  phy- 
sician and  author. 

104  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.         [1839, 

I  have  spoken  before ;  a  man  whom  from  his  very 
youthful  appearance  you  could  never  have  imagined  as 
the  successful  candidate  to  the  professor's  chair  against 
Dr.  Brewster.  But  Dr.  Brewster  is  no  favorite  in 
Edinburgh.  Other  distinguished  men  were  there.  I 
was  introduced  to  Professor  Christison,1  had  some 
pleasant  conversation  ;  promised,  if  practicable,  to 
hear  him  lecture  to-morrow  at  nine  A.  M.,  and  look  at 
his  museum  of  materia  medica.  We  had  tea  after 
the  adjournment,  according  to  the  usual  custom  here, 
which  is  a  very  pleasant  one.  I  only  count  upon  two 
days  more  in  Edinburgh,  and  have  yet  much  to  do. 
I  am  anxious  to  reach  London,  where  I  hope  there  are 
letters  for  me.  Good-night.  May  God  bless  you  all, 
and  keep  you. 

MELKOSE,  January  10,  1839,  Thursday  evening. 

On  the  8th  inst.,  Tuesday,  I  went  immediately 
after  breakfast  to  the  university  and  heard  Professor 
Christison' s  lecture,  Materia  Medica.  He  is  an  ex- 
cellent lecturer.  I  spent  a  half  hour  with  him,  in 
looking  over  his  cabinet  of  preparations,  which  con- 
tains a  large  number  of  fruits,  etc.,  preserved  in 
strong  brine  instead  of  spirits.  I  acquired  some  use- 
ful information  concerning  the  best  way  to  close  the 
jars,  for  which  he  has  some  very  neat  plans.  Then 
I  heard  Professor  Forbes  again;  elegant  as  usual, 
but  he  did  not  succeed  very  well  in  his  experiments. 
The  next  hour  I  had  a  rich  treat.  I  heard  another 
lecture  from  Professor  Wilson,  on  the  Association  of 
Ideas,  which  on  this  occasion  he  noticed  in  a  more 
practical  view  than  before.  He  recited,  in  his  glow- 

1  Sir  Robert  Christison,  1798-1882;  professor  of  materia  medica 
in  the  University  of  Edinburgh. 

JET.  28.]  JOURNAL.  105 

ing  manner,  several  passages  from  Virgil,  and  a  long 
one  from  Milton,  and  gave  a  long  and  most  eloquent 
analytic  commentary  upon  each,  far  exceeding  any- 
thing of  the  kind  I  ever  heard  before.  After  visiting 
the  library  of  the  university  —  a  most  magnificent 
room  —  I  set  out  for  Holyrood  House.  ...  I  bought 
one  or  two  poor  prints,  a  cast  of  the  seal-ring  of 
Mary,  plucked  a  bit  of  holly  from  a  bush  standing 
by  the  place  by  the  altar  before  which  Mary  was 
married  to  Bothwell,  and  reluctantly  took  my  leave. 
There  was  yet  some  time  remaining,  so  I  set  out  to 
climb  Arthur's  Seat,  which  rises  abruptly  behind  Salis- 
bury Crags  to  the  height  of  eight  or  nine  hundred 
feet.  I  attained  my  wish,  and  had  a  beautiful  view, 
from  the  summit,  of  the  city  beneath  my  feet,  and 
the  wide  country  around.  I  descended  more  rapidly 
than  I  went  up,  though  at  some  risk  to  my  neck.  Re- 
turned to  Dr.  Greville's,  where  I  dined  and  spent  all 
the  evening. 

I  had  engaged  yesterday  to  breakfast  with  Dr.  Gra- 
ham. I  therefore  set  off  early  for  that  purpose  ;  after- 
ward accompanied  him  to  the  Garden,  examined  the 
grounds,  etc.,  passed  some  time  in  the  splendid  palm- 
house.  I  spent  some  portion  of  the  morning  also  with 
Mr.  Nicoll,  examining  with  the  microscope  his  beauti- 
ful collection  of  recent  and  fossil  wood  in  thin  slices  ; 
learned  how  to  prepare  them.  Then  arranged  my 
affairs  to  leave  Edinburgh  in  the  morning.  In  the 
evening  Dr.  Greville  and  myself  dined  with  Mr.  Wil- 
son (gentleman  naturalist),  the  brother  of  the  gifted 
Professor  Wilson  ;  himself  almost  equally  gifted,  but 
with  a  more  healthy  tone  of  mind.  He  interested  us 
so  much  that  our  stay  was  prolonged  until  nearly  the 
"  wee  short  hour  ayont  the  twal,"  when  we  parted, 

106  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

after  a  pressing  invitation  to  visit  him  at  his  country 
residence  in  case  I  ever  visited  Scotland  at  a  more 
pleasant  season.  Taking  leave  of  my  kind  friends  the 
Grevilles,  I  was  early  this  morning  on  my  way  to  Mel- 
rose.  I  have  been  received  with  the  utmost  kindness, 
not  only  by  this  agreeable  and  most  excellent  family, 
but  among  all  the  acquaintance  I  have  made  in  Ed- 
inburgh. I  had  purchased  for  you  a  collection  of 
hymns,  etc.,  edited  by  Dr.  Greville  and  his  pastor,  Mr. 
Drummond,  with  which  I  was  very  much  pleased,  and 
doubt  not  you  would  like  them  much.  But  Dr.  Gre- 
ville saw  it,  and  afterwards  insisted  on  sending  a  much 
handsomer  copy  to  Dr.  Torrey,  which  was  accord- 
ingly placed  in  my  hands  for  him.  Melrose  is  about 
thirty-six  miles  from  Edinburgh,  on  one  of  the  routes 
to  Newcastle.  We  came  upon  the  Tweed  among  a 
rugged  range  of  hills,  at  first  a  very  small  stream ; 
followed  it  along  the  sinuous  valley  for  a  long  way, 
until  it  became  a  pretty  considerable  river,  for  Great 
Britain ;  at  length  the  valley  grew  wider,  softer,  and  in 
the  proper  season,  doubtless  very  beautiful.  A  smaller 
stream  joined  it  at  some  distance  before  us,  and  as 
its  opening  vale  came  into  view,  the  driver  —  I  beg  his 
pardon,  coachman  —  pointed  with  his  whip  to  the  op- 
posite side  and  said,  "  Abbotsford ;  "  and  true  enough 
the  turrets  of  this  quaint  castellated  house  were  distin- 
guishable, in  the  midst  of  a  grove  mostly  of  Scott's 
own  planting,  near  the  banks  of  the  Yarrow.  We 
soon  after  crossed  the  Tweed,  at  the  place  where 
the  White  Lady  frightened  the  sacristan  in  "The 
Monastery ;  "  the  scene  of  which,  you  know,  was  laid 
at  Melrose  and  in  the  neighborhood.  The  fine  old 
ruin  of  Melrose  Abbey  now  came  into  view,  half 
surrounded  by  a  dirty  little  Scotch  village.  Here  I 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  107 

abandoned  the  coach  until  to-morrow,  secured  a  gig, 
and  was  soon  on  my  way  to  Abbotsf  ord.  ...  I  walked 
back  from  Abbotsf  ord,  noticing  more  particularly  the 
beauty  of  the  valley,  and  the  fine  Eildon  Hills  which 
rise  behind  Melrose,  from  whose  summit,  it  is  said,  a 
very  beautiful  prospect  may  be  obtained.  I  then 
spent  the  remainder  of  the  afternoon  about  Melrose 
Abbey,  the  most  beautiful  ruin  I  have  ever  seen  or 
expect  to  see;  more  beautiful  than  I  had  imagined, 
and  just  in  that  state  of  dilapidation  in  which  it  ap- 
pears to  the  greatest  advantage  as  a  ruin,  for  were  it 
entire  it  would  be  indeed  magnificent.  I  feel  now  as 
if  I  should  never  care  to  see  another  ruin  of  the  kind  ; 
and  therefore  I  shall  not  visit  Dryburgh  Abbey  (where 
Scott  is  buried),  as  I  had  intended  ;  although  I  suppose 
we  shall  pass  by  nearly  in  sight  of  it  to-morrow.  I 
wish  I  could  bring  you  some  sketch  or  print  that 
would  give  you  some  idea  of  Melrose,  but  I  fear  this 
is  impossible.  The  exquisite  carvings  in  stone,  espe- 
cially, cannot  be  appreciated  until  they  are  seen.  It  is 
said  (I  forget  the  lines)  that  Melrose  should  be  seen 
by  moonlight,  and  this  I  can  well  imagine ;  but  this 
evening  there  is  neither  moonlight  nor  starlight.  .  .  . 

DURHAM,  Saturday  evening,  January  12,  1839. 

Soon  leaving  the  Tweed  we  crossed  a  range  of 
hills,  and  came  down  into  the  fertile  Teviotdale,  so 
famous  in  border  story.  Again  leaving  this  valley, 
we  wound  our  way  up  the  Jedwater,  a  tributary  of 
the  Teviot,  rising  high  up  in  the  Cheviot  Hills,  just 
on  the  line  between  England  and  Scotland.  We 
passed  Jedburgh,  a  Scotch  village  of  considerable  size 
and  importance,  dirty  and  comfortless  of  course.  Here 
is  an  old  abbey,  which  I  should  have  been  loth  to 

108  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

pass  by  had  I  not  seen  Melrose ;  thence  we  ascended 
the  Jed  for  many  a  weary  mile,  until  we  reached  its 
source  high  among  the  Cheviot  Hills.  Our  course 
was  literally  "  over  the  mountain  and  over  the  moor," 
for  after  a  tedious  ascent  we  crossed  the  boundary 
line  at  an  elevation  of  fifteen  hundred  feet  above  the 
level  of  the  sea.  We  were  by  this  time  thoroughly 
drenched  with  mist  and  rain  ;  the  wind  forbidding  the 
use  of  our  umbrellas.  We  immediately  commenced 
our  descent,  and  just  at  dusk  stopped  for  a  hasty  din- 
ner at  Otterbourne,  so  famous  in  the  history  of  the  bor- 
der warfare  as  the  place  of  the  memorable  Chevy  Chase. 
It  was  too  dark  to  see  the  cross  erected  to  mark  the 
spot  where  Percy  fell.  Pass  we  over  the  ride  from 
this  to  Newcastle,  as  we  saw  nothing,  though  we  passed 
near  some  places  of  interest,  —  Chillingham,  the  resi- 
dence of  the  Earl  of  Tankerville,  for  example,  —  and 
arrived  at  Newcastle  about  nine  o'clock  in  the  even- 
ing. In  the  morning  I  delivered  notes  of  introduc- 
tion from  Hooker  and  Greville  to  George  Wailes,  Esq., 
one  of  the  active  members  of  the  Newcastle  Natural 
History  Society ;  visited  their  fine  building  and  really 
splendid  museum,  especially  rich  in  fossil  remains 
and  also  in  the  British  birds ;  made  arrangements 
for  correspondence  and  exchange  with  the  Michi- 
gan State  Survey;  was  introduced  to  a  botanist 
or  two ;  visited  the  castle  built  by  Robert,  brother  of 
William  the  Conqueror,  if  I  recollect  aright,  which 
has  stood  firmly  for  many  a  year,  and  may  stand  for 
centuries  more,  or  as  long  as  the  world  standeth.  .  .  . 
Arrived  at  Durham  at  eight  in  the  evening.  I  called 
almost  immediately  upon  Professor  Johnston1  and 

1  James  T.  W.  Johnston,  1796-1865;   agricultural   chemist;    pro- 
fessor at  Durham.     Lectured  in  the  United  States. 

JET.  28.]  JOURNAL.  109 

delivered  Doctor  Torrey's  letter  and  parcel,  when  we 
recognized  each  other  as  fellow-passengers  in  the  coach 
from  Newcastle,  he  being  a  Scotch  gentleman,  —  look- 
ing very  like  my  friend  Couthouy  of  the  exploring 
expedition,  —  whom  I  was  far  from  imagining  would 
prove  to  be  the  professor  in  the  Durham  Univer- 
sity ;  took  my  tea  and  spent  the  greater  part  of 
the  evening  with  him.  He  told  me  he  was  just  about 
to  send  a  parcel  to  Doctor  Torrey  by  a  friend  going 
next  week  to  America.  I  must  embrace  this  oppor- 
tunity to  send  my  letters,  now  forming  a  somewhat 
bulky  parcel.  .  .  . 

Spent  Monday  with  Professor  Johnston  in  his  lab- 
oratory, witnessing  the  progress  of  some  analyses  of 
resins,  etc.,  in  which  he  is  now  much  engaged ;  also  went 
through  the  old  castle,  now  used  for  the  university; 
dined  with  Professor  Johnston  at  four  clock ;  returned 
to  the  hotel.  .  .  .  Took  my  tea  with  him,  and  he  accom- 
panied me  at  half  past  nine  to  the  coach  office,  whence 
I  took  coach  for  Leeds.  I  have  little  to  say  about 
Durham  University,  promising  as  it  is  in  some  respects, 
because  they  have  adopted  the  monkish  system  of  Ox- 
ford and  Cambridge  to  the  fullest  extent;  the  pro- 
fessors and  tutors  except  Johnston  are  all  clergy- 
men ;  the  curriculum  includes  nothing  but  classics,  a 
little  mathematics,  and  less  logic ;  their  professor  of 
natural  philosophy  never  lectures;  they  give  their 
professor  of  chemistry,  mineralogy,  and  geology 
just  fifty  pounds  a  year  (nothing  for  his  experiments), 
and  require  no  one  to  attend  his  lectures. 

But  now  I  must  record  some  painful  news,  just 
learned  to-day,  which  has  shocked  me  exceedingly, 
but  which  you  will  have  heard  of  long  ere  this  reaches 
you ;  viz.,  the  loss  of  the  noble  ship  Pennsylvania, 

110  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

the  death  of  Captain  Smith,  the  first  and  second  mate, 
and  some  of  the  passengers,  I  hardly  yet  know  how 
many.  I  had  grown  much  attached  to  this  ship,  and 
thought  highly  of  its  officers,  who  had  been  kind  to 
me.  .  .  . 

LONDON,  January  17,  1839,  Thursday  evening. 

This  is  dated  at  this  modern  Babylon,  where  I  arrived 
about  nine  o'clock  last  evening.  I  stopped  at  the 
White  Boar,  Coventry  Street,  Piccadilly ;  had  a  quiet 
night's  sleep;  rose  early  this  morning,  and  had 
breakfasted  and  was  on  my  way  to  Dr.  Boott's1  (24 
Gower  Street)  before  ten  o'clock.  I  found  Doctor  B. 
at  home ;  was  kindly  received  and  was  introduced  to  his 
wife,  mother,  children,  and  a  brother  from  Boston  who 
is  now  with  him ;  spent  an  hour  or  two  with  him ; 
heard  that  Hooker  was  in  town.  Though  not  a  pub- 
lic day  went  to  the  British  Museum;  inquired  for 
Brown  (Mr.  Brown,  for  he  does  not  like  to  be  called 
Dr.),  and  was  so  fortunate  as  to  find  not  only  the  man 
himself  I  was  so  anxious  to  set  my  eyes  on,  but  also 
Hooker,  Joseph  Hooker,  Bennett,2  and  Dr.  Richard- 
son.3 Passed  an  hour  or^two.  Brown  invited  Hooker 
and  me  to  breakfast  with  him  on  Saturday  morning ; 
went  out  with  Hooker ;  first  to  -the  Linnasan  Society ; 
introduced  to  David  Don,4  a  stout  Scotchman,  and 

1  Francis  Boott,  1792-1863.    Born  in  Boston,  United  States.    Early 
removed  to  London,  where  he  studied  and  practiced  medicine  a  few 
years.     "  A  good  botanist,  and  in  his  later  life  devoted  to  the  study  of 
Carices  "  [A.  G.]. 

2  John  Joseph  Bennett,  1801-1876 ;  keeper  of   the   herbarium   of 
the   British   Museum.     "  One   of  the   most  learned   and   modest   of 
men"  [A.  G.]. 

3  Sir  John  Richardson,  M.  D.,  1787-1865.     "  The  well-known  Arc- 
tic explorer,  zoologist,  and  botanist  "  [A.  G.]. 

4  David  Don,  1795-1856;  librarian  of  the  Limuean  Society;  pro- 
fessor of  botany  in  King's  College,  London. 

MT.  28.]  JOURNAL.  Ill 

looked  through  the  rooms  of  the  society.  Don  offered 
to  give  me  every  possible  facility  in  my  pursuits,  but 
of  course  I  said  nothing  to  him  about  Pursh's  1  herba- 
rium at  Lambert's,  of  which  he  was  formerly  curator ; 
for  since  he  married  Lambert's  housekeeper,  or  cook, 
I  forget  which,  Lambert  will  not  allow  him  to  come 
into  the  house.  From  here  Hooker  took  me,  —  stop- 
ping by  the  way  at  Philip's,  one  of  the  most  eminent 
painters,  whose  gallery  we  saw,  —  to  the  house  of 
Lambert 2  himself,  the  queerest  old  mortal  I  ever  set 
eyes  on.  But  Carey's  description  of  the  man  was  so 
accurate  that  I  should  have  known  him  anywhere.  I 
was  of  course  invited  to  breakfast  with  him  any  morn- 
ing at  nine ;  he  showed  us  his  Cacti  stuffed  with  plas- 
ter of  paris,  among  others  a  very  curious  one  called 
muff-cactus,  which  really  looks  just  like  a  lady's  muff 
and  is  not  much  smaller.  Lambert's  specimens  are 
the  only  ones  known,  and  he  gave  for  them  something" 
like  a  hundred  guineas,  —  the  old  goose  !  A  woman  has 
the  care  of  his  collections  in  place  of  Don.  She  stuffs 
the  cacti  and  seems  quite  as  enthusiastic  as  old  Lam- 
bert himself.  We  went  next  to  the  Horticultural 
Society's  rooms  in  Regent  Street  in  hopes  to  find  Mr. 
Bentham ;  but  instead  we  met  Lindley,  who  received 
us  very  politely  ;  he  asked  me  to  send  him  my  address 
the  moment  I  was  settled  in  lodgings.  .  .  .  Here  I 
parted  from  Hooker  for  the  present,  declining  an  invi- 
tation to  join  him  at  the  dinner  of  the  Royal  Society's 
Club,  for  which  I  was  afterwards  almost  sorry,  as  I 
should  have  met  there  Hallam,  the  historian,  and 

1  Frederic  Pursh,  1774-1820.    Emigrated  to  America,  1799.    Trav- 
eled and  collected  much  ;  settled  later  in  Montreal,  where  he  died. 

2  Aylmer  Bourke  Lambert,  1762-1842 ;  author  of  the  Genus  Pinus 
and  the  Genus  Cinchona.     Owned  a  very  large  herbarium  comprising 
plants  of  Pursh,  who  published  under  his  liberal  patronage. 

112  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

some  other  distinguished  men,  as  also  Brown,  whose 
peculiar  dry  wit  is  said  to  have  abounded  greatly. 
Hooker  seems  as  anxious  to  serve  me  and  aid  me  here 
in  London  as  at  his  own  home.  He  is  the  most  noble 
man  I  ever  knew.  Thence  I  took  a  cab  and  drove 
into  the  City,  through  Temple  Bar,  down  Fleet  Street; 
drove  round  St.  Paul's,  to  the  office  of  Baring  Bro- 
thers &  Company,  who  are  to  be  my  bankers  and  to 
whom  my  letters  here  may  now  be  addressed  ;  thence 
to  the  office  of  Wiley  &  Putnam  in  Paternoster  Row ; 
did  not  see  Mr.  Wiley,  but  learned  that  the  copies  of 
our  "  Flora  "  had  not  arrived,  which  I  am  very  sorry 
for,  and  don't  know  how  to  account  for  it ;  called  at  C. 
Rich's,  but  found  no  letters,  which  was  a  sad  disap- 
pointment indeed ;  thence  back  here  to  dinner.  At 
eight  o'clock  went  to  Somerset  House  to  attend  a  meet- 
ing of  the  Royal  Society,  where  again  I  met  Hooker 
and  Dr.  Richardson.  Brown  was  also  present,  for  the 
first  time  in  eight  years.  Royle l  was  in  the  chair,  at 
which  the  botanists  present  sneered  much,  as  they  evi- 
dently think  him  too  small  a  man  to  fill  the  seat  occu- 
pied by  Newton,  etc.  I  don't  know  how  he  happened 
to  be  one  of  the  vice-presidents.  I  was  introduced  to 
him  after  the  meeting,  as  also  to  many  others.  J.  E. 
Gray, 2  who  was  very  polite,  gave  me  and  Joseph 
Hooker  tickets  for  Faraday's  lecture  of  to-morrow 
evening,  invited  me  to  dine  with  him  to-morrow,  etc. 
I  was  glad  to  make  the  acquaintance  of  Mr.  Criff 3 

1  John  Forbes  Royle,  M.  D.  ;  a  surgeon  in  the  East  India  Company. 
Wrote  on  the  botany  of  the  Himalaya. 

2  John  Edward  Gray,  1800-1875 ;  keeper  of  the  zoological  collec- 
tions of  the  British  Museum  for  many  years.     "Of  persistent  ardor, 
indomitable  energy,  and  great  practical  power"  [A.  G  ]. 

3  William  Clift,  1775-1849 ;  curator  of  the  Hunterian  Museum  of 
the  Royal  College  of  Surgeons. 

JET.  28.]  JOURNAL. 

(or  Clift)  the  curator  of  the  Hunterian  Museum,  the 
man  who  exposed  Sir  Everard  Home,  who  invited  us 
to  come  and  see  that  museum.  While  we  were  con- 
versing, a  gentleman,  whom  Hooker  did  not  at 
the  time  recognize,  addressed  us,  and  after  some 
conversation  with  me  asked  me  if  I  would  like  to 
be  introduced  to  Sir  Astley  Cooper,  and  see  his  mu- 
seum. I  answered  of  course  that  it  would  be  a  great 
gratification,  when  he  introduced  himself  as  Bransby 
Cooper,  the  nephew  of  Sir  Astley,  —  of  whom  I  have 
heard  formerly  not  a  little, — gave  me  his  address, 
and  Joseph  Hooker  and  myself  are  to  call  on  him  on 
Monday  next.  I  was  introduced  also  to  Dr.  Roget,1 
but  saw  not  so  much  of  him  as  I  could  wish ;  so  you 
see  I  have  met  more  distinguished  men  in  one  day 
than  I  might  elsewhere  meet  with  perhaps  in  a 
whole  life.  But  I  must  break  off ;  I  am  engaged  to 
breakfast  in  the  morning  with  Hooker,  to  meet  also 
Dr.  Richardson.  .  .  . 

WHITE  BEAR,  PICCADILLY,  18th  January,  1839,  Friday  evening. 

I  am  not  yet  in  private  lodgings,  but  hope  to  be  so 
to-morrow.  You  must  not  expect  me  to  mention  half 
the  things  I  see  in  a  day  here  in  this  busy  metropolis, 
where  as  yet  everything  I  have  seen  has  been  viewed 
in  the  most  desultory  manner.  I  breakfasted  with 
Hooker  and  Richardson,  who  left  me  for  a  half  hour 
at  the  Adelaide  Gallery,  where  I  saw  very  many  things 
to  interest  me,  which  we  will  not  stop  to  talk  of  now, 
as  I  hope  to  be  there  again;  among  other  things,  a 
live  Gymnotus  or  Electrical  Eel,  which  gives  powerful 
shocks,  they  say,  for  I  did  not  choose  to  feel  it  myself. 

1  Peter  Mark  Rog-et,  M.  D.,  1779-1869  ;  secretary  of  the  Royal 
Society,  London.  Wrote  Animal  and  Vegetable  Physiology,  and  the 
well-known  Thesaurus. 

114  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

Thence  we  visited  the  Museum  of  the  Zoological  So- 
ciety, for  which  Dr.  Richardson  not  only  procured  us 
free  admittance,  but  procured  for  us  an  order  to  visit 
the  Zoological  Gardens ;  made  calls  with  Hooker, 
whom  Joseph  and  I  left  with  the  Chancellor  of  the  Ex- 
chequer in  Downing  Street,  while  we  passed  by  West- 
minster Hall  and  Abbey  down  to  Bentham's,  who  has 
a  beautiful  residence  as  retired  as  the  country.  Found 
Bentham  an  exceedingly  pleasant  and  amiable  man  ; 
spent  an  hour  or  two,  till  Hooker  came  in  ;  accepted 
an  invitation  to  dine  with  him  to-morrow ;  went  into 
the  City  ;  introduced  to  Richard  Taylor,1  at  his  print- 
ing-office ;  were  all  invited  to  breakfast  on  Tuesday 
morning  next ;  went  to  Longman's  famous  bookstore 
and  warehouse  ;  one  of  the  young  Longmans  politely 
showed  us  over  the  building,  showed  us  room  after 
room  filled  with  solid  literature,  —  a  most  surprising 
quantity ;  went  by  St.  Paul's  again,  saw  the  Bank,  etc. ; 
took  an  omnibus  again  to  West  End  ;  passed  by  the 
London  University,  etc.  Joe  Hooker  and  I  went  to 
dine  with  J.  E.  Gray,  who  has  taken  it  into  his  head 
to  show  us  no  little  attention  ;  he  has  lately  married 
a  rich  wife,  a  widow,  much  older  than  himself ;  I  was 
quite  pleased  with  her.  Went  to  the  Botanical  So- 
ciety, —  poor  concern  ;  and  then  to  hear  Faraday  give 
the  first  lecture  of  the  season  at  the  Royal  Institution, 
Mr.  Gray  having  kindly  offered  us  tickets.  I  was 
unexpectedly  introduced  to  Faraday  just  before  the 
lecture  ;  pleasant  man,  with  a  very  quick  and  lively 
expression  of  countenance.  The  lecture  was  on  Elec- 
trical Eels,  etc. ;  most  elegant  lecturer  he  is  ;  brilliant 
and  rapid  experimenter.  I  hope  to  hear  him  again. 

1  Richard  Taylor ;  printer ;  for  many  years  secretary  of  the  Limiaaan 

MT.  28.]  JOURNAL.  115 

Saturday  evening,  January  19.  —  I  am  now  in 
lodgings,  No.  36  Northumberland  Street,  near  North- 
umberland House,  Charing  Cross,  in  the  room  just 
vacated  by  Dr.  Richardson ;  sixteen  shillings  a  week, 
and  a  shilling  for  my  breakfast  when  I  choose  to  take 
it  here.  It  is  half  past  eleven.  I  have  just  come  in ; 
no  fire,  but  fortunately  my  occupation  for  to-day  is 
soon  told.  Hooker,  Joe,  and  I  breakfasted  with 
Brown  at  his  house,  and  stayed  with  him  until  four 
o'clock  in  the  afternoon !  I  have  a  good  deal  to  say 
about  him,  but  not  here.  He  is  a  curious  man  in 
other  things  besides  botany.  He  has  a  few  choice 
paintings,  and  a  few  exquisite  engravings  he  has 
picked  up  on  the  Continent.  I  coveted  them  for  you. 
They  are  just  what  we  should  be  delighted  to  have. 
I  dressed  for  dinner,  then  drove  with  my  luggage  to 
my  present  lodgings,  and  then  took  up  Hooker  and 
Joe  for  Bentham's  to  dinner  at  half  past  six,  where 
we  met  Lindley  and  Mr.  Brydges ;  the  dinner  was 
just  the  beau  ideal  of  taste  and  simple  elegance.  In 
the  drawing  -  room  coffee  was  served  up,  and  in  a 
half  hour  Assam  tea.  I  am  greatly  pleased  with 
Bentham,  and  delighted  with  Mrs.  B.  But  more  of 
this  anon.  We  are  to  breakfast  with  him  on  Monday, 
and  then  make  up  a  party  to  Kew  and  the  Horticul- 
tural Gardens.  The  house  he  lives  in,  a  pleasant  place, 
plain  but  tastefully  furnished  and  arranged,  was  the 
one  where  Jeremy  Bentham  lived.  .  .  . 

Tuesday  evening,  January  22. —  I  have  to  account 
for  myself  for  two  days  past,  but  fortunately  this  can 
be  done  in  general  terms  in  few  words.  Were  I  to 
enter  very  fully  into  particulars  I  should  fill  several 
sheets.  Yesterday  Sir  William  Hooker,  Joseph,  and 
I  breakfasted  according  to  appointment  with  Ben- 

116  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

tham,  and  set  out,  although  the  day  was  rainy,  for  a 
visit  to  the  Horticultural  Gardens  at  Chiswick.  We 
went  in  an  omnibus,  and  I  noticed  on  the  way  Apsley 
House  (Duke  of  Wellington),  and  the  monument  to 
his  Grace  in  Hyde  Park,  near  his  house  (what  is 
the  good  of  honors,  indeed,  if  one  cannot  see  them  ?), 
Holland  House,  which  I  saw  from  some  distance, 
etc.  We  found  Lindley  at  the  Gardens,  and  looked 
through  the  grounds.  They  have  very  few  hothouses 
as  yet,  but  have  just  dug  the  foundation  of  a  very 
splendid  one,  which  is,  however,  to  form  one  wing 
merely  of  the  general  plan.  We  went  to  Kew,  about 
two  miles  farther,  and  looked  through  those  fine  old 
grounds  and  gardens.  The  hothouses  and  the  collec- 
tions in  them  were  much  larger  and  more  interesting 
than  I  had  anticipated.  They  are  particularly  rich  in 
New  Holland  and  Cape  plants.  There  is  a  new  con- 
servatory for  large  plants,  a  fine  one  certainly,  which 
cost  six  thousand  pounds,  and  the  roof  was  taken  from 
the  greenhouse  at  Buckingham  Palace,  and  therefore 
cost  nothing.  It  seems  an  extravagant  job,  and  Mr. 
Bentham  feels  sure  a  much  better  one  of  the  same  size 
could  be  built  for  four  thousand  pounds.  While  here 
we  paid  a  visit  to  Francis  Bauer,1  now  eighty-five 
years  old,  and  much  broken  down,  but  still  hard  at 
work,  and  making  as  beautiful  drawings  as  ever  (be- 
yond comparison  excellent),  and  as  delicate  micro- 
scopical examinations.  He  has  lately  been  working 
at  fossil  Infusoria,  and  showed  me  figures  of  Bailey's 
plate  in  "  Silliman's  Journal "  which  he  had  copied. 
He  was  greatly  pleased  when  I  offered  to  send  him 
specimens  of  the  things  themselves.  He  showed  me 
the  original  red  snow  from  arctic  America,  and  also  his 

1  Francis  Bauer ;  botanical  artist  to  George  III. 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  Ill 

splendid  drawings.    Returned  to  town,  and  dined  with 

This  morning  we  breakfasted  with  Richard  Taylor 
in  the  City ;  and  went  afterwards  to  the  College  of 
Surgeons,  by  appointment  Hooker  had  made,  to  see 
Professor  Owen,  and  the  fine  museum  of  the  college 
under  his  charge  (John  Hunter's  originally)  ;  a  mag- 
nificent collection  it  is,  in  the  finest  possible  order ; 
and  the  arrangement  and  plan  of  the  rooms  is  far, 
very  far  better  and  prettier  than  any  I  have  seen. 
I  shall  make  some  memoranda  about  it.  We  there 
met  Mr.  Darwin,  the  naturalist  who  accompanied 
Captain  King  in  the  Beagle.  I  was  glad  to  form  the 
acquaintance  of  such  a  profound  scientific  scholar  as 
Professor  Owen, — the  best  comparative  anatomist  liv- 
ing, still  young,  and  one  of  the  most  mild,  gentle, 
childlike  men  I  ever  saw.  He  gave  us  a  great  deal 
of  most  interesting  information,  and  showed  us  per- 
sonally throughout  the  whole  museum.  I  am  every 
day  under  deeper  obligations  to  Sir  William  Hooker, 
to  whom  I  owe  the  gratification  of  forming  so  many 
acquaintances  under  such  favorable  circumstances. 
Hooker  stays  over  night  often  at  his  brother-in-law's, 
Sir  Francis  Palgrave,  the  great  antiquarian  and  Saxon 
scholar,  Keeper  of  the  Records,  of  whom  I  have  read 
so  much  in  the  "  British  Review."  His  eldest  daugh- 
ter, Maria,  is  spending  the  winter  there.  On  Hooker's 
return  on  Monday  he  was  so  kind  as  to  bring  me  an 
invitation  from  Lady  Palgrave  to  dine  with  them  on 
Saturday,  which  will  be  the  last  I  shall  see  of  Hooker, 
as  he  is  to  set  out  on  Monday  for  home.  In  the  after- 
noon we  spent  an  interesting  hour  in  looking  through 
the  vast  halls  of  the  British  Museum,  particularly 
through  the  sculpture,  the  Elgin  marbles,  Egyptian 

118  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

antiquities,  etc.  These  last  are  much  more  grand  than 
I  had  supposed.  Indeed,  I  was  struck  with  wonder. 
I  hope  sometime  to  spend  a  day  or  two  in  looking 
through  these  rich  collections.  Called  on  Lyell  the 

We  dined  with  Dr.  Roget,  the  secretary  of  the 
Royal  Society,  where  we  met  Sir  Francis  Staunton,  a 
great  Oriental  scholar  and  traveler,  Professor  Royle, 
Dr.  Boott,  and  two  others  whose  names  I  forget.'  But 
best  of  all  Dr.  Boott  brought  me  a  letter  from  Dr. 
Torrey,  dated  December  25  (Christmas),  and  I  soon 
contrived  to  get  into  a  quiet  corner  to  read  it ;  right 
glad  I  was  to  hear  from  home  once  more ;  I  will 
answer  it  to-morrow.  We  left  very  early,  as  Hooker 
was  to  go  to  Hampstead,  where  Sir  Francis  Palgrave 
resides.  Joe  and  I  walked  with  him,  till  he  should 
find  a  stage  ;  but  as  none  overtook  us  and  the  night 
was  fine  we  walked  the  whole  way,  three  or  four  miles, 
and  having  left  Sir  William  safe  and  sound,  and  seen 
Sir  Francis  Palgrave  for  a  moment,  the  remainder  of 
the  family  having  retired  to  rest,  Joe  and  I  walked 
back  again  to  town.  I  confess  I  am  a  little  tired,  and 
am  quite  willing  to  go  to  bed.  A  Dieu. 

Wednesday,  January  23,  1839.  —  Breakfasted  and 
dined  with  Mr.  Bentham,  and  studied  plants  with  him 
all  day  and  a  good  portion  of  the  evening,  excepting 
an  hour  or  so  in  the  morning  when  we  walked  out,  and 
Bentham  took  me  through  the  splendid  house  of  the 
Athenaeum  Club,  and  we  also  visited  the  National  Gal- 
lery, and  saw  fine  paintings  in  great  numbers  from 
almost  every  artist  ancient  or  modern.  It  is  very 
near  my  lodgings,  and  I  intend  to  visit  it  again.  Here 
are  some  of  West's  original  pictures,  and  likewise  the 
paintings  or  sketches  of  Hogarth  from  which  his  well- 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  119 

known  engravings  were  taken.  They  are  much  more 
expressive  than  the  prints.  E.  would  enjoy  many  of 
them  very  much,  and  especially  some  of  Wilkie's  of 
the  same  kind. 

I  am  to  take  my  breakfast  in  my  lodgings  to- 
morrow morning,  which  I  have  as  yet  done  but  once. 
I  sent  yesterday  my  letter  of  introduction  to  William 
Christy,  who  lives  out  of  town,  and  received  to-day  a 
most  polite  invitation  to  dine  with  him  to-morrow, 
and  meet  Hooker  and  Joe. 

Thursday.  —  Breakfast  at  home.  Call  with  Joe 
Hooker  on  Bransby  Cooper,  and  then  on  Sir  Astley 
Cooper;  pleasantly  received,  saw  some  very  curious 
preparations  ;  spent  the  morning  with  Bentham,  and 
dined  at  Mr.  Christy's,  Clapham  Koad,  where  I  spent 
an  agreeable  evening.  Returning,  wrote  a  letter  to 
Dr.  Torrey  to  go  by  mail  to-morrow  to  Bristol  for  the 
Great  Western. 

Friday  evening. — I  breakfasted  at  my  lodgings 
this  morning,  and  afterwards  walked  out  with  Sir 
William  and  Joe  Hooker  to  Regent's  Park ;  went  to 
the  Coliseum  to  see  the  Panorama  of  London,  and  well 
worth  seeing  it  is.  It  will  save  me  a  visit  to  the  top 
of  the  dome  of  St.  Paul's,  I  think,  for  the  Panorama 
is  said  to  be  more  perfect  than  nature.  I  will  say  no 
more  about  it,  as  Dr.  Torrey  has  seen  it.  The  illusion 
is  perfect,  were  it  not  for  some  unseemly  cracks  in  the 
sky !  We  called  on  Dr.  Boott ;  then  went  into  the 
City.  Our  object  was  to  visit  the  museum  at  the  India 
House  (where  the  poet  Lamb  spent  so  great  a  portion 
of  his  life).  I  made  the  acquaintance  of  Dr.  Hors- 
field,1  the  curator,  who  also  collected  the  best  part  of 

1  Thomas  Horsfield,  M.  D.,  1774-1859.  Born  in  Pennsylvania. 
After  sixteen  years  in  Java,  passed  the  rest  of  his  life  in  London  as 

120  FIRST    JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

the  museum  in  Java  and  India.  He  is  an  American, 
if  you  can  so  call  a  man  who  has  not  been  in  the 
country  since  the  year  1800.  I  was  much  interested 
with  the  library,  which  contains  a  vast  quantity  of 
Indian  idols,  sculptures,  and  antiquities,  as  well  as 
fine  Chinese  curiosities.  It  is  immensely  rich,  also,  in 
Indian,  Persian,  and  Arabic  manuscripts  ;  the  finest 
in  the  world  in  such  things.  Some  of  the  Persian 
(Arabic)  manuscripts  are  most  beautifully  illustrated, 
or  illuminated,  and  the  writing  is  neater  than  you  can 
conceive.  Here  is  preserved  also  an  original  petition 
of  the  India  Company  to  Oliver  Cromwell,  with  the 
answer  in  his  own  rough  and  strong  handwriting.1  .  .  . 
We  dined  at  Lambert's,  where  we  found  Robert  Brown, 
Mr.  Ward,2  who  had  been  looking  for  me,  and  imme- 
diately asked  me  to  name  a  day  to  see  his  plants  in 
the  Wardian  cases,  and  an  evening  erelong  to  examine 
some  thirty  or  forty  first-rate  microscopes  which  he 
has  in  his  house  ;  also  Dr.  Bostock,  Mr.  Benson,  a 
legal  gentleman,  a  great  scholar  and  author ;  and  last, 
not  least,  yet  certainly  almost  the  last  person  I  should 
have  expected  to  see,  Lady  Charlotte  Bury  (formerly 
Lady  Charlotte  Campbell),  whom  you  will  remember 
as  the  author  of  that  book  on  the  secret  history  of 
the  court  of  George  IV.  and  his  Queen,  of  which  we 
read  together,  that  summer,  the  deeply  interesting  re- 
view by  Brougham.  Lady  Bury  is  now  supposed  to 
be  sixty  years  old,  and  was  for  a  long  time  considered 
as  the  handsomest  woman  in  Great  Britain  ;  she  still 

keeper  of  the  museum  of  the  East  India  Company.  Brown  &  Bennett 
published  part  of  his  collections,  Plantce  Javanicce  Rariares. 

1  I  forgot  to  mention  also  some  bricks  from  Babylon,  covered  with 
arrowhead  characters,  which  were  the  most  interesting  relics  of  an- 
tiquity I  almost  ever  saw.  —  A.  G. 

2  Nathaniel  B.  Ward,  1791-1868 ;  inventor  of  the  Wardian  case. 

JET.  28.]  JOURNAL.  121 

looks  well,  though  too  embonpoint,  and  dresses  like 
a  young  lady,  with  short  sleeves.  She  is  of  a  high 
family,  a  sister  of  the  present  Duke  of  Argyll,  and  is 
certainly  talented  ;  she  is  said  to  be  quite  poor.  Her 
daughters  are  married  into  families  of  rank,  except 
one  (Miss  Bury)  who  was  with  her  mother  at  Lam- 
bert's, whom  Sir  William  Hooker  thought  remarkably 
handsome,  but  I  did  not.  As  I  have  not  a  high  respect 
for  Lady  Bury's  character  I  did  not  throw  myself  into 
her  circle,  and  saw  almost  nothing  of  her  the  whole 
evening.  We  came  away  early. 

Saturday  evening.  —  I  paid  a  visit,  this  morning, 
in  company  with  Joe  Hooker,  to  the  Zoological  Gar- 
dens in  Regent's  Park,  where  we  saw  all  kinds  of  four- 
footed  beasts,  and  fowl,  and  creeping  things.  There 
are  four  giraffes,  but  none  quite  so  large  as  those  we 
saw  in  New  York.  There  were  a  very  fine  orang- 
outang, very  gentle  and  amiable,  a  curious  spider- 
monkey,  and  other  curious  animals  in  great  plenty. 
The  finest  residences  I  have  seen  in  London  are  those 
which  look  upon  Regent's  Park.  Returning,  we  called 
upon  Lambert,  Saturday  being  a  kind  of  public  day 
with  him,  and  there  met  that  Nestor  of  botanists, 
Mr.  Menzies,1  whom  I  found  a  most  pleasant  and 
kind-hearted  old  man;  he  invited  me  very  earnestly 
to  come  down  and  see  him,  which  I  will  try  to  do 
some  day.  Meanwhile  I  expect  to  meet  him  on  Tues- 
day at  Mr.  Ward's. 

We  just  had  time  to  go  down  into  the  City  to  call  011 
Mr.  Putnam  (publisher)  and  to  learn  that  copies  of 
the  "Flora"  had  arrived,  but  were  not  yet  cleared 

1  Archibald  Menzies,  1754-1842;  the  botanist  who  accompanied 
Vancouver  in  his  voyage  to  the  west  coasts  of  North  and  South 
America.  His  collections  are  in  the  Edinburgh  and  Kew  Herbariums. 

122  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

from  the  custom-house ;  then  took  the  Hampstead 
coach  to  dine  at  Sir  Francis  Palgrave's.  Excepting 
Hooker  and  Joe,  I  almost  forget  who  the  guests  were. 
I  was  not  interested  in  any  of  them  particularly.  Sir 
Francis  was  very  agreeable  ;  his  conversational  powers 
are  almost  equal  to  his  erudition.  His  lady,  who 
looks  very  much  like  Lady  Hooker,  is,  like  all  that 
family,  learned  and  accomplished.  I  was  glad  also  to 
meet  Hooker's  eldest  daughter. 

The  boys  interested  me  much  ;  I  think  I  never  saw 
more  intelligent  lads.  Sir  Francis  asked  me  to  call 
at  the  Chapter-House,  Westminster  Abbey,  his  office 
as  Keeper  of  the  Records,  and  he  would  show  me  the 
Domesday  Book.  How  a  sight  of  it  would  electrify 
Dr.  Barrett !  He  asked  me  at  dinner  the  meaning  of 
the  term  locofoco  as  applied  to  a  party  in  the  United 
States.  I  gave  him  the  story  of  the  meeting  in  Tam- 
many Hall  which  gave  rise  to  the  designation,  which 
afforded  much  amusement. 

Sunday  evening,  January  27.  —  I  was  better  pre- 
pared than  last  Sabbath,  for  I  took  pains  to  call  yes- 
terday at  the  office  of  the  Religious  Tract  Society, 
and  found  where  Baptist  Noel  preached.  It  is  St. 
John's  Chapel,  at  considerable  distance  from  here. 
Nevertheless  I  attended  there  to-day,  and  have  reason 
to  be  glad  that  I  did  so,  for  I  heard  a  most  excellent 
sermon  in  the  morning,  from  Psalm  ciii.  10—12.  Mr. 
Noel  is  a  most  simple,  winning  preacher,  and  his  'ser- 
mon was  the  most  thoroughly  evangelical  and  earnest 
I  ever  heard  from  an  Episcopal  pulpit.  I  wish  I 
could  give  you  some  idea  of  it.  I  took  notes  for  your 
benefit  as  well  as  I  could,  and  have  written  them  out, 
but  they  will  give  you  a  very  imperfect  idea  of  it. 
The  church,  a  large  one,  with  double  galleries  around 

*:T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  123 

three  sides,  was  crowded.  This  afternoon  his  assistant, 
Mr.  Gar  wood,  preached,  and  there  was  room  enough, 
but  we  had  a  good  sermon.  This  Mr.  Garwood,  you 
may  have  seen  by  the  papers,  has  lately  been  perse- 
cuted a  little  by  his  bishop,  for  acting  as  secretary  to 
the  London  City  Mission.  Both  he  and  Mr.  Noel 
are  doing  much  good  in  raising  the  standard  of  piety 
and  active  benevolence  in  the  church  they  belong  to. 
I  hope  by  next  Sunday  to  inquire  out  Dr.  Reed's 
church.  I  have  not  been  out  this  evening,  but  have 
employed  myself  in  copying  out  my  poor  notes  on 
the  morning  sermon,  which  I  trust  soon  to  forward  to 

Monday  evening,  January  28,  1839.  —  I  spent  the 
morning  with  Bentham,  by  appointment,  with  whom  I 
breakfasted  and  looked  at  Leguminosae  until  two  p.  M. ; 
then  joined  Joe  Hooker  (took  leave  of  Sir  William 
this  morning,  who  has  returned  to  Glasgow,  via~ 
Woburn)  ;  made  calls,  among  others  on  Dr.  Bostock, 
who  received  me  very  politely;  we  then  dined  to- 
gether at  a  chop-house ;  called  on  Dr.  Boott,  spent  an 
hour  or  two  in  his  very  pleasant  family  ;  then  attended 
a  meeting  of  the  Royal  Geographical  Society,  in 
which  all  that  interested  me  was  a  paper  by  Professor 
Robinson  of  New  York,  on  some  interesting  matters 
of  ancient  geography  connected  with  his  travels  in 
Asia  Minor.  The  paper  was  sent  to  the  Geographical 
Society  by  a  learned  German  geographer ;  it  excited 
much  interest.  .  .  . 

London,  January  24,  1839.  —  I  have  so  far  been 
seeing  men  and  things  chiefly,  but  have  had  one 
or  two  botanical  sittings  with  Bentham,  who  is  a  thor- 
oughly kind  and  good  fellow.  He  immediately  had 
all  the  remaining  parcels  of  Douglas's  Californian 

124  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

and  Oregon  plants  sent  down  to  his  house,  and  has 
supplied  me  as  well  as  he  could ;  and  a  valuable  par- 
cel I  shall  have  of  them.  .  .  . 

I  have  seen  considerable  of  Brown,  and  like  him 
much  better  than  I  thought,  although  he  is  certainly 
peculiar.  The  day  we  breakfasted  with  him  we  re- 
mained until  four  p.  M.,  and  he  offered  to  show  anything 
I  wished  at  the  British  Museum.  He  showed  us  all 
Bauer's  drawings  in  his  possession  (I  have  since  seen 
Francis  Bauer).  He  has  much  more  general  infor- 
mation than  I  supposed ;  is  full  of  gossip,  and  has  a 
great  deal  of  dry  wit. 

He  is  growing  old  fast,  and  I  suspect  works  very 
little  now,  and  I  fear  there  is  not  very  much  more 
work  now  to  be  expected  of  him.  He  knows  every- 
thing !  .  .  . 

I  spent  a  good  part  of  yesterday  with  Bentham,  and 
was  to  have  met  Hooker  at  the  Geological  Society  in 
the  evening ;  but  botany  prevailed  and  I  stayed  with 
Bentham,  and  was  a  little  sorry  afterwards,  as  I 
should  have  seen  at  the  society  Whewell !  Daubeny ! 
Chantry  the  sculptor,  etc.  —  I  have  bought  a  colored 
copy  of  Wallich's  "Plantae  Asiaticae  Rariores,"  3 
vols.  fol.,  very  fine,  for  X15  ;  the  publishing  price 
was  X36, —  the  present  price  by  Henry  Bohn,  who 
has  bought  up  not  only  this  but  almost  every  other 
expensive  British  work  on  natural  history,  is  .£26.  It 
is  not  yet  come  round  from  Edinburgh.  I  will  soon 
send  it  to  you.  ...  I  have  seen  the  "  Atakta  Bo- 
tanica  "  of  Endlicher,  where  there  is  a  plate  of  Un- 
gnadia  (not  Ungnodia,  as  spelled  in  "  Companion 
to  the  Botanical  Magazine  "),  but  no  letter-press  as 
yet.  .  .  . 

January  30,  Wednesday  evening.  .  .  .  Yesterday 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  125 

morning  Joe  Hooker  and  myself  breakfasted  together, 
and  then  paid  a  visit  to  Westminster  Abbey,  which 
we  examined  in  every  part,  from  Poets'  Corner  to 
Henry  VII.'s  Chapel.  .  .  . 

As  we  left  the  Abbey  (where,  by  the  way,  we  were 
most  thoroughly  chilled  with  our  long  stay),  we  went 
into  the  Chapter  House  adjoining,  a  very  antique 
building  crammed  with  old  records  and  musty  manu- 
scripts, and  Sir  Francis  Palgrave  kindly  showed  us 
the  famous  Domesday  Book,  which  is  in  a  perfect 
state  of  preservation ;  all  the  writing  perfectly  dis- 
tinct, and  so  plainly  executed  that  we  could  read  it, 
here  and  there,  with  moderate  facility.  He  showed 
us  a  copy  of  a  treaty  made  with  France  by  Cardinal 
Wolsey,  of  which  the  immense  seal  appended  was  cut 
in  gold,  and  of  the  most  elaborate  workmanship.  We 
saw  also  the  original  papal  bull  sent  to  Henry  VIII., 
constituting  him  "  Defender  of  the  Faith  "  !  We  went 
from  this  to  Westminster  Hall ;  saw  the  large  room, 
which  is  very  fine ;  looked  into  the  Court  of  Exche- 
quer, and  saw  the  Lord  Chancellor  and  other  judges 
in  their  full-bottom  wigs,  most  funny  to  behold,  I 
assure  you ;  and  the  barristers  with  their  queer  horse- 
hair wigs,  frizzled  on  the  top  of  their  heads,  but  tied 
up  into  nice  and  regular  curls  behind,  which  fall  upon 
their  shoulders.  The  case  of  the  Canadian  prisoners 
was  then  under  consideration.  We  then  rode  in  an 
omnibus  to  the  City  and  visited  St.  Paul's  Church, 
which,  grand  as  it  is,  does  not  show  to  advantage  after 
Westminster  Abbey.  The  monumental  statuary  is 
very  fine ;  some  of  it  I  would  mention,  but  the  ex- 
treme lateness  of  the  hour  obliges  me  discreetly  to 
break  off  and  finish  my  account  of  the  day  hereafter. 
Bon  soir,  or  rather  Bon  jour  ! 

126  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

Thursday  evening.  ...  To  commence  where  I  broke 
off  with  Tuesday.  We  went  to  dine,  by  appointment, 
with  Mr.  Ward,  the  plant-case  man,  at  three  P.  M., 
which  hour  was  appointed  for  the  purpose  of  showing 
us  the  plant-cases,  etc.,  by  daylight.  Ward  is  one  of 
the  most  obliging  men  I  ever  knew.  I  was  perhaps  a 
little  disappointed  in  his  plants,  but  this  is  the  very 
worst  season  of  the  year,  particularly  in  London,  and 
his  house,  which  is  in  the  heart  of  the  city,  near  Lon- 
don Docks,  is  very  badly  situated  as  to  light.  But  I 
have  learned  something  from  him,  and  feel  confident 
that  I  shall  be  able  to  manage  our  plant-cases  much 
better  hereafter.  Menzies  was  there,  and  a  truly  kind- 
hearted  old  man  he  is.  I  was  to  have  returned  in 
time  to  spend  the  evening  at  Bentham's,  but  owing  to 
the  stormy  weather  I  did  not  reach  my  lodgings  till  it 
was  too  late.  On  Friday  (a  snowy  day)  I  was  out 
rather  late ;  went  to  Bentham's,  where  I  spent  the 
whole  morning,  dined  with  him  and  Mrs.  Bentham, 
three  in  all !  —  they  have  no  children,  and  live  in  the 
most  cosy  and  quiet  way  you  could  imagine  —  and 
spent  the  whole  evening  with  him  in  labeling  plants 
which  he  selected  for  me  from  his  duplicates.  To-day, 
Joseph  Hooker  having  concluded  to  postpone  till  this 
evening  his  departure  for  Glasgow,  and  having  writ- 
ten accordingly  to  Ward  to  meet  us,  we  visited  the 
famous  greenhouses  and  conservatories  of  Loddiges. 
Miss  Maria  Hooker  was  with  us,  having  come  out 
from  Hampstead  for  the  purpose.  It  is  rather  a  long 
ride  to  Hackney,  but  we  were  well  repaid.  The  col- 
lection of  Orchidea3  is  immense  and  very  beautiful,  but 
a  very  small  portion  is  now  in  flower.  The  palm- 
house,  ample  and  magnificent  as  it  is,  rather  disap- 
pointed me;  it  seemed  not  so  much  larger  than  that 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  127 

of  the  Edinburgh  garden,  and  the  plants  are  not  in 
such  nice  order.  Loddiges  was  very  kind  to  me. 
Ward  selected  a  few  pretty  plants  for  Miss  Hooker. 
I  forgot  for  the  moment  that  there  was  such  a  world 
of  waters  between  us,  and  was  on  the  point  of  selecting 
some  for  you  know  whom  ;  I  am  not  sure  that  I  did 
not  bring  some  after  all. 

Loddiges  took  us  to  his  house  and  showed  his  col- 
lection of  humming-birds,  which  is  the  finest  in  the 
world.  He  had  nearly  200  species,  and  usually  sev- 
eral specimens  of  a  kind,  very  beautifully  mounted 
and  arranged.  You  can't  imagine  how  beautiful  they 
are  !  They  are  his  great  pets,  and  I  do  not  wonder. 
I  returned  through  the  City,  stopped  a  few  moments 
at  the  British  Museum,  dined  with  Joe  Hooker  at  his 
hotel  near  me,  and  shortly  after  saw  him  start  for 
Glasgow.  I  sent  by  him  a  copy  of  "  Outre  Mer  "  to 
Lady  Hooker.  At  nine  P.  M.  I  went  to  the  meeting  oj 
the  Royal  Society,  heard  a  paper  read  of  the  Hon. 
Fox  Talbot's  on  the  power  of  objects  not  only  to  sit 
for,  but  to  draw  their  own  portraits,  which  has  just 
been  making  a  great  noise  in  France.  It  is  done  by 
the  influence  of  the  light  of  the  sun  upon  paper  pre- 
pared by  nitrate  or  chloride  of  silver.  Talbot  seems 
to  have  found  out  all  about  it  long  ago,  but  the  French 
have  published  first.  I  will  write  the  doctor  more 
particularly  about  it,  and  send  the  "  Athenaeum  "  con- 
taining the  account  when  it  appears. 

I  have  neglected  to  say  that  I  received  two  days 
ago  a  very  kind  note  from  Lindley  inviting  me  to 
come  down  to  his  place,  dine  with  him  on  Sunday 
next,  stay  all  night,  spend  Monday  at  his  herbarium, 
and  meet  a  few  botanical  friends  at  dinner,  and  re- 
turn next  morning.  I  declined  of  course  the  invita- 

128  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

tion  as  far  as  it  related  to  Sunday,  but  accepted  it  for 
Monday,  and  offered  to  get  down  to  Turnham  Green 
in  time  to  breakfast  with  him.  This  morning  I  re- 
ceived another  note  from  him,  pointing  out  the  way  in 
which  I  may  reach  his  house  in  time.  I  have  also  a 
letter  from  Francis  Bauer,  inclosing  some  European 
Infusoria,  in  return  for  a  few  of  Bailey's  I  gave  him. 
I  will  send  a  portion  to  Professor  Bailey. 

Friday  evening,  February  1.  —  I  spent  the  earliest 
part  of  the  morning  in  my  own  room ;  then  went 
to  Lambert's,  and  commenced  the  examination  of 
Pursh's  plants.  After  dining  in  a  simple  way  by 
myself,  I  went  to  Bentham's,  by  appointment,  to 
spend  the  evening  in  looking  out  duplicate  plants.  I 
found  him  and  Mrs.  B.  sitting  cosily  together  in  the 
study.  We  had  a  cup  of  tea  and  some  chat,  and  then 
fell  to  work  until  half  past  eleven,  when  I  came  away 
walking  as  usual  by  Westminster  Abbey,  of  which  I 
often  get  very  good  nocturnal  views. 

Saturday  evening,  February  2.  ...  Brown  has 
been  very  kind  to  me,  in  his  peculiar  way.  I  have 
seen  him  but  twice  since  Hooker  and  I  breakfasted 
with  him,  but  I  hope  soon  to  be  at  work  at  the  British 
Museum  and  to  see  more  of  him.  He  is  very  fond 
of  gossip  at  his  own  fireside,  and  amused  us  ex- 
tremely with  his  dry  wit,  but  in  company  he  is  silent 
and  reserved.  I  have  found  out  also  that  it  does  not 
do  to  ask  him  directly  any  question  about  plants.  He 
is,  as  old  Menzies  told  us,  the  driest  pump  imaginable. 
But  although  he  will  not  bear  direct  squeezing,  yet  by 
coaxing  and  very  careful  management  any  one  he  has 
confidence  in  may  get  a  good  deal  out  of  him.  He 
tells  me  that  Petalanthera,  Nutt.,  is  a  published 
genus,  and  promises  to  give  me  all  the  information 

JET.  28.]  JOURNAL.  129 

about  it  I  desire.  I  asked  him  some  question  about 
the  manner  in  which  the  vessels  of  ferns  uncoil.  He 
at  once  remarked,  "  They  unroll  like  a  ribbon "  ! 
Quekett  has  been  examining  them,  so  has  a  botanist 
in  India ;  all  are  much  interested  in  them.  I  placed 
Bailey's  specimens  afterwards  in  his  hands  and  also 
some  of  the  Infusoria,  which  he  expressed  himself 
much  pleased  with  when  I  saw  him  at  Lambert's.  By 
the  way,  the  Infusoria  were  sent  by  Bailey  himself. 
I  delivered  also  the  parcel  for  Lindley,  and  gave  the 
rest  I  had  mostly  to  Dr.  Roget,  Mr.  Lyell,1  and 
Francis  Bauer,  who  were  all  very  glad  to  get  them. 
I  have  saved  a  few  for  Mr.  Ward's  microscopical  party 
which  he  is  to  give  on  Wednesday  of  week  after  next. 
...  I  shall  also  order,  for  Sullivant,  Hooker's  "  Icones 
Plantarum,"  which  will  be  continued,  as  Hooker  fur- 
nishes all  the  matter  for  nothing  and  gives  the  plates, 
finding  paper  and  everything.  Although  there  is  not 
so  much  detail  as  I  could  wish,  yet  it  is  becoming  a 
very  valuable  collection  for  a  student  of  natural 
orders.  .  .  . 

Monday  evening.  —  I  have  seen  the  original  Taxus 
nucifera,  of  Thunberg,  both  leaves  and  fruit.  Arnott 
should  have  paid  more  attention  to  it.  It  is  very  like 
Torreya !  and  doubtless  a  congener,  —  and  so  Brown 
insinuates.  I  will  see  more  about  it  soon.  A  new 
edition  of  Lindley's  "  Introduction  to  Botany  "  is  pre- 
paring !  Sullivant  wants,  I  suppose,  a  microscope  of 
single  lenses  —  a  good  working  instrument  —  and  an 
achromatic.  This  last  I  think  I  shall  procure  for  him 
in  London,  where  they  produce  more  perfect  instru- 
ments than  the  French.  Can  you  send  Bentham  the 
Lindernias  ?  He  wishes  much  to  examine  them ;  send 
good  corollas. 

1  Sir  Charles  Lyell,  the  geologist. 

130  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

Arnott  seems  to  think  much  more  of  Nees  von 
Esenbeck  than  anybody  else.  It  is  generally  thought 
he  is  in  his  dotage,  and  a  sad,  very  sad  splitter  of 
straws.  .  .  . 

I  had  some  thoughts  of  going  to  Paris  via  Leyden, 
to  see  if  I  can  coax  anything  out  of  Blume,  but  he 
seems  to  have  behaved  rather  strangely  to  all  the 
English  botanists  I  have  yet  met  with.  You  ask 
whom  I  liked  best  in  Scotland  :  Hooker  is  all  in  all  ! 

A  new  Antarctic  expedition  is  planned  ;  indeed  is 
settled  upon  nearly,  to  be  commanded  by  James  Ross. 
But  a  part  of  the  administration  throw  difficulties  in 
the  way.  If  it  goes  Joseph  Hooker  is  to  be  the  nat- 
uralist. ...  By  the  way,  Corda's  "  Memoir  on  Im- 
pregnation of  Plants  "  turns  out  to  be  mere  humbug, 
and  it  seems  there  is  little  dependence  to  be  placed 
upon  him.  .  .  . 

Tell  Bailey  I  am  every  day  getting  information 
that  will  be  valuable  to  him,  in  the  microscopical  way. 
I  have  a  new  correspondent  for  him,  Mr.  Edwin  J. 
Quekett,1  50  Wellclose  Square,  London,  an  excellent 
microscopist.  I  will  write  soon  what  he  wants,  and 
he  will  send  through  me  some  microscopical  objects. 

P.  S.  —  I  have  just  had  the  offer  of  a  chance  to 
examine  Walter's  herbarium  as  much  as  I  like  !  —  to 
take  it  into  my  possession  for  a  week  if  I  like  !  and 
that  after  I  had  nearly  given  up  all  hopes  of  it. 

February  5,  eleven  o'clock,  evening.  ...  I  think 
I  mentioned  in  those  letters  how  yesterday  was  spent, 
viz.,  that  I  rose  early,  took  stagecoach  for  Turnham 
Green,  near  Chiswick,  where  Lindley  resides,  break- 
fasted and  spent  the  day.  Lindley  was  certainly  very 

J.  Quekett,  1808-1847.     Wrote  much  on  the  microscopic 
structure  of  plants  and  animals. 

JET.  28.]  JOURNAL.  131 

civil.  Mrs.  Lindley  is  a  quiet  lady  of  plain  man- 
ners and  apparently  very  domestic  habits.  Miss 
Drake,  whose  name  appears  as  the  artist  in  all  of 
Lindley's  plates  almost,  was  present,  and  is,  I  judge,  a 
member  of  his  family,  and  perhaps  a  relative  of  Mrs. 
Lindley.  I  saw  Lindley's  splendid  "  Sertum  Orchida- 
ceum,"  and  a  much  more  luxurious  work,  the  "  Orchi- 
daceae  of  Mexico  and  Guatemala,"  by  Bateman,  a  very 
large-paper  work  a  1'Audubon.  We  looked  over 
some  families  together  in  a  desultory  way,  and  I  took 
up  the  Lupines  and  compared  ours  carefully  with 
Lindley's,  which  were  named  by  Agardh.  At  dinner 
met  Dr.  Quekett  and  Mr.  Miers,1  a  traveler  in  Bra- 
zil. On  reaching  my  room  I  found  a  note  from  Bell, 
the  zoologist  (to  whom  I  brought  a  letter  from  John 
Carey,  but  left  at  his  house,  not  being  able  to  see  him), 
inviting  me  dine  as  his  guest  at  the  Linnaaan  Club, 
before  the  meeting  of  the  Linnaaan  Society.  Fortu- 
nately, as  I  do  not  like  club-dinners,  I  had  previously 
accepted  Bentham's  invitation  to  dine  quietly  with 
him  and  Mrs.  B.  on  that  day,  so  I  sent  a  note  of 
declinature.  I  have  already  told  you  of  my  failure, 
by  my  own  carelessness,  of  seeing  the  opening  of  Par- 
liament, which  I  regret,  as  I  should  like  to  see  the 
peers  in  official  costume,  and  the  peeresses  in  full 

It  did  not  break  my  heart,  but  I  returned  to  Ben- 
tham's and  looked  over  plants  until  the  hour  approached 
to  take  my  place  in  the  park  to  see  the  queen,  and  — 
what  is  finer  —  her  superb  horses,  with  what  success 
I  have  already  said ;  thence  to  the  Horticultural  So- 
ciety, where  I  received  the  welcome  letters.  After 

1  John  Miers,  1789-1879 ;  a  botanist  who  studied  in  South  Amer- 
ica and  wrote  many  papers. 

132  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

dispatching  my  parcel  of  letters  I  took  a  cab  for 
Bentham's,  as  it  was  raining  finely,  where  we  dined  in 
his  quiet,  elegant  way.  I  don't  think  Dr.  Torrey  saw 
enough  of  him,  at  least  in  his  own  house,  to  appreciate 
him  fully.  .  .  . 

You  may  well  infer  from  my  being  so  much  with 
him  that  he  is  my  favorite.  .  .  . 

Wednesday  evening.  —  After  breakfast  to-day  I  went 
to  Lambert's,  thinking  to  finish  nearly  the  examina- 
tion of  Pursh's  plants,  but  I  found  Lambert  on  the 
point  of  going  out,  though  the  morning  was  unpleas- 
ant. So  I  was  obliged  to  retrace  my  steps  ;  and  as  a 
dernier  ressort  I  went  to  the  British  Museum,  and 
commenced  my  examination  of  the  Banksian  Her- 
barium. Brown  was  there  most  of  the  time,  but  did 
very  little  except  to  read  the  newspaper  and  crack  his 
jokes.  I  broke  off  at  four  o'clock  ;  went  down  to  the 
City,  called  on  Mr.  Putnam,  took  a  parcel  of  late 
American  newspapers  away  with  me,  dined,  went  up 
to  Dr.  Boott's,  where  I  spent  the  evening  so  pleasantly 
that  eleven  o'clock  arrived  before  I  thought  of  it.  It 
is  now  twelve.  On  my  return  here  I  found  my  parcel 
had  arrived  from  Edinburgh,  the  beautiful  copy  of 
Wallich's  work,  a  very  complete  and  pretty  set  of 
British  Algae  from  Dr.  Greville,  and  some  letters 
of  introduction  for  the  Continent  which  he  has  obli- 
gingly favored  me  with.  I  must  write  a  letter  of 
thanks  to-morrow.  .  .  . 

Went  to  Ward's  to  see  the  tunnel.  .  .  .  We  had 
tea,  Miss  and  Mrs.  Ward  regaled  us  with  music,  —  and 
both  play  extremely  well ;  then  Ward  and  I  looked 
over  plants  until  nearly  half  past  ten,  when  we  had 
supper,  a  very  substantial  one,  and  I  took  my  leave, 
arriving  at  my  lodgings  a  little  after  twelve.  .  .  . 

«T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  133 

Sunday  evening,  February  10.  ...  This  morning 
I  attended  one  of  the  larger  Methodist  chapels,  where 
I  heard  an  excellent  sermon  from  1  Pet.  v.  7  :  "  Cast- 
ing all  your  care  upon  him ;  for  he  careth  for  you." 
A  portion  of  the  Episcopal  service  was  read  at  the  be- 
ginning from  the  desk ;  but  afterwards  the  clergy- 
man ascended  to  the  pulpit,  when  the  singing  and 
prayers  were  in  the  ordinary  manner.  In  the  after- 
noon I  went  to  hear  my  old  favorite  Baptist  Noel,  who 
was  to  preach  a  kind  of  charity  sermon  for  the  infant- 
schools  of  St.  Clement's,  Danes.  I  felt  satisfied  that 
we  should  have  a  close  and  fervent  sermon,  and  truly 
I  was  not  disappointed.  .  .  .  He  preaches  ex  tempore, 
but  has  the  most  perfect  facility  of  language ;  the 
words  drop  from  his  mouth  without  any  apparent 
effort,  but  he  never  repeats,  and  all  seems  equally  im- 
portant ;  so  unless  I  could  write  as  fast  as  he  speaks  I 
could  give  you  no  proper  idea  of  his  discourse.  His 
manner  is  so  exceedingly  placid  that  you  wonder  how 
he  fixes  the  attention  of  his  auditors  so  perfectly. 
There  are  many  other  clergymen  who  have  the  same 
ardent  piety,  and  the  number  I  hope  is  increasing ;  so 
that  one  cannot  help  expecting  great  things  from  this 
communion,  if  it  once  gets  free  from  the  contaminat- 
ing influence  of  the  political  power.  These  men  all 
preach  continually  to  crowded  houses,  which  is  an- 
other good  sign,  and  proves  that  the  people  are  ready 
to  hear  sound  doctrine.  I  hoped  to  have  heard  an- 
other of  the  same  stamp  this  evening,  and  went  all  the 
way  to  St.  Sepulcre's,  where  Mr.  Dale  preaches  in. 
the  evening,  but  he  was  out  of  town.  .  .  . 

February  5,  evening.  —  It  is  not  long  since  I 
closed  a  parcel  of  letters  for  you,  and  dispatched  them 
by  mail  to  Liverpool,  for  the  steamship  Liverpool,  by 

134  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

which  I  hope  they  will  reach  you  early.  I  have  since 
attended  a  meeting  of  the  Linnsean  Society,  Mr.  Fors- 
ter  in  the  chair.  Lambert  never  comes  now  for  fear 
of  meeting  Don,  and  also  because  he  is  a  little  piqued, 
perhaps  at  not  being  made  president.  Brown  seldom 
comes,  as  he  would  have  to  take  the  chair  in  Lambert's 
absence,  and  he.  fears  he  might  annoy  Lambert,  for 
Brown  is  extremely  tender  of  other  persons'  feelings. 
I  was  most  interested  in  the  nominations  to  fill  up  the 
five  vacancies  of  the  foreign  associates.  They  were 
Carus,  Milne  -Edwards,  Dutrochet,  Endlicher,  and 
Torrey.  The  nomination  was  signed  by  Bentham, 
Brown,  Boott,  Forster,  Owen,  etc.  I  knew  nothing 
of  it  till  just  before  the  meeting,  and  I  may  be  allowed 
to  say  that  I  felt  extremely  gratified  at  such  a  very 
handsome  compliment  paid  to  my  best  friend. 

Lindley  has  given  me  to-day  a  copy  of  Griffith's 
most  admirable  paper  in  the  last  part  of  the  "  Transac- 
tions Linnaean  Society,"  on  the  ovula  of  Santalum, 
Loranthus,  Viscum,  etc.,  an  anatomical  paper  of  the 
very  highest  order,  —  about  forty  pages,  with  eleven 
fine  plates.  I  am  going  to  buy  all  the  other  papers  on 
Botany  in  the  Linnsean  Transactions  which  I  think 
valuable.  They  can  be  had  of  Coxhead,  who  buys 
sets  and  pulls  them  to  pieces  to  sell  separately.  Let 
me  not  forget  to  tell  you  that,  after  having  made  dili- 
gent inquiry  of  Brown,  Bentham,  etc.,  I  had  nearly 
given  up  all  hopes  of  finding  Walter's 1  herbarium. 
I  spoke  to  Lindley  yesterday,  and  he  said  he  knew 
the  son  of  old  Fraser,  who  would  be  most  apt  to  know 
something  about  it,  and  would  give  me  his  address, 
by  which  I  could  find  him  if  in  town.  But  to-day, 

1  Thomas  Walter,  d.  1788,  in  Carolina,  U.  S.  Wrote  Flora  Caro- 

j£T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  135 

just  after  the  adjournment  of  the  Horticultural  So- 
ciety, and  while  I  was  glancing  over  your  kind  letters, 
Lindley  came  to  say  that  he  had  found  Walter's 
herbarium  for  me  !  He  introduced  me  to  Mr.  Fra- 
ser,  to  whom  it  belongs,  though  not  immediately  in 
his  possession,  who  offered  to  send  it  up  for  my  exam- 
ination to  the  Horticultural  Society's  rooms,  or  any- 
where I  chose.  I  hope  to  get  at  it,  with  Bentham, 
about  Friday.  I  shall  be  anxious  to  let  you  know  the 
result.  .  .  . 

I  am  most  clearly  of  the  opinion  that  any  person 
who  will  make  extensive  collections  of  North  American 
plants,  both  Northern  and  Southern,  and  include  also 
a  good  collection  from  Santa  Fe,  the  Platte  country, 
etc.,  have  his  sets  named  according  to  our  work,  and 
who  would  devote  four  or  five  years  to  the  business, 
could,  if  he  were  really  industrious  and  prudent,  re- 
alize $1000  per  annum  (clear).  He  should  continue 
my  grass-book  for  one  thing,  giving  loose  sets  only  for 
the  present  price,  and  while  from  time  to  time  he  sells 
off  collections  as  he  can,  should  retain  some  fifty  sets 
in  all  the  most  interesting  genera  or  small  families, 
get  all  the  species,  and  publish  them  in  monographic 
sets.  Knieskern  could  make,  with  the  aid  we  would 
gladly  furnish,  at  least  ten  times  as  much  money,  as 
long  as  he  lives,  as  he  ever  will  at  physic,  besides 
being  engaged  in  a  much  pleasanter  way.  I  know 
how  all  this  should  be  managed  now.  Now  for  Dr. 
Clapp.  Tell  him  that  Brown  informs  me  that  he  does 
not  think  jewel  lenses  can  be  depended  upon  as  pos- 
sessing any  advantage  over  glass.  He  has  an  excel- 
lent sapphire  one,  but  that  is  a  mere  chance,  and  no 
other  has  been  made  anything  like  it.  They  are  now 
almost  never  made,  and  appear  to  be  going  wholly  out 


of  use.  His  other  matters  I  will  take  in  hand,  but 
he  must  not  expect  $20  to  procure  a  doublet  ^th 
inch  focus,  two  micrometer  glasses,  and  a  case  of  dis- 
secting instruments.  I  have  some  engagements  before 
me  with  microscopical  people,  and  when  I  get  from 
them  all  the  information  I  can,  I  will  set  about  these 
affairs  more  understandingly.  .  .  . 

Saturday  evening,  February  9.  —  I  have  been  en- 
gaged nearly  the  whole  day  upon  the  herbarium  you 
so  much  wished  to  examine,  viz.,  that  of  Walter.  I 
have  not  yet  finished  it,  and  find  the  examination  very 
tedious,  as  the  specimens  are  very  often  not  labeled, 
except  with  the  genus  in  his  "Flora,"  so  that  I  have 
first  to  make  out  his  own  species,  and  then  what  they 
are  of  succeeding  authors. 

The  specimens  are  mostly  mere  bits,  pasted  down  in 
a  huge  folio  volume.  I  suspect  this  was  done  by 
Fraser,and  the  labels  have  sometimes  been  exchanged, 
so  that  it  requires  no  little  patience.  Some  of  the 
things  I  most  wished  to  see  are  not  in  the  collection, 
and  there  are  several  in  the  collection  which  are  not 
mentioned  in  the  "Flora."  You  would  laugh  to  see 
what  some  of  the  things  are  that  have  puzzled  us : 
thus,  for  instance,  his  "  Cucubalus  polypetalus "  is 
Saponaria  officinalis  !  His  "  Dianthus  Carolinianus  " 
is  Frasera !  in  fruit.  I  will  soon  send  you  my  notes 
on  the  collection,  or  a  copy  of  them.  Bentham  looked 
over  the  Leguminosse,  Labiata3,  etc.,  with  me.  I  have 
had  two  sittings  at  Pursh,  but  have  not  yet  finished  ; 
I  hope  another  day  will  do  it,  but  am  not  certain. 
I  shall  still  require  about  three  days  more  at  the  Brit- 
ish Museum,  two  at  the  LinnaBan  Society,  and  one  at 
Lindley's.  An  evening  or  two  at  Benthain's  will  suf- 
fice to  certify  his  LabiataB,  Scrophularina3,  etc.  I  must 

JET.  28.]  JOURNAL.  137 

also  have  a  day  with  Brown,  if  I  can  get  it  at  his  own 
house.  I  hope  very  nearly  to  finish  this  next  week,  if 
life  and  health  are  continued.  .  .  . 

February  12,  1839.  —  I  am  fearful  even  another 
day  will  not  see  the  end  of  Lambert's  collection,  and 
I  suspect  a  week  is  none  too  little  for  the  British 
Museum.  Lady  Charlotte  Bury  came  into  Lam- 
bert's and  had  a  long  chat  with  him;  such  a  pair 
of  originals !  She  is  to  dine  with  Lambert  on  Sun- 
day, but  stipulated  early,  as  she  always  made  it  a  point 
to  read  prayers  to  her  servants  on  Sunday  evening ! 

February  13,  Wednesday  evening,  or  rather  one 
o'clock,  Thursday.  —  Eose  and  breakfasted  at  eight, 
which  is  become  my  regular  practice;  started  for 
Lambert's  at  ten,  where  I  worked  incessantly  till  five 
P.  M.  ;  returned  to  my  room  ;  dressed ;  went  to  the 
City,  where  I  dined,  and  about  eight  o'clock  arrived  at 
Ward's,  whose  microscopical  party  this  evening  was 
given  chiefly  on  my  account.  Some  eight  or  more 
splendid  microscopes  were  in  active  use  when  I  ar- 
rived ;  and  the  greater  portion  of  the  chief  microscopic 
people  were  there.  I  was  introduced  to  Stokes,  Solly, 
Powel,  Bowerbank.1  .  .  .  Also  Mr.  Quekett,  whom 
I  knew  before,  and  several  amateurs,  such  as  Boott, 
Bennett,  Bentham,  Don,  were  present.  It  was  a  feast 
to  me,  you  may  be  sure,  and  I  acquired  some  useful 
knowledge,  and  saw  some  strange  things :  the  infuso- 
ria in  flint ;  queer  fossil  woods,  which  are  all  the  rage 
here,  and  are  extremely  curious  ;  fibrocellular  tissue, 
the  most  beautiful  thing  you  can  imagine.  One  of 
the  best  of  the  microscopists,  Mr.  Bowerbank,  gave  me 
one  or  two  curious  microscopical  objects,  which  he  had 

1  James  Scott  Bowerbank,  1797-1877.     Wrote  on  Sponges  and  the 
Fossil  Fruits  of  the  London  Clay. 

138  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.         [1839, 

mounted  for  himself,  and  made  an  appointment  with 
me  and  another  friend  to  meet  him  on  Monday  even- 
ing next,  to  examine  his  microscopes  and  curious  ob- 
jects more  quietly  and  at  large  than  could  be  done  in 
a  crowd,  and  to  prepare  some  specimens  for  me.  Mr. 
Reade,  a  gentleman  who  was  invited,  but  was  pre- 
vented from  attending,  was  so  kind  as  to  send  me  a 
copy  of  his  paper  on  the  Infusoria  and  Scales  of  Fishes 
found  in  Flint,  with  proof  impressions  which  are  far 
superior  to  those  in  the  "  Annals  of  Natural  His- 
tory."  .  .  . 

Tuesday  evening,  February  19.  —  Three  days  have 
passed  since  I  have  written  a  line  for  you.  This  sus- 
pension was  occasioned  by  my  late  hours  last  night. 
After  spending  the  morning  at  the  Horticultural  So- 
ciety, then  going  into  the  City,  where  I  dined,  then 
going  far  out  on  the  Mile-Find  Road  to  deliver  a  letter 
intrusted  to  me  by  Mr.  Scatcherd,  then  returning  as 
far  as  the  Bank,  I  went  again,  partly  by  omnibus  and 
partly  on  my  legs,  almost  as  far  in  the  northern  out- 
skirts of  the  town,  to  spend  an  evening  with  Mr. 
Bowerbank,  one  of  the  best  microscopists  in  London, 
who  owns  the  best  microscope.  I  found  so  much  to 
see  that  I  did  not  get  away  until  past  twelve,  and  then 
I  had  a  walk  before  me  almost  the  whole  length  of 
London,  —  from  New  North  Road  to  Charing  Cross. 
I  had  an  opportunity  of  seeing,  what  was  especially 
promised  me,  the  camera  lucida  applied  to  the  micro- 
scope ;  an  invaluable  invention  for  an  awkward  person 
like  me,  as  I  am  convinced  I  could  with  a  very  little 
practice  turn  out  very  fair  outline  sketches  of  objects 
I  might  be  examining.  I  acquired  much  information 
on  various  subjects ;  saw  some  most  curious  and  unique 
specimens  of  vegetable  structure,  and  particularly 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  139 

of  fossil  fruits,  of  which  Mr.  Bowerbank  possesses  an 
invaluable  collection ;  capsules,  which  we  broke  open, 
and  examined  not  only  the  seed,  with  its  testa,  raphe, 
and  funiculus,  but  even  the  pulp  which  surrounded  it. 
I  looked  at  many  of  his  specimens  of  recent  and  fossil 
wood,  at  his  unrivaled  cabinet  of  British  fossils,  and 
when  our  party  broke  up,  there  was  still  so  much  left 
that  we  made  an  appointment  for  another  evening. 
.  .  .  Mr.  Bentham,  Mr.  Brydges,  and  I  went  to  the 
Linnaean  Society ;  the  president,  the  Bishop  of  Nor- 
wich, was  in  the  chair,  —  an  amiable  old  gentleman. 
Boott,  Yarrell,  Ward,  Royle,  Forster,  et  multis  aliis, 
were  present.  Mr.  Forster l  invited  Dr.  Boott  and 
me  to  fix  a  day  to  visit  him  at  his  residence,  some 
miles  in  the  country,  and  dine  with  him.  He  is 
greatly  esteemed,  and  is  said  to  be  one  of  the  most 
kind-hearted  and  benevolent  of  men.  I  am  now  en- 
gaged, I  believe,  for  every  day  and  evening  of  this 
week,  and  half  of  next,  and  am  busy  enough,  I  assure 
you.  .  .  . 

Friday  evening,  February  22.  —  I  ought  hardly  to 
use  the  date  of  Friday  evening,  as  it  is  close  upon  one 
o'clock  of  Saturday  morning.  But  I  must  not  neglect 
my  journal,  and  shall  therefore  give  you  a  few  hasty 
lines  ere  I  prepare  for  rest.  I  passed  yesterday  morn- 
ing at  the  British  Museum,  that  is,  until  near  three 
o'clock.  I  then  hurried  to  my  lodgings,  snatched  a 
hasty  dinner  by  the  way,  and  went  to  the  House  of 
Commons,  Mr.  Bentham  having,  through  Dr.  Eomily, 
the  speaker's  clerk,  procured  me  an  order  of  admit- 
tance within  the  body  of  the  house,  where  I  had  the 
finest  opportunity  for  hearing  and  seeing.  There  was 

1  Edward  Forster,  1765-1849.    Made  vice-president  of  the  Linnseau 
Society  in  1828. 

140  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE,         [1839, 

nothing  very  important  brought  before  the  house,  yet 
on  different  subjects  nearly  all  the  leading  officers  of 
the  administration  took  the  floor,  Mr.  Rice,  the  Chan- 
cellor of  the  Exchequer,  Lord  John  Russell,  who  is 
evidently  a  man  of  most  ready  talent  and  tact,  Lord 
Palmerston,  Lord  Morpeth,  the  new  member  of  the 
cabinet,  etc.  I  was  exceedingly  amused  by  the  man- 
ner in  which  Lord  John  Russell  worsted  a  Colonel 
Sibthorpe,  an  opposition  member,  who  moved  cer- 
tain resolutions  relative  to  Lord  Durham's  expenses, 
couched  in  an  offensive  manner,  and  made  a  still  more 
objectionable  speech.  Lord  J.  Russell,  in  very  placid 
manner,  set  him  out  in  such  a  ridiculous  light,  that 
the  gallant  colonel  first  lost  his  temper  completely, 
and  then  lost  his  point,  being  obliged  to  withdraw  his 
own  resolutions.  I  heard  also,  for  a  moment,  Sir 
Robert  Peel,  Dr.  Lushington,  Mr.  Hume,  and  others 
too  tedious  to  enumerate.  As  to  general  decorum,  or 
the  manner  in  which  members  often  treat  each  other 
in  debate,  I  don't  think  we  have  much  to  learn.  .  .  . 

I  spent  this  morning  at  the  British  Museum  ;  dined 
with  Mr.  Putnam  at  a  chop-house,  and  went  to  spend 
the  evening  at  Mr.  Quekett's.  I  found,  instead  of 
having  the  evening  alone  as  I  expected  and  wished, 
that  he  had  invited  several  friends,  most  of  whom  I 
knew.  Still,  after  tea  the  microscopes  were  produced, 
and  I  had  the  opportunity  of  examining  very  many 
curious  things. 

If  they  don't  get  out  of  my  head  in  the  mean  time 
I  will  try  to  mention  some  of  them  to  Dr.  Torrey 
when  I  go  on  with  my  letter  to  him.  As  eating  is  a 
very  important  matter  here,  we  had  a  magnificent 
supper  at  half  past  ten,  and  it  was  near  twelve  when  I 
left,  with  a  walk  of  four  miles  before  me.  .  .  . 

MT.  28.]  JOURNAL.  141 

Saturday  evening. — This  has  been  a  busy  and  some- 
what interesting  day  with  me.  I  rose  early,  went 
down  to  Bentham's  to  breakfast,  stayed  until  eleven 
o'clock,  and  then  went  up  to  Brown's  house  to  spend 
the  morning,  according  to  previous  appointment. 
We  talked  profound  botanical  matters,  and  Brown 
not  only  amused  and  interested  me,  but  gave  me 
much  valuable  information.  He  talks  of  visiting 
America,  possibly  next  summer,  and  I  have  promised 
to  plan  him  a  route.  I  left  him  about  four  o'clock, 
returned  to  my  lodgings,  dressed  hastily,  took  a  Ken- 
sington omnibus,  and  reached  old  Mr.  Menzies'  little 
place  at  five.  Mr.  Ward,  who  was  to  meet  us,  was 
not  there.  We  left  at  half  past  ten,  and  walked  all 
the  way  back,  about  four  miles.  So  here  I  am  safe 
again.  I  read  over  the  doctor's  short  letter  again. 
I  am  trying  to  imagine  how  Herbert  looks  now.  He 
has  probably  changed  very  much  since  I  parted  from 
him.  I  have  a  very  especial  love  for  that  little  fel- 
low.1 I  must  find  time  to  write  to  the  girls,  yet  fear 
I  shall  scarcely  be  able  until  I  have  left  London.  Tell 
them  I  think  of  them  daily  even  if  I  cannot  write 
them.  As  to  M's  French  letter,  it  is  not  due  until  I 
get  to  France ;  but  that  will,  I  trust,  be  soon.  Adieu. 

Sunday,  February  24.  I  was  fortunate  this  morn- 
ing in  being  able  to  hear  a  man  I  had  heard  spoken 
of,  and  of  whom  I  had  formed  a  high  opinion :  the 
Rev.  Thomas  Dale,  Vicar  of  St.  Bride's,  who  also 
preaches  in  the  evening  at  St.  Sepulcre's.  He 
preached  from  the  first  part  of  Luke  vii.  47  :  "  Her 
sins,  which  are  many,  are  forgiven  ;  for  she  loved 

1  Herbert  Gray  Torrey,  born  just  before  Dr.  Gray  sailed,  was  his 

142  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

much."  The  discourse  was  truly  evangelical  and  im- 
pressive. He  is  the  best  preacher  I  have  heard  in 
England  next  to  Mr.  Noel,  and  is  more  eloquent  and 
striking  in  manner  than  he,  but  has  not  the  gentle 
pathos  and  sweetness  of  Noel.  .  .  . 

Tuesday  evening,  February  26.  .  .  .  Met  Mr.  Put- 
nam 1  at  half  past  four.  We  had  arranged  before- 
hand that  he  should  attempt  to  procure  some  orders 
for  admittance  to  the  House  of  Lords,  and  that  we 
should  go  down  together.  I  found  he  had  been  suc- 
cessful, having  sent  his  clerk  with  notes  to  some  half 
dozen  peers  in  order  to  make  sure,  and  he  thus  ob- 
tained more  orders  than  he  wanted.  For  me  I  found 
he  had  addressed  a  note  in  my  name  to  the  Bishop 
of  London,  who  very  promptly  sent  me  an  order  of 

We  set  out  accordingly.  The  room  which  is  occu- 
pied by  the  House  of  Lords  temporarily,  until  the 
New  Houses  of  Parliament  are  built,  is  inferior  in 
size  and  accommodation  to  that  of  the  Commons; 
indeed  there  is  nothing  about  it  at  all  remarkable. 
There  was  no  business  of  very  absorbing  interest  be- 
fore the  House  this  evening,  and  it  adjourned  as 
early  as  eight.  Still  I  had  the  good  fortune  to  hear 
nearly  all  those  speak  that  I  particularly  cared  for 
except  Wellington  (who  is  sick)  and  Earl  Durham.  I 
heard  a  long  speech  from  Brougham  and  a  very  good 
one,  except  that  he  took  occasion  to  trumpet  his  own 
good  works.  There  was  some  fine  sparring  between 
an  Irish  lord  I  do  not  remember,  Lord  Roden,  Lord 
Westmeath,  and  Lord  Normanby,  the  late  viceroy  of 
Ireland,  a  young  man  apparently,  and  a  man  of  talent, 

1  Mr.  George  P.  Putnam  ;  the  American  publisher  and  bookseller, 
at  this  time  established  in  London. 

JST.  28.]  JOURNAL.  143 

Melbourne,  and  Minto  ;  the  lord  chancellor,  Denman 
the  chief  justice,  Sir  James  Scarlett,  old  Lord  Hol- 
land, etc.,  also  spoke.  The  word  "  lengthy,"  which 
was  not  long  since  called  an  Americanism,  seems  to  be 
pretty  well  naturalized,  as  Brougham  used  it  several 
times,  and  Scarlett  more  than  once.  Lord  Palmer- 
ston  the  other  evening  used  the  word  "  disculpate " 
instead  of  "  exculpate,"  which  I  fancy  is  rather  modern 
English.  .  .  . 

Friday  evening,  12  o'clock,  March  1.  —  I  have  just 
returned  from  a  most  pleasant  evening  and  day,  as  I 
may  say,  spent  at  Mr.  Forster's  beautiful  residence  on 
the  border  of  Epping  Forest,  Essex  (Woodford),  about 
ten  miles  from  here.  He  is  an  old  man,  a  banker,  one 
of  the  oldest  vice-presidents  of  the  Linnaean  Society, 
one  of  the  most  kind-hearted  men,  exceedingly  be- 
loved. He  lives  in  an  elegant  but  very  unostentatious 
way,  in  a  most  beautiful  part  of  the  country,  the  very 
perfection  of  English  scenery.  He  is  said  to  be  ex- 
tremely benevolent,  and  to  do  a  world  of  good.  .  .  . 

Saturday  evening.  —  Immediately  after  breakfast 
this  morning  I  went  down  to  Bentham,  whom  I  had 
not  seen  for  a  week ;  spent  two  or  three  hours  there, 
returned  again  to  my  lodgings,  went  to  the  City,  took 
an  early  dinner  with  Mr.  Putnam,  and  then  we  went 
together  in  an  omnibus  to  Hackney  ;  saw  Loddiges' 
extensive  collections  of  fine  plants  again,  lovely  Orchi- 
dese.  The  Camellias,  of  which  he  has  a  large  house 
filled  with  magnificent  trees,  were  not  yet  in  bloom. 

.  .  .  We  walked  across  this  eastern  part  of  the  city 
down  to  the  Tower,  entered  the  gates  and  walked  over 
the  grounds.  It  was  too  late  to  get  entrance  to  the 
armory  or  any  of  the  interesting  places,  as  the  light 
was  beginning  to  fail.  I  went  back  to  Mr.  Ward's,  at 

144  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

Well-close  Square,  according  to  promise,  to  name  some 
plants  for  him,  but  Dr.  Valentine,1  a  most  ingenious 
vegetable  anatomist  and  microscopist,  being  in  town 
(had  previously  met  him  at  Lindley's),  Mr.  Ward  had 
foregone  his  own  advantage  and  invited  Valentine  and 
Quekett  to  meet  me  with  their  microscopes,  so  that 
the  evening  was  very  instructive  to  me,  which  I  had 
not  anticipated.  Mr.  Ward  seems  to  have  taken  a 
fancy  to  me,  for  I  can  hardly  imagine  that  he  takes 
so  much  pains  to  oblige  every  one,  absorbed  as  he  is 
also  in  medical  practice.  He  presented  me  with  a 
beautiful  botanical  digger  of  fine  polished  steel,  with  a 
leathern  sheath,  which  I  suspect  he  has  had  made  on 
purpose  for  me  ;  though  I  don't  know  why  he  should 
have  thought  of  it.  Mrs.  Ward  was  inquiring  about 
the  Abbotts  and  their  works,  one  of  which  she  had, 
which  makes  her  wish  for  more.  I  am  often  asked 
about  Mr.  Abbott,  whose  works  seem  much  more 
generally  known  here  than  those  of  any  other  Ameri- 
can religious  author.  I  must  find  some  for  Mrs. 

Sunday  evening,  March  3.  —  I  went  this  morning  to 
hear,  perhaps  for  the  last  time,  Baptist  Noel.  The 
sermon  was  from  the  last  three  verses  of  the  same 
psalm  (Ps.  ciii.)  from  which  he  has  preached  on  the 
former  occasions  when  I  have  heard  him  in  his  own 
church ;  and  truly  a  good  sermon  it  was.  I  have 
told  you  that  the  chapel  is  a  large  one.  Yet  it  is 
so  well  filled  that  I  have  always  had  some  difficulty 
in  getting  a  seat,  and  to-day  I  actually  stood  near  the 
pulpit  during  the  whole  service  and  sermon.  But  it 

1  William  Valentine,  a  very  promising  young  botanist,  who  wrote 
valuable  papers  on  the  structure  of  mosses.  Went  early  to  Tasmania) 
where  he  died. 

JET.  28.]  JOURNAL.  145 

is  worth  while  submitting  to  some  inconvenience.  In 
the  afternoon  I  walked  up  to  Tottenham  Court  Road, 
and  looked  up  the  chapel  built  by  Whitfield,  the 
scene  of  his  useful  labors  in  London.  If  you  read,  as 
I  think  you  did,  Philip's  "  Life  of  Whitfield,"  you 
must  take  some  interest  in  this  place.1  I  found  the 
chapel  a  large  but  outlandish  building,  with  an  in- 
scription over  one  of  the  entrances,  stating  that  the 
building  was  erected  by  George  Whitfield.  Within 
is  a  tablet  to  the  memory  of  Mrs.  Whitfield,  who  is 
buried  here,  and  a  monumental  inscription  to  Whit- 
field himself  (which  I  regret  I  did  not  copy),  mention- 
ing the  date  of  his  death  at  Newburyport,  near  Boston. 
The  preacher  this  afternoon  (for  I  believe  there  is 
more  than  one  who  officiates  here)  was  the  Rev.  Mr. 
Wight,  who  gave  an  impressive,  practical  sermon  from 
the  concluding  clause  of  the  last  verse1  of  Romans  viii. : 
"  The  love  of  God  which  is  in  Christ  Jesus  our  Lord." 
It  was,  I  think,  rather  above  his  audience,  which  I  am 
sorry  to  say  was  exceedingly  small.  Indeed  I  hope  it 
is  generally  better  filled,  but  I  should  not  have  ex- 
pected so  great  a  falling  off  in  the  attendance  of  plain 
unfashionable  people  in  the  afternoon.  These  Whit- 
fieldians  are,  one  would  think,  farther  separated  from 
the  Established  Church  than  Wesleyans  (which  was 
certainly  not  the  case  in  Whitfield's  time,  who  refused 
to  take  any  steps  to  establish  a  sect  apart  from  the 
Church  of  England)  ;  for  in  the  Wesleyan  chapel  I  at- 
tended the  liturgy  was  read,  but  here  we  had  none 
of  it.  Only  last  summer  I  read  a  biography  of  Whit- 
field with  much  attention  ;  and  it  was  very  interesting 
to  worship  in  this  chapel  of  his.  It  recalls  more  in- 
teresting associations  than  Westminster  Abbey  or  any 
1  Pulled  down  in  1891. 

146  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

vast  and  splendid  cathedral.  But  I  must  bid  you 
good-night,  purposing  to  rise  early  and  have  an  hour 
or  so  before  the  pressing  business  of  the  day  is  com- 
menced to  write  another  sheet  to  you  and  our  good 
Dr.  Torrey,  to  whom  I  have  so  much  to  say,  if  I  could 
ever  find  time  for  it. 

Friday.  —  I  have  been  to-day  at  the  British  Mu- 
seum, studying  from  the  specimens  of  Plukenet, 
Catesby,  Miller,  etc.,  etc.,  the  authority  for  old  Lin- 
nsean  species  in  Ilex,  Prinos,  Eupatorium,  etc.  It  is 
slow  and  tedious  work,  and  I  shall  not  have  time  to  do 
so  much  of  it  as  I  could  wish.  Brown  told  me  to-day 
about  Petalanthera.  It  is  Cevallis,  Lagasca,  Hortus 
Matritensis,  and  very  probably  his  species,  even  C. 
sinuata.  It  came  from  New  Spain.  You  will  see  Lind- 
ley  is  all  astray  about  the  genus,  and  no  one  knows  its 
affinities  even,  but  Brown.  Lagasca  himself  refers  it 
to  Boragineae.  It  is  true  Loasea3.  I  was  this  even- 
ing at  Bentham's,  and  found  he  had  a  specimen  of  C. 
sinuata  from  Hooker,  collected  by  Brydges  in  Mexico, 
I  think.  I  have  asked  Brown  to  give  us  some  notes 
on  the  subject,  a  generic  character,  etc.,  that  we  may 
publish  a  little  from  his  own  pen.  I  am  to  spend  a 
day  with  him  next  week,  and  I  will  try  to  get  some- 
thing out  of  him.  He  hinted  to  me  some  days  ago 
that  he  knew  something  about  Cyrilla,  but  I  could 
not  get  it  out  of  him.  I  '11  try  again.  He  tells  me 
he  has  a  character  to  distinguish  true  Rhexia,  which 
has  escaped  Don,  De  Candolle,  etc.  We  must  find  it 
out.  Bentham  has  given  me  his  "  Scrophulariae  Indi- 
ca3,"  and  the  three  last  parts  of  his  "  Labiatae ;  "  I 
have  bought  the  rest  (£1  2s.  6d.),  and  last  evening  we 
looked  over  his  North  American  specimens,  and  the 
notes  in  his  copy.  He  gave  me  also,  the  other  day,  the 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  147 

only  published  part  of  the  "  Plantae  Hugeliaiise  "  and 
a  few  other  pamphlets.  He  is  a  liberal  soul. 

I  have  got  so  far  behind  in  my  botanical  news  that 
I  despair  of  bringing  up  arrears,  and  must  leave 
very  much  to  tell  you  in  propria  persona,  if  we  meet 
again.  I  fancy  I  have  not  very  much  new  to  learn 
on  the  Continent  about  microscopes  and  modes  of 
working.  I  have  seen  much  of  all  the  best  people 
here,  last  not  least  Valentine,  who  lives  in  the  coun- 
try, from  whom  I  have  derived  much  useful  know- 
ledge. He  works  to  some  account,  which  can't  be 
said  of  most  here,  who,  though  they  have  the  best  in- 
struments in  the  world,  don't  turn  them  to  any  im- 
portant account.  As  to  Sullivant,  tell  him  to  have 
great  patience.  I  can  get  him  a  capital  simple  micro- 
scope by  Ross  for  six  guineas,  but  I  want  to  get  as 
useful  a  one  for  him  cheaper,  so  I  shall  wait  till  I 
have  been  on  the  Continent,  I  think.  My  plan  is  to 
purchase  at  Paris  for  him,  where  the  low  powers  are 
good  as  can  be,  and  supply  a  lens  or  two  here.  .  .  . 

Chapmannia  (!)  exists  in  Bartram's  old  collection 
here,  which  you  saw  at  British  Museum,  and  some 
other  very  lately  published  things. 

I  bought  a  copy  of  "  Flora  "  for  Bennett  the  other 
day,  thinking  it  worth  while  to  offer  him  something, 
as  I  was  taking  up  much  of  his  time.  To-day  he 
gave  me  a  copy  of  the  published  part  of  the  "  Plan- 
tae Javanicse  Rariores,"  (£2  10s.,  plain,  is  the  pub- 
lishing price),  an  invaluable  work,  containing  very 
many  notes  and  observations  on  various  genera,  etc., 
both  by  Brown  and  himself,  which  it  is  quite  necessary 
we  should  see.  The  notes  I  have  made  for  the  last  few 
days  are  not  now  before  me,  so  that  I  cannot  now  give 
you  any  remarks.  There  is  no  one  thing  of  very  con- 

148  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.         [1839, 

siderable  importance,  but  much  small  matter.  By  the 
way,  let  me  say  that  Bennett  thinks  that  Brown  thinks 
Romanzovia  to  be  hydrophyllaceous  !  Bentham  would 
give  something  to  know  this,  but  I  shall  keep  it  to 
myself.  I  have  made  out  the  remainder  of  Pursh's 
doubtful  Arenarias  and  Stellarias  from  the  Banks 
herbarium.  The  parcel  of  Solidagos,  etc.,  sent  to  care 
of  Mr.  Putnam,  I  am  glad  to  say,  came  to  hand.  It 
did  not  arrive  until  last  week,  however.  .  .  . 

Monday  evening,  twelve  o'clock.  ...  As  I  sit  down 
to  tell  you  what  I  have  been  about  to-day,  my  thoughts 
cross  the  wide  wave  that  separates  us,  and  brings  me 
back  to  30  MacDougal  Street,  and  to  the  time  when, 
returning  from  town,  I  used  to  present  myself  before 
you,  give  an  account  of  my  proceedings,  tell  you  per- 
haps some  news  about  that  ill-fated  expedition  of 
which  you  were  so  sick  of  hearing ;  how  it  would  cer- 
tainly sail  in  a  month,  or  something  just  as  likely. 
When  thinking  of  this  long  separation,  I  console 
myself  with  the  idea  that  it  is  better  than  if  I  had 
gone  there.  In  that  case  I  should  now  have  been  your 
antipodes.  Now  there  are  only  some  four  or  five  hours 
of  shadow  between  us.  And,  sluggard  as  you  call  me 
at  home,  I  am  up  in  the  morning  two  or  three  hours 
before  you.  Tell  that  to  the  girls  for  a  wonder !  I 
left  my  room  this  morning  at  eleven,  walked  to  Port- 
land Place,  called  on  the  American  minister,  who 
being  unwell  I  was  furnished  by  the  secretary  of  le- 
gation with  what  I  desired,  namely,  a  passport.  This 
I  left,  as  the  manner  is,  at  the  office  of  the  French 
embassy,  that  his  majesty  Louis  Philippe  may  have 
fitting  notice  of  the  honor  that  is  to  be  done  him,  for 
the  king  of  the  French  is,  it  seems,  rather  particular 
about  such  matters,  and  it  is  a  pity  not  to  oblige  him, 

JET.  28.]  TO  JOHN   TORRE  Y.  149 

especially  as  you  can't  help  yourself.  This  being 
done  I  went  on  to  the  Linnsean  Society,  and  by  work- 
ing at  the  full  stretch  of  my  powers  contrived  to  get 
through  the  Linnsean  herbarium  (skipping  a  few 
genera  now  and  then)  about  six  o'clock.  Returned 
home  pretty  well  fatigued,  took  some  tea  and  toast, 
called  upon  Bentham,  whom  I  found  writing  letters  of 
introduction  for  me.  I  have  them  now  before  me. 
They  are  addressed  to  Seringe  at  Lyons  ;  Requien, 
Avignon ;  Lady  Bentham  (B.'s  mother)  at  Montpellier, 
with  request  to  make  me  acquainted  with  Dunal  and 
Delile ;  Moretti  at  Pa  via ;  Visiani  at  Padua ;  Tomasini 
at  Triest ;  linger  at  Gratz ;  Endlicher  at  Vienna  ; 
Martius  and  Schultes  at  Munich ;  Reichenbach  at 
Dresden ;  Poppig  at  Leipsic.  These,  with  what  I 
have  already  from  Hooker,  Arnott,  Greville,  Boott, 
etc.,  with  a  few  that  I  expect  at  Paris,  leave  me  little 
to  wish  for  in  ihis  respect.  About  ten  o'clock  went  to 
Mrs.  Stevenson's  party.  It  was  not  a  very  large  one, 
and  in  no  way  especially  remarkable.  I  found  there 
of  course  the  Bootts  (three  sizes,  viz.,  Mrs.  Boott  the 
grandmother,  Mrs.  Boott  the  mother,  and  Miss  Boott 
the  daughter)  and  so  of  course  I  was  upon  good  foot- 
ing. Our  minister  lives  in  neat  but  by  no  means 
splendid  style,  quite  enough  so  for  a  republican ; 
and  Mrs.  S.  is  very  lady-like  and  prepossessing  in 
appearance.  Mr.  Stevenson  did  not  make  his  appear- 
ance. Of  course,  I  did  not  stay  long. 


Poor  Hunneman  died  yesterday,  after  a  short  ill- 
ness. I  have  spent  much  time  evenings  with  Mr. 
Valentine,  whom  I  like  extremely.  Excepting  only 
Brown,  he  is  the  best  microscopical  observer  in  Great 

150  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

Britain.  He  cares  little,  however,  for  proper  system- 
atic botany,  for  which  I  am  sorry.  He  has  shown  me 
some  curious  things. 

I  have  learned  from  Brown  the  character  he  ob- 
served in  our  species  of  Rhexia,  that  is,  the  true  genus 
Rhexia :  the  unilocularity  of  the  anthers.  .  .  . 

Tuesday  evening,  March  12.  —  After  a  hard 
day's  work  I  finished  on  Monday  evening  with  the 
Linnsean  herbarium,  which  I  found  more  interesting 
than  I  expected  and  more  satisfactory,  as  it  is  in 
really  good  state,  carefully  taken  care  of,  etc.  i  had 
some  very  good  notes  to  make.  I  assure  you  I  feel 
much  gratified  to  have  studied  this  collection,  which, 
with  the  Gronovian,  enables  us  to  start  fair  as  to  Lin- 
naean  species.  Do  you  know  that  Acer  saccharinum, 
Linn.,  is  A.  eriocarpum  (spec.  Kalm)  !  Look  at  Lin- 
naeus "  Species  Plantarum  "  (which  you  have  not,  un- 
fortunately, though  it  is  the  most  necessary  of  books ; 
you  will  receive  it  at  the  same  time  as  this  letter  or 
nearly)  and  you  will  find  that  the  description  is  all 
drawn  from  Eriocarpum. 

I  took  what  time  I  could  to-day  for  the  Gronovian 
plants  and  a  few  of  Plukenet's,  etc.,  but  was  unable 
to  finish ;  will  go  to-morrow,  for  I  shall  work  to  the 
last  moment. 

I  have  been  tempted  to  buy  a  collection  of  Hart- 
weg's l  very  fine  Mexican  plants,  which  being  col- 
lected far  in  the  interior  of  north  Mexico  are  very 
North  American,  and  quite  necessary,  I  think,  for  us. 
They  will  reach  you  with  the  other  parcels.  Be  care- 
ful about  the  little  labels  with  the  numbers  stuck  on. 
Bentham  will  publish  them  presently.  .  .  . 

1  Theodore  Hartweg,  died  in  1871.  Explored  in  Mexico  and  Cali- 
fornia, 1836  to  1847;  later  director  of  the  Grand -ducal  Gardens, 
Swetzingen,  Baden. 

JET.  28.]  TO  JOHN   TORREY.  151 

Professor  Royle,  as  the  agent  of  India  people,  I  be- 
lieve, offers  me  seeds  from  Himalaya  Mountains, 
received,  and  still  to  be  received,  from  the  government 
collectors,  in  exchange  for  those  of  useful  and  inter- 
esting North  American  plants,  which  they  are  desirous 
of  introducing  into  India.  But  as  I  can't  attend  to 
it  until  another  season,  he  kindly  offers  to  send  to  you 
a  portion  of  the  seeds  just  received,  and  to  ask  you  to 
distribute  them  in  such  way  as  will  be  most  useful,  and 
ask  those  you  give  them  to  (say  Downing,  Hogg,  Dr. 
Wray,  Dr.  Boykin,  etc.,  and  some  one  in  the  valley  of 
the  Mississippi  or  Arkansas)  to  collect  seeds  of  trees, 
etc.  (you  can  suggest  what  would  be  most  desirable), 
and  send  them  to  London,  whence  they  will  be  sent 
in  the  mails  overland  to  India.  As  I  fear  I  shall  not 
see  Royle  again  I  shall  write  him  a  note,  telling  him, 
as  I  promised,  how  to  send  to  you. 

I  saw  Dr.  Sims?  herbarium,  at  King's  College.  ^1 
want  to  look  at  it  to  certify  a  few  early  "  Botanical 
Magazine  "  plants. 

Brown  came  to  the  museum  this  morning  with  a 
copy  of  a  curious  late  paper  of  Schleiden  (which  I 
had  seen  before)  on  the  Development  of  the  Embryo, 
with  a  parcel  of  his  own  notes  on  the  same  subject 
made  in  1810,  1812,  1815,  etc.,  which  did  not  alto- 
gether correspond.  Brown  thinks  much  of  Schleiden 
as  an  observer.  He  read  me  many  of  his  old  notes, 
and  the  subject  took  him  to  speak  of  his  discoveries 
with  regard  to  the  embryos  of  Pinus.  To  explain 
to  me  as  he  went  on  he  drew  the  diagram  on  the 
inclosed  slip  of  paper,  and  pointed  out  to  me  how  to 
observe  in  our  species  of  Pinus.  This  will  refresh 
my  memory  as  to  all  he  told  me,  so  pray  keep  it 
safely.  There  is  much  very  curious  matter  now  afloat 

152  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

about  the  process  of  impregnation  and  the  early  de- 
velopment of  embryo,  which  I  am  accumulating,  as 
much  as  I  can,  for  future  use.  Pray  tell  Dr.  Perrine 
that  the  gardeners  and  botanists  here  insist  by  accla- 
mation almost  that  there  is  no  such  thing  as  acclima- 
tion in  the  vegetable  kingdom. 

What  a  pickle  the  Linnaean  Ascyrum  is  in !  I  wish 
I  had  room  to  tell  you. 

Tuesday  morning,  two  o'clock  A.  M.,  March  14,  1839. 

I  have  just  finished  packing  up,  being  about  to  start 
for  Boulogne  in  steamboat  at  nine  o'clock  this  morning, 
and  I  must  now  hastily  close  my  letters.  This,  or 
rather  yesterday,  has  been  a  busy  day  with  me.  I 
started  in  the  morning  to  have  a  look  at  a  few  more 
things  of  Pursh's  at  Lambert's,  but  he  kept  me  longer 
than  I  liked.  He  found  somewhere  a  small  parcel  of 
plants  collected  by  Eschscholz  in  Kotzebue's  voyage, 
who  sent  them  to  Lambert.  Lambert  gave  me  all  the 
North  American  ones,  few  to  be  sure,  but  interesting. 
From  Lambert's  I  returned  by  way  of  the  Horticul- 
tural Society,  to  bid  good-by  to  Lindley  and  Bentham, 
but  the  latter  insists  upon  coming  up  in  the  morning 
to  my  lodgings  to  see  me  off.  I  have  made  a  fortu- 
nate acquisition  for  him.  He  told  me  he  saw,  a  few 
days  ago,  at  an  auction  some  copies  of  Richard's  fine 
work  on  the  Coniferae,  but  an  engagement  at  the  time 
prevented  him  from  staying  to  buy  a  copy  of  the  work 
for  himself,  which  he  imagined  would  be  sold  cheap. 
Mr.  Putnam  found  out  who  bought  up  these  copies, 
and  obtained  one  at  nearly  the  price  at  which  they  were 
sold.  I  shall  have  the  pleasure  of  presenting  it  to 
Bentham  this  morning  when  he  calls.  I  went  to  the 

JST.  28.]  TO   THE  MISSES   TORREY.  153 

British  Museum,  worked  hard  until  four  o'clock ;  but 
was  not  able  quite  to  finish,  so  I  left  my  copy  of 
Gronovius,  in  which  I  was  making  notes,  with  Mr. 
Bennett  to  keep  for  me  until  my  return  in  the  autumn, 
and  took  leave  of  Brown  and  Bennett.  Went  to  Dr. 
Boott's ;  saw  Mrs.  and  Miss  Boott,  who  insisted  upon 
giving  me  a  note  of  introduction  to  a  friend  of  theirs 
in  Florence  ;  went  to  the  City,  dined  with  Putnam, 
down  to  Well-close  Square,  took  my  tea,  and  bid 
good-by  to  Ward  and  family,  and  Mr.  Quekett.  .  .  . 


PARIS,  March  18,  1839,  Monday  evening. 

I  am  now  at  the  Hotel  de  1'Empereur  Joseph  II., 
Kue  Tournon,  pr£s  du  Palais  du  Luxembourg.  Here  I 
have  been  established  for  about  half  an  hour,  and  my 
first  business  shall  be  to  fill  this  sheet  for  you.  I  sup- 
pose I  must  begin  at  the  beginning  and  tell  you  how 
I  came  here.  Voila.  I  left  London  at  nine  o'clock 
in  the  morning  of  the  14th  inst.  (Thursday),  stop- 
ping on  my  way  to  the  steamboat  which  was  to 
take  me  to  Boulogne,  to  leave  a  parcel  of  letters  at  Mr. 
Putnam's  office,  to  be  forwarded  to  dear  friends  at 
home.  It  was  a  nasty,  rainy  morning ;  and  our  boat 
was,  as  indeed  I  expected,  not  very  comfortable.  The 
cabin  was  well  enough,  but  much  too  small  for  the 
accommodation  of  some  fifty  or  sixty  persons,  and 
there  was  no  covering  to  the  deck,  nor  any  deck-cabin, 
except  two  dirty  little  places  for  the  poorer  passengers, 
who  were  not  allowed  the  use  of  ours ;  so  we  had  our 
choice  the  whole  day  between  the  soaking  in  the  rain 
upon  the  deck  and  the  close  atmosphere  of  the  crowded 
cabin.  Of  course  I  was  vibrating  between  the  two 
dilemmas  the  whole  day,  but  took  as  much  pains  as  I 

154  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

could  to  keep  dry.  The  only  thing  I  saw  worthy  of 
notice  as  we  went  down  the  Thames  was  Greenwich 
Hospital,  of  which  I  will  perhaps  send  a  print.  I 
should  add  also  chalk  cliffs,  for  I  never  before  saw 
rocks  and  hills  of  chalk.  In  the  afternoon,  as  we  had 
fairly  got  into  the  Channel,  a  thick  fog  came  on.  The 
captain  lost  his  way  and  seemed  in  fear  that  he 
should  run  the  boat  upon  the  Sands,  so  he 
dropped  anchor  about  five  in  the  afternoon.  We 
were  to  have  arrived  at  Boulogne  at  nine  that 
evening.  But  as  I  saw  there  was  no  great  chance 
of  our  moving  for  some  time,  I  set  about  making 
amends  for  my  loss  of  sleep  the  previous  night.  I  took 
possession  of  two  thirds  of  a  hard  sofa,  and,  wrapped 
in  my  cloak,  was  soon  in  a  comfortable  doze.  I  awoke 
late  in  the  evening ;  and  such  a  sight  as  there  was  be- 
fore me  !  It  seems  that  there  were  no  accommodations 
for  sleeping  on  board,  or  next  to  none,  and  the  passen- 
gers, men,  women,  and  children,  were  indiscriminately 
but  thickly  strewn  over  the  sofas,  chairs,  and  even 
over  the  whole  floor,  with  portmanteaus,  great-coats, 
and  whatever  they  could  find  for  pillows,  attempting 
to  secure  such  rest  as  they  could,  —  some  sixty  persons 
or  more  crowded  into  a  space  not  larger  than  the  cabin 
of  one  of  our  ferry-boats.  .  .  . 

But  I  was  too  drowsy  to  mind  it  much,  and  soon  fell 
asleep  again,  but  awoke  in  the  morning  with  swollen 
eyes  and  complaining  bones.  The  boat  was  moving 
again,  and  it  was  raining  as  hard  as  ever.  The  dis- 
tant coast  of  France  soon  came  in  view,  and  at  half 
past  ten  we  were  landed  at  Boulogne.  We  were  es- 
corted to  the  custom-house ;  what  baggage  we  had 
brought  in  our  hands  was  closely  examined  by  the  offi- 
cers, an  ill-looking,  vagabond  set ;  our  passports  were 

/ET.  28.]  TO    THE  MISSES  TORRE  Y.  155 

taken  from  us  and  provisional  ones  given,  which  per- 
mitted us  to  go  on  to  Paris,  and  for  which  we  each  had 
to  pay  two  francs  ;  we  were  then  allowed  to  go  to  a 
hotel  and  get  our  breakfast,  a  privilege  which  most  of 
us  were  not  slow  to  avail  ourselves  of.  I  made  a  hearty 
meal  of  cold  roast  beef,  cafe  au  lait,  excellent  bread, 
and  delicious  butter.  The  two  last  I  have  found  ever 
since  I  have  been  in  France.  I  gave  my  keys  to  the 
commissionaire  of  the  hotel  to  get  my  luggage  through 
the  custom-house,  and,  my  place  being  taken  in  the 
diligence  for  Paris  at  two  o'clock,  having  nothing 
else  to  do,  I  went  to  the  custom-house  to  see  the  exam- 
ination of  the  luggage.  Lazy  custom-house  officers 
and  gendarmes  were  lounging  about,  while  heavy  carts 
loaded  with  baggage  were  drawn  up  from  the  boat  by 
women !  —  and  this  while  it  was  raining  hard,  and  the 
poor  creatures  were  without  hats  or  bonnets,  and 
had  only  a  handkerchief  or  a  bit  of  cloth  tied  over 
their  heads.  So  much  for  this  self-styled  most  refined 
and  polite  nation  !  I  noticed  the  poor  things  when 
their  task  was  done  and  they  were  waiting  to  convey 
the  trunks,  etc.,  from  the  custom-house  to  the  various 
hotels.  Some  were  chatting  in  groups,  apparently  quite 
content  with  their  lot ;  a  few  were  sleeping,  and  many, 
with  the  characteristic  industry  of  their  sex,  produced 
their  knitting-work  from  their  pockets  and  were  busily 
employed  at  a  more  appropriate  and  feminine  employ- 
ment. I  was  amused  at  the  strictness  with  which  three 
exceedingly  unpleasant-looking  fellows  searched  all  our 
baggage,  that  of  the  ladies  not  less  than  that  of  the 
men.  Little  parcels  were  opened,  dirty  linen  was  over- 
hauled and  most  minutely  inspected ;  the  whole  scene 
would  have  made  a  fit  subject  for  the  pencil  of  Ho- 
garth. My  traveling-bag  was  examined  from  top  to 

156  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

bottom,  and  I  began  to  fear  that  my  trunk,  which  I  had 
packed  with  care,  would  be  sadly  deranged,  but  they 
contented  themselves  with  cutting  open  a  packet  of 
seeds  I  was  taking  from  the  Horticultural  Society  to 
De  Candolle,  and  with  seizing  as  a  great  prize  my 
rather  formidable  parcel  of  letters  of  introduction. 
This  was  near  causing  me  to  be  detained  until  the  next 
diligence  ;  but  the  commissionaire  succeeded  in  getting 
them  sent  up  to  the  inspector  in  another  part  of  the 
town,  upon  whom  we  called,  when  after  due  explana- 
tion had  been  made,  and  one  or  two  of  the  letters 
read,  they  were  formally  delivered  back  to  me. 

I  can  tell  you  what  a  French  diligence  is  like.  It 
is  just  like  one  of  the  railroad  cars  (about  three  apart- 
ments) of  the  Harlem  railroad,  for  example,  mounted 
on  coach  wheels ;  the  horses  are  small,  lean,  shaggy, 
and  ugly ;  some  seven  of  these  beasts  are  fastened, 
three  abreast  and  one  for  a  leader,  with  ropes  to  the 
said  diligence ;  but  how  such  beasts  contrive  to  draw 
such  a  cumbrous  vehicle,  loaded  with  seventeen  per- 
sons and  their  baggage,  besides  a  driver  and  conduc- 
tor, I  don't  well  understand,  although  the  beasts  are 
changed  every  five  or  six  miles ;  but  somehow  we  got 
over  the  ground  pretty  fast,  and  came  to  Paris,  over 
one  hundred  and  forty  miles,  in  a  little  less  than 
thirty  hours,  although  it  rained  all  the  first  day  and 
part  of  the  second,  and  the  roads  were  extremely  muddy. 

We  arrived  just  before  nightfall  at  Montreuil,  a  fine 
old  fortified  French  town  situated  on  the  summit  of  a 
hill  and  overlooking  a  broad  valley,  which  in  summer 
must  be  quite  beautiful;  here  we  dined,  and  were 
charged  four  francs  each  for  dinner,  besides  sous  to 
the  garcon.  I  slept  pretty  well  in  the  night,  during 
which  we  passed  Abbeville,  where  there  is  said  to  be 

*;T.  28.]  TO    THE  MISSES   TORREY.  157 

a  fine  church.  We  breakfasted  at  the  queer  old  town 
of  Beauvais,  where  there  is  a  fine  cathedral,  of  which 
I  had  a  pretty  good  view.  My  breakfast  (dejeuner 
a  la  fourchette,  which  is  the  next  thing  to  a  dinner) 
cost  three  and  a  half  francs,  for  011  this  route  you 
meet  with  very  English  charges.  I  wished  to  say 
something  about  the  country,  but  have  not  room.  Suf- 
fice it  to  say  that  we  passed  through  the  town  of  St. 
Denis  late  in  the  afternoon,  where  I  did  not  even  get 
a  glimpse  of  the  very  ancient  cathedral,  and  arrived 
at  Paris  just  before  nightfall.  After  dinner,  in  com- 
pany with  a  fellow-passenger,  a  young  Englishman,  I 
gratified  a  long-felt  curiosity  by  strolling  through  the 
Palais  Royal  and  some  of  the  principal  streets  of  Paris. 
On  Sunday  I  attended  church  in  the  morning  (after  a 
vain  attempt  to  find  the  American  Chapel)  at  the  Rev. 
Mr.  Sayer's  English  Episcopal  Chapel,  where  I  heard 
a  good  sermon ;  and  in  the  evening  at  the  Methodist 
Chapel,  where  the  Rev.  Mr.  Toase  preached  a  truly  ex- 
cellent discourse  from  Jeremiah  viii.  13.  All  the  shops 
were  open  just  as  on  any  other  day,  and  the  gardens 
and  parks  were  all  crowded.  This  morning  I  went 
down  to  the  Jardin  des  Plantes,  stopping  by  the  way 
to  see  the  ancient  church  of  Notre-Dame,  where  I  heard 
a  portion  of  the  Catholic  service  chanted.  ...  At 
last,  after  looking  at  many  other  buildings  and  objects 
of  curiosity,  about  which  I  will  tell  you  more  presently, 
I  reached  the  garden,  found  Decaisne,  who  could 
speak  no  English,  and  I  almost  no  French  ;  so  he  took 
me  to  Adrien  de  Jussieu,  who  makes  out  to  speak  very 
tolerable  English,  and  to  understand  me  pretty  well. 
I  left  soon  to  call  on  Mr.  Webb, l  who  is  an  English- 

1  Philip  Barker  Webb,  1793-1854 ;  a  "  distinguished  English  bota- 
nist residing  in  Paris,  of  vast  and  varied  knowledge.  He  accumulated 
one  of  the  largest  herbaria,  bequeathed  to  the  Duke  of  Tuscany."  — 
A.  G. 

158  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

man,  for  whom  I  had  a  letter  from  Hooker ;  thence 
after  looking  in  vain  for  "  appartements  garnis"  in 
Rue  de  1'Odeon,  Place  de  1'Odeon,  etc.,  I  secured  my 
lodgings  here,  where  I  shall  be  obliged  to  hear  nothing 
but  French,  and  where  I  hope  I  may  catch  some  of 
the  language,  and  after  dining  at  the  ordinary  at  the 
Hotel  de  Lille,  where  English  is  spoken,  I  transferred 
myself  to  my  present  quarters.  But  my  sheet  is  full. 
I  will  give  you  another  very  soon.  Till  then,  ines 
cheres  petites  soeurs,  adieu. 

Wednesday  evening,  March  20.  —  I  must  continue 
my  letter  to  you  on  a  large  sheet  of  thin  French  paper, 
else  I  shall  have  a  larger  bill  of  postage  to  pay  than 
will  be  altogether  convenient  when  I  send  to  Havre. 
I  did  not  write  last  evening ;  I  had  no  fire  in  my  room, 
and  after  running  about  all  day  over  streets  paved 
with  little  square  blocks  of  stone,  which  it  is  very 
fatiguing  to  walk  over,  I  came  home  fairly  tired,  and 
went  to  bed  soon  after  nine  o'clock.  Except  calling 
on  M.  Delessert,  for  whom  I  had  a  letter  and  a  small 
parcel  from  Hooker,  and  whom  I  did  not  find  at  home, 
I  spent  the  whole  day  in  looking  about  the  town,  see- 
ing sights,  etc.  My  first  call  was  at  the  Louvre,  a 
large  and  splendid  palace,  where  I  spent  an  hour  or 
two  in  the  vast  gallery  of  paintings,  which  fill  a  very 
large  salon  and  a  long  gallery,  I  suppose  five  hundred 
or  six  hundred  feet  long,  connecting  the  Louvre  with 
the  palace  of  the  Tuileries.  .  .  . 

To-day  I  have  been  wholly  occupied  at  the  Jardin 
des  Plantes.  Fortunately  for  me  Jussieu  speaks  a 
little  English,  so  I  can  get  on  with  him  pretty  well. 
But  you  would  have  been  amused  at  the  attempts 
which  M.  Decaisne  and  M.  Gaudichaud  1  and  myself 

1  Beaupre*  Charles  Gaudichaud,  1780-1854;  French  botanist.    Went 

#T.  28.]  TO    THE   MISSES   TORRE Y.  159 

made  to  understand  each  other.  Still  more  amused 
would  you  have  been  to  see  how  I  managed  to  make 
a  bargain  with  a  bookseller  for  a  few  books  I  wished 
to  purchase.  I  feel  the  want  of  French  sadly,  and 
have  no  time  for  study. 

Thursday  evening.  —  I  have  been  again  occupied 
the  whole  day  at  the  Jardin  des  Plantes,  and  went  at 
six  o'clock  to  dine  with  Mr.  Webb  to  meet  M.  Gay.1 
Webb  had  taken  care  to  ask  an  English  student  also, 
who  speaks  French  much  better  than  he  does  English, 
who  sat  between  Gay  and  myself  and  interpreted  when 
it  became  necessary.  But  Gay  speaks  a  little  of  what 
will  pass  for  English,  mixed  here  and  there  with 
French,  so  that  I  got  on  very  well  indeed. 

Gaudichaud  was  also  there,  a  very  interesting  man 
if  one  could  talk  with  him.  We  were  kept  rather  late, 
so  that  it  is  now  past  twelve,  so  I  must  bid  you  good- 

Monday  evening.  ...  At  three  o'clock  I  went  to 
the  Institute.  I  found  that  the  room  was  already 
crowded.  I  inquired  for  Jussieu  and  Brongniart,  the 
only  members  I  could  think  of  that  I  knew,  but  they 
were  not  there  and  therefore  I  could  not  get  in.  After 
some  time  Jussieu  came  in.  But  it  was  then  too  late, 
so  I  lost  the  object  for  which  I  had  given  up  half  the 
day.  Jussieu,  however,  took  me  into  the  library,  which 
is  worth  seeing.  I  employed  the  remaining  hour  or 
so  in  purchasing  some  prints  of  remarkable  buildings, 
etc.,  in  Paris,  and  I  was  also  tempted  to  buy  a  few 
engravings  from  some  of  the  great  masters.  After 
dinner  I  went  to  Mr.  Webb's,  where  I  looked  at  plants 

round  the  world  in  the  Bonite,  and  published  the  Botany  of  the  ex- 

1  Jacques  Gay,  died  1863.  Born  in  Switzerland,  and  a  pupil  of 

160  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

for  a  few  hours.  He  gave  me  also  some  autographs 
of  celebrated  botanists,  and  a  few  old  botanical 
books.  .  .  . 

Friday  evening,  March  29.  .  .  .  The  Garden  of 
Plants  was  nearly  on  my  way  home  ;  so  I  stopped  there, 
worked  for  an  hour  (till  five  o'clock),  went  home 
(home,  indeed  !),  took  my  dinner,  found  myself  most 
thoroughly  tired  as  well  as  hungry,  having  had  no 
breakfast  but  a  small  roll  of  bread  I  obtained  near 
the  cemetery ;  had  a  fire  kindled  in  my  room,  and 
commenced  writing  to  you.  Just  now  the  little  daugh- 
ter of  the  concierge,  a  little  girl  of  six  or  seven,  who 
often  waits  upon  me,  has  brought  me  a  cup  of  coffee, 
which  I  have  enjoyed  greatly,  and  now  feel  much  re- 
stored. French  children  are  all  pretty  and  graceful, 
and  I  am  making  the  little  girl's  acquaintance  as  fast 
as  I  can  ;  for  it  is  difficult  for  me  to  understand  her 
(it  seems  odd  to  hear  such  a  little  thing  speak 
French),  and  in  answer  to  some  of  my  attempts  to 
speak  French  to  her,  she  answers,  "  Je  n'entends  pas 
anglais,  monsieur." 

What  great  lies  the  French  newspapers  tell !  Yes- 
terday morning  the  paper  I  was  reading  at  my  break- 
fast stated  that  one  of  the  gardeners  who  had  charge 
of  the  bears  at  the  Jardin  des  Plantes  descended  into 
the  inclosure  for  some  purpose,  and  was  seized  by  the 
bears,  killed  immediately,  and  almost  eaten  up  before 
help  was  obtained.  So  when  I  arrived  at  the  garden 
I  of  course  spoke  to  Decaisne  about  *it,  who  was 
greatly  surprised,  for  it  seems  the  story  was  entirely 
a  fabrication. 

I  see  I  have  at  length  filled  this  large  sheet,  so  I 
must  say  adieu  for  the  present,  but  hope  to-morrow 
evening  to  begin  another.  Ever  I  remain, 

Your  attached,  A.  G.  .  .  . 

JET.  28.]  TO  MRS.  TORREY.  161 

TO    MRS.    TORREY. 

Wednesday  evening.  .  .  .  There  is  little  danger  of 
my  being  spoiled  in  Paris  by  being  overpolished.  In 
London  one  must  take  care  to  be  always  comme  il 
f aut.  There  I  took  pains  to  keep  myself  rather  spruce, 
which  I  have  continued  here  from  the  mere  force  of 
habit ! ! !  But  gentlemen  in  Paris  dress  anyhow  ;  they 
don't  pay  half  the  attention  to  the  matter  it  receives 
in  England ;  with  the  ladies  it  is  perhaps  different, 
but  here  I  scarcely  ever  see  ladies  except  in  the 
streets  or  shops  and  restaurants  !  At  the  houses  of 
botanists  I  have  only  seen  Mme.  Gay,  a  very  plain 
and  good-natured  Swiss  lady.  As  to  parlez-vous-ing, 
it  is  not  such  an  easy  matter,  I  assure  you.  You  would 
laugh  most  heartily  to  see  me  in  the  botanic  gallery 
of  the  Jardin  des  Plantes,  endeavoring  to  carry  on 
a  conversation  with  Gaudichaud  or  Decaisne ;  the 
former  of  whom  can  scarcely  read  English,  and  the 
latter  can  speak  only  a  dozen  words.  I  get  out,  with 
no  little  difficulty,  a  few  sentences  of  such  French  as 
has  not  been  heard  since  the  days  of  King  Pepin,  I 
am  sure ;  and  when  that  fails  me  I  write  in  English, 
which  Decaisne  can  read,  and  make  him  write  in 
French  in  return,  or  else  for  short  sentences  speak 
very  slowly  and  distinctly.  ,From  my  ignorance  of 
the  language  I  am  obliged  to  take  great  pains  when  I 
wish  to  purchase  anything  from  the  shops  ;  for  it  is 
customary  to  put  on  an  additional  price  to  English 
customers.  Fortunately  my  complexion  and  the  style 
of  my  countenance  are  so  far  French  that  before  I 
speak  I  am  generally  taken  for  a  native,  and  I  some- 
times manage  to  make  purchases  without  saying  a 
word  beyond  a  monosyllable.  So  I  have  to  be  very 
careful  to  avoid  being  cheated ;  but  I  am  every  day 
acquiring  more  knowledge  and  experience. 

162  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

I  have  been  seized  with  a  mania  for  collecting 
prints  on  a  small  scale,  and  shall  send  home  some 
very  good  ones,  —  to  adorn  my  parlor  and  study  at 
Michigan,  of  course  !  There  are  astonishing  quanti- 
ties to  be  found  here.  I  am  endeavoring  to  get  all 
the  portraits  of  botanists  I  can,  and  from  this  I  have 
been  led  to  pick  up  ancient  ones,  which  show  the  early 
state  of  the  art  or  old-fashioned  costumes,  etc.,  and 
also  a  few  choice  engravings  from  the  old  masters ;  but 
most  of  these  I  can  obtain  better  in  Italy  or  Germany. 
Tell  Dr.  Torrey  not  to  be  alarmed,  for  I  shall  not 
spend  much  money  upon  them. 

As  a  general  thing  Paris  is  not  very  beautiful.  But 
there  are  some  magnificent  sights,  I  assure  you.  At 
odds  and  ends  of  time  I  have  already  seen  most  of  the 
ordinary  sights  which  attract  the  attention  of  travelers, 
but  must  leave  all  account  of  them  for  the  journal  from 
Paris,  which  so  far  is  addressed  to  the  girls,  though  I 
fear  it  will  scarcely  interest  them  or  any  one  else.  .  .  . 

Decaisne  has  given  me  separate  copies  of  his 
papers.  He  is  now  publishing  a  most  splendid  (bo- 
tanically  speaking)  memoir  upon  the  order  Lardi- 
zabaleae,  in  which  I  see  he  has  found  out  some  things 
which  have  been  known  to  Brown  only,  for  a  long  time. 
He  will  give  us  copies,  J  dare  say.  He  is  one  of  the 
best  botanists  here.  I  like  Gaudichaud  also  very 
much.  .  .  . 

I  have  just  finished  the  examination  of  Michaux's 
herbarium,  which  has  proved  worth  looking  over.  I 
shall  write  the  doctor  more  particularly,  indeed  have 
already  begun  a  letter  for  him.  Mr.  Webb  showed  me 
last  evening  a  letter  from  Hooker,  which  contains  a 
good  deal  of  botanical  intelligence  for  himself  and  me. 
The  British  Antarctic  expedition,  he  says,  is  to  sail 

JET.  28.]  TO   THE  MISSES   TORRE  Y.  163 

positively  in  August,  and  Joseph  is  to  go.     I  wonder 
if  they  will  be  two  years  or  so  in  getting  off !  ... 


PARIS,  April  1,  1839,  Monday  evening. 

MY  DEAR  GIRLS,  — Jt  is  rather  late,  and  I  have  no 
fire  in  my  room,  to  which  I  have  just  now  returned, 
but  it  is  nearly  comfortable  without  one,  and  so  we 
will  have  a  few  words  together  before  I  sleep.  My 
last  and  long  sheet  was  closed,  I  think,  on  Friday 
evening.  On  Saturday  my  morning  was  spent  as 
usual  at  the  Jardin  des  Plantes ;  returning  from 
whence  I  looked  along  the  shops  and  so  on  to  the 
Pont  du  Louvre,  which  I  crossed  ;  passed  through  the 
Palais  Royal  at  the  most  busy  season,  when  it  is  all 
lighted  up  splendidly,  and  dined  at  the  Restaurant 
Colbert  at  half  past  seven.  I  am  patiently  exploring 
(I  should  say  eating)  my  way  through  the  mazes  of 
French  cookery,  and  am  trying  to  select  from  the 
complicated  bill  of  fare  the  more  peculiar  and  national 
dishes,  some  of  which  are  excellent,  others  so-so,  or 
very  poor.  .  .  . 

To-day  I  have  been  again  at  the  Garden,  working 
as  hard  as  possible,  since  I  have  so  little  time  remain- 
ing. I  dined  at  half  past  six  at  one  of  the  famous 
restaurants,  just  to  see  how  it  was  managed,  and  re- 
turning spent  the  early  part  of  the  evening  with  Mr. 
Webb,  who  lives  near  me. 

On  my  way  from  the  Garden,  I  stopped  at  another 
church,  I  believe  the  only  remaining  one  of  large  size 
and  much  interest  which  I  had  not  already  seen.  .  .  . 
It  is  called  St.  Severin,  and  is  very  old,  having  been 
built  in  the  year  1210. 

This  is  the  first  of  April,  and  a  fine  spring  day  it 

164  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

has  been,  though  the  season  is  little  more  advanced  than 
at  New  York.  In  two  weeks  I  must  be  again  upon 
the  wing,  and  shall  soon  meet  the  summer.  I  want  to 
see  the  south  of  France  and  sunny  Italy.  Adieu. 

Tuesday  evening,  April  2.  —  I  intended  to  have  had 
time  this  evening  to  write  several  letters,  but  Decaisne 
has  been  with  me,  and  did  not  leave  until  almost 
twelve,  we  had  so  much  to  talk  about.  I  have  been 
all  the  morning  at  the  Garden ;  have  worked  very 
hard,  indeed,  and  have  nearly  finished  there.  To- 
morrow is  like  to  be  a  broken  day,  as  I  have  made  an 
engagement  to  see  Dr.  Montagne 1  and  his  microscope 
at  twelve  o'clock,  which  will  take  an  hour  or  two  out 
of  the  very  best  part  of  the  day.  I  will  try  to  turn 
the  fragments  of  the  day  to  some  account.  But  now 

"  To  each,  to  all,  a  fair  good-night, 
And  pleasing  dreams,  and  slumbers  light." 

Monday  evening,  April  8.  ...  Saturday  was  a  little 
more  diversified.  I  went  at  eight  o'clock  in  the  morn- 
ing to  Professor  Richard's,2  who  lives  near  me,  exam- 
ined some  plants  of  Michaux,  then  took  my  breakfast, 
went  to  the  Garden  for  three  or  four  hours,  but  returned 
at  two  o'clock  to  see  the  Chamber  of  Peers  in  session, 
M.  Gay  having  provided  me  with  a  ticket  of  admit- 
tance, which  procured  me  a  very  good  seat.  The  mem- 
bers all  wear  a  kind  of  court  dress,  the  military  peers 
swords,  and  those  who  have  them  display  the  insignia 
of  the  order  of  the  Legion  of  Honor,  and  so  forth. 
Several  new  peers  were  admitted,  but  before  they 

1  Jean  F.  Camille  Montagne,  1784-1865  :   surgeon  in  the  French 
army.     Retired  in  1830,  and  devoted  himself  to  cryptogamic  botany. 

2  Achille  Richard,  1794-1852  ;  professor  of  botany  in  the  Ecole  de 
Me*decine,  Paris  ;   son  of  L.  Claude  Richard. 

/ET.  28.]  TO    THE   MISSES    TORREY.  165 

were  introduced,  a  number  of  peers  made  some  remarks 
which  could  not  have  been  very  flattering  to  them,  the 
creation  of  a  new  batch  just  at  this  time  having  given 
much  dissatisfaction  to  the  old  ones.  Among  others, 
I  heard  a  little  speech  from  the  famous  Marshal  Soult. 
Lord  Brougham,  who  is  now  in  Paris,  was  present.  I 
recognized  him  across  the  room  by  his  homely  face, 
which  he  is  in  the  habit  of  twitching  and  contorting 
incessantly,  as  if  it  pained  him.  He  seemed  to  listen 
with  much  attention. 

In  the  evening  I  paid  a  visit  to  Mr.  Spach,1  looked 
over  plants  and  so  forth  until  ten  o'clock,  returned 
shivering  with  cold,  for  the  weather  here  is  like  March 
in  New  York.  I  am  now  sitting  by  a  large  fire,  and 
yet  I  am  shivering. 

Tuesday  evening,  April  9.  —  In  the  morning  went 
to  hear  Mirbel 2  lecture  at  the  Sorbonne  ;  he  speaks 
so  distinctly  that  I  understood  him  tolerably  well  in 
general.  The  lecture-room  is  old  and  incommodious, 
rather  better,  to  be  sure,  than  the  accommodation  for 
the  students  of  the  university  in  the  olden  time,  when 
they  used  to  sit  upon  straw  spread  in  the  streets, 
but  certainly  not  very  fine.  I  went  afterward  to  the 
Ecole  de  Medecine ;  heard  the  professor  of  anatomy 
for  a  few  minutes ;  came  away,  saw  two  or  three  books 
that  I  wanted  in  a  stall  belonging  to  a  shop,  priced 
them ;  found  the  price  much  higher  than  I  intended 
to  give,  so  I  named  the  price  I  would  give ;  was  amused 
with  the  perseverance  of  the  very  genteel  madame, 
who  reduced  her  price  down  to  within  seven  francs  of 

1  Edouard  Spach,    1801-1879;    native   of  Strasburg,   many   years 
keeper  of  the  herbarium  at  the  ,Jardin  des  Plantes. 

2  Charles  Francois  Brisseau  Mirbel,  1776-1854 ;   one  of  the  most 
distinguished  vegetable  anatomists  of  the  age.     His  earliest  publica- 
tion in  1801. 

166  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

my  offer,  and  then  labored  hard  to  make  me  take 
them.  I  advanced  one  franc,  but  utterly  refused  to 
give  a  sou  more.  "  Vous  n'etes  pas  raisonnable,"  says 
madame.  "  Je  suis  trds  raisonnable,"  I  replied,  "mais 
votre  prix  n'est  pas  raisonnable."  So  I  left  the  shop, 
madame  very  coolly  replacing  the  books  on  the  shelf, 
with  one  eye  turned  toward  me  to  see  if  I  would  re- 
lent. I  had  got  some  distance  down  the  street  when 
the  boy  came  running  after  me,  to  say  that  I  might 
have  the  books,  "  mais  ils  sont  tres  bon  marche."  So 
much  for  the  way  you  are  obliged  to  make  bargains 
here.  Went  to  the  Garden,  returned  to  dine  here, 
paid  a  little  visit  to  Mr.  Webb,  and  must  write  the 
remainder  of  the  evening. 

Thursday  evening,  April  11. — My  approaching  de- 
parture makes  it  a  very  busy  time  for  me.  Let  me 
recollect  what  I  did  yesterday.  I  went  first  to  Baron 
Delessert's;  studied  in  his  magnificent  library  until 
about  one  o'clock ;  then  visited  my  banker,  who  is  near, 
drew  some  money ;  then  to  a  bookseller  to  arrange  some 
matters  about  our  "  Flora  "  (which  I  failed  to  do)  ; 
went  to  the  Bibliotheque  du  Roi,  where  they  have 
miles  of  books  and  acres  of  manuscripts,  but  as  it  was 
not  a  public  day,  I  did  not  see  half  that  I  wished.  I 
have  made  arrangements,  however,  for  a  future  day. 
I  went  next  to  the  post  office,  and  took  a  place  in  the 
malle-post  (which  is  very  much  quicker  than  the  dili- 
gence) for  Lyons,  to  go  on  Monday ;  so  that  the 
time  of  my  departure  is  pretty  well  fixed.  I  next 
went  to  learn  the  time  of  the  departure  of  the  car- 
riages for  Sevres  and  Versailles,  which  places  I  intend 
to  visit  to-morrow.  Then  I  -met  Chevalier,  the  opti- 
cian, by  appointment,  to  consult  about  microscopes 
for  an  hour  or  two.  .  .  .  Called  on  M.  Gay,  with 

JST.28.]  TO   THE  MISSES    TORREY.  167 

whom  I  found  M.  Boissier,  a  Swiss  botanist  whom  I 
had  often  seen  at  the  Garden,  and  also  August  St. 
Hilaire,1  who  returned  but  a  few  days  since  from 

On  reaching  my  room  at  half  past  ten,  I  found  a 
note  from  Mr.  Webb,  saying  that  M.  Spach  had  a 
message  for  me  from  Mirbel,  and  asking  me  to  call  if 
I  had  time ;  went  immediately,  but  was  too  late ; 
Webb  had  gone  to  bed.  Returned,  arranged  ac- 
counts, etc.,  and  went  to  bed  myself. 

To-day  I  have  been,  if  possible,  still  more  busy ;  at 
least  I  have  accomplished  more,  though  I  made  a  bad 
beginning.  The  concierge  promised  to  call  me  at 
eight,  but  I  awoke  myself  at  nine.  Consequently  it 
was  past  ten  before  I  made  my  first  call,  which  was 
upon  Mr.  Webb,  to  know  when  I  was  to  see  Mirbel. 
I  called  next  upon  Dr.  Montagne  to  get  a  letter  to  the 
chief  curator  of  the  Bibliotheque  du  Roi,  which  should 
afford  me  the  opportunity  of  seeing  this,  the  largest 
library  in  the  world,  on  a  private  day,  namely,  Mon- 
day, the  only  public  day  while  I  stay  being  Friday, 
when  I  have  something  else  to  do.  Eh  bien.  I  went 
next  to  the  Louvre,  and  saw  the  other  and  best  half  of 
that  most  magnificent  gallery,  my  passport  giving  me 
a  ready  admittance.  .  .  .  Suffice  it  to  say  I  saw  very 
much  to  admire  —  some  things  that  I  greatly  admired 
—  very  much  I  did  not  allow  myself  time  enough  to  be- 
come interested  in,  as  well  as  many  works  of  the  old 
fellows  that  one  likes  to  say  he  has  seen.  .  .  .  Again  in 
a  cabriolet  to  the  Ecole  de  Medecine  ;  looked  through 
the  museum,  which  was  to-day  open  to  the  public ;  saw 

1  Auguste  de  St.  Hilaire,  1779-1853.  Accompanied  the  Duke  of 
Luxembourg  on  his  voyage  to  Brazil,  where  he  spent  six  years,  and 
published  a  Flora  of  Brazil,  1825,  and  many  other  works. 

168  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

for  a  moment  the  examination  of  a  batch  of  candi- 
dates for  a  vacant  professorship  by  concours  ;  also 
the  examination  of  students  in  the  same  way  ;  then  I 
visited  the  Musee  Dupuytren,  —  a  surgical  museum  of 
great  extent ;  then  went  to  the  He  St.  Louis  (oppo- 
site the  Garden)  to  call  on  M.  de  St.  Hilaire ;  not  at 
home,  so  I  saved  a  little  time.  Next  to  the  Garden ; 
looked  on  my  way  at  the  animals,  the  hyenas,  lions, 
giraffe,  monkeys,  etc.,  besides  a  few  large  snakes  ;  then 
called  at  Mirbel's  rooms,  who  took  a  great  deal  of 
trouble  to  show  me  most  curious  things  in  vegetable 
anatomy,  but  of  this  I  will  write  to  your  good  papa, 
who  will  care  much  more  for  it  than  you.  After  this 
I  saw  Decaisne  for  a  few  minutes  at  the  botanical 
gallery  ;  took  one  of  the  young  lads  with  me ;  saw  the 
mineralogical  cabinet  and  that  of  fossils,  which  occupy 
a  new  and  most  beautifully  arranged  gallery.  Here 
I  saw  many  of  the  famous  things  I  have  heard  so 
much  of.  In  the  vestibule  to  this  gallery  they  are 
preparing  a  pedestal  for  a  fine  and  large  statue  of 
Cuvier.  I  went  next  to  Jussieu's  house,  talked  with 
him  for  a  few  minutes,  and  bid  him  good-by.  On 
my  way  home  stopped  at  Balliere's,  the  bookseller,  to 
transact  some  business  ;  home  ;  dined  at  half  past 
seven  ;  went  to  Webb's,  where  I  like  to  go  of  an  even- 
ing, as  I  get  a  good  cup  of  tea  (no  common  thing  in 
Paris),  which,  after  such  a  day's  work,  was  very  grate- 
ful, I  assure  you ;  remained  until  half  past  nine ;  re- 
turned here,  took  up  my  pen,  and  voici  the  result ; 
and  if  I  do  not  write  plainly  and  neatly,  it  is  no  great 
wonder,  and  I  trust  you  will  excuse  it,  for  I  have 
other  writing  to  do  also  this  evening.  Besides,  I  must 
rise  at  seven,  as  I  expect  another  very  busy  day.  On 
my  return  this  evening,  I  found  a  polite  note  from 

JET.  28.]  JOURNAL.  169 

Delessert 1  accompanying  a  magnificent  present,  no 
less  than  a  copy  of  three  volumes  of  the  "  Icones  Se- 
lects." An  invitation  for  Saturday  evening  from  M. 
and  Mme.  Delessert  came  with  it.  I  am  already  en- 
gaged to  dinner,  at  half  past  six,  for  the  same  day. 


Saturday  morning,  half  past  seven.  —  [After  an  ac- 
count of  a  visit  to  Versailles,  he  goes  on :]  Now  bid- 
ding adieu  to  all  this  most  interesting  ground,  I  took 
up  my  march,  on  foot  and  alone,  for  St.  Germain, 
distant  about  four  miles.  From  the  heights  of  Lou- 
veciennes  I  obtained  the  first  view  of  the  Seine  and 
the  lovely  and  broad  valley  through  which  it  winds. 
Here  I  passed  the  remains  of  an  elevated  and  striking 
aqueduct  which  conveyed  water  to  a  royal  chateau 
which  formerly  stood  in  the  neighborhood,  and  also, 
I  believe,  to  the  village  of  Marly,  through  which  I 
passed  a  little  farther  on.  Then  descending  rapidly, 
I  reached  again  the  banks  of  the  Seine,  the  terrace 
of  St.  Germain  being  directly  before  me.  It  was 
now  three  o'clock.  The  steep  hill  was  to  be  ascended 
by  a  winding  road,  and  being  somewhat  leg-weary, 
I  stopped  a  passing  countryman's  cart ;  the  lad  who 
was  driving  readily  gave  me  a  seat  by  his  side,  and 
thus  I  rode  into  St.  Germain.  The  lad  was  quite  in- 
telligent, and  answered  all  my  questions  (when  he 
understood  me)  very  readily.  He  set  me  down  close 
by  the  chateau.  I  gave  him  ten  sous  for  his  trouble, 
and  we  parted  on  good  terms  with  each  other.  The 
chateau  of  St.  Germain,  which  was  a  chief  royal  resi- 
dence before  Versailles  was  built,  is  more  interesting 

1  Baron  Benjamin  Delessert,  1773-1847 ;  a  French  financier  and 
philanthropist.  Associated  with  De  Candolle  in  the  publication  of 
the  Icones  Selectee. 

170  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

to  us  as  the  place  where  the  Stuarts  kept  their  petty 
court  so  many  years.  It  is  now  converted  into  a  mili- 
tary penitentiary,  and  I  was  not  anxious  to  examine 
the  interior,  as  I  am  informed  scarce  any  of  the 
original  apartments  or  furniture  remain.  The  exte- 
rior is  striking,  quite  of  the  old  style,  built  of  the 
same  red  bricks  as  the  central  portion  of  Versailles. 
What  is  most  worth  seeing  here  is  the  terrace,  a  beau- 
tiful park,  extending  for  almost  two  miles  along  the 
brow  of  the  high  ridge,  with  the  most  beautiful  view 
from  it  of  the  valley  beneath  and  before  you,  the  hills 
that  bound  your  view,  and  the  numerous  villages  scat- 
tered here  and  there.  A  finer  situation  cannot  be 
imagined.  The  Seine,  after  passing  Paris,  makes  a 
bold,  double  turn.  The  view  extends  quite  to  Paris 
(fifteen  miles)  though  the  city  is  nearly  concealed  from 
view,  yet  you  see  the  grand  Arc  de  1'Etoile  distinctly. 
In  the  summer  it  must  be  surpassingly  beautiful.  At 
four  o'clock  I  descended  the  steep  declivity  to  the 
commencement  of  the  railroad,  took  a  little  refresh- 
ment ;  at  twenty  minutes  past  four  we  started  in  cars 
propelled  by  steam,  and  in  an  hour  I  was  in  Paris 
and  taking  my  dinner  at  the  Restaurant  Colbert. 
A  pretty  good  day's  work  ! 

Saturday,  went  to  dine  at  Mr.  Webb's ;  a  little 
party,  —  a  bachelors'  party,  for  Webb  is  single,  — 
consisting  of  Dr.  Montague,  M.  Berthelot,  M.  and 
Mme.  Ramon  de  la  Sagra,  M.  Spach  and  his  wife, 
and  a  young  Spaniard  whose  name  I  do  not  recollect. 
Webb  is  quite  a  polyglot ;  he  speaks  French,  Span- 
ish, Portuguese,  Italian,  Modern  Greek,  and  I  know 
not  what  besides  his  mother  tongue.  At  half  past 
nine  I  left,  took  a  cabriolet  for  Delessert's,  where  I 
had  been  invited  to  an  evening  party ;  found  there 

.ET.  28.]  JOURNAL.  171 

several  botanists  and  persons  I  knew.  Delessert  re- 
ceived me  cordially,  introduced  me  to  Madame  D., 
who  I  was  rejoiced  to  find  spoke  English  very  well. 
The  suite  of  rooms  thrown  open  was  very  splendid, 
and  communicating  with  the  last  was  a  pretty  green- 
house, filled  with  vigorous  plants,  all  in  fine  bloom  ; 
the  whole,  carpeted  and  lighted,  presented  a  most  in- 
viting appearance.  The  brothers  Delessert  are  said 
to  be  very  rich,  and  I  suppose  can  well  afford  such 
an  expensive  establishment.  The  party  broke  up  at 
eleven.  Besides  tea,  which  is  quite  English,  though 
the  French  are  getting  more  into  the  custom  of  using 
it,  we  had  ices,  etc.,  but  nothing  else.  The  whole 
affair  was  conducted  without  any  parade  and  in  quiet 
good  taste.  .  .  . 

Notabilia  varia.  —  Ellimia,  Nutt.,  was  described  a 
little  before  us  by  two  authors  under  two  different 
names  :  First  by  Cambessides  in  Jacquemont's  Trav- 
els, under  the  name  of  Oligomeris ;  second  by  Webb 
and  Berthollet,  "  Histoire  Naturelle  des  lies  Canaries," 
under  the  name  of  Resedella ;  Webb  has  Jacquemont's 
plant  from  the  Himalaya  and  his  own  growing  to- 
gether ;  they  are  absolutely  the  same.  I  am  to  examine 
them  soon,  but  have  scarce  a  doubt  they  are  even  the 
same  species  as  ours.  Webb  has  promised  me  a  speci- 
men. It  is  also  the  Reseda  glauca  of  Delile  ex  Egypto. 
It  is  curious  that  the  plant  should  at  the  same  time 
be  described  from  almost  every  part  of  the  world,  and 
not  less  so  that  the  three  names  hit  upon  should  have 
all  meant  the  same  thing,  namely,  a  reduced  reseda. 

I  have  just  spent  the  evening  with  Gay.  He  is  pub- 
lishing Carices  in  "  Annales  des  Sciences  Naturelles ; " 
has  hit  upon  some  of  Boott's  notions  ;  but  not  all.  He 
is  a  laboriously  minute  observer,  and  will  do  pretty 

172  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

well,  but  like  Boott  inclines  to  make  too  many  species. 
He  insists  upon  describing  the  small  form  of  C.  Hitch- 
cockiana  from  Dr.  Sartwell  and  Kentucky  as  a  dis- 
tinct species,  in  which  he  may  be  right.  He  wished  to 
name  it  after  me,  but  I  declined  the  honor,  and  have 
transferred  it  to  Dr.  Sartwell,  the  discoverer,  whose 
name  it  is  to  bear.  .  .  . 

Delessert  received  me  very  kindly  when  I  called  on 
him.  I  must  call  again  soon,  and  consult  especially 
his  rich  library.  He  showed  me  a  list  he  had  just 
ordered  from  New  York ;  among  which  of  course  was 
our  "  Flora."  I  should  have  offered  him  a  copy,  but 
now  it  is  scarcely  worth  while.  ...  I  shall  not  see 
De  Candolle  here.  Delessert  does  not  expect  him  until 
May.  I  shall  leave  the  books  and  parcels  for  him 
with  Delessert,  and  make  De  Candolle  take  back  to 
Geneva  with  him  all  my  parcels  that  I  do  not  wish 
to  take  with  me  to  the  south. 

April  2,  evening,  or  rather  April  3,  as  it  is  past 
midnight.  —  I  have  worked  to-day  as  hard  as  I  could 
jump  from  ten  to  half  past  five  o'clock  at  the  her- 
barium general  of  the  Museum  de  Paris,  and  have 
finished.  Apart  from  Michaux's  plants,  of  which  they 
have  nearly  a  set  distributed,  they  are  wretchedly  poor, 
in  North  American  species  ;  almost  none  of  Lamarck 
and  Poiret.  I  except  the  plants  given  by  LeConte, 
Torrey,  etc.,  which  are  arranged  but  not  incorporated. 
The  present  Gallery  of  Botany  is  exceedingly  fine  and 
spacious,  and  well  planned.  I  have  gone  carefully 
through  all  Michaux's  herbarium  (from  your  limited 
time  you  have  made  some  bad  slips  in  the  Carices  of 
Michaux,  which  Gay,  I  am  sorry  to  say,  has  found 
out),  noting  all  dubious  matters  to  be  settled  by  ex- 
amination of  Kichard's  set.  I  have  gone  through  De 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  173 

la  Pylaie's  herbarium  completely  and  carefully ;  I  have 
examined  the  herbarium  given  by  Humboldt,  —  not 
complete  but  said  to  be  as  large  as  Kunth's  own  set 
or  more  so,  and  labeled  by  Kunth ;  I  have  looked  at 
everything  here  which  I  thought  could  interest  us,  but 
some  I  found  not,  such  as  Cercocarpus ;  I  have  ex- 
amined some  other  separate  sets  of  the  same  kind.  I 
am  now  ready  to  glance  through  Jussieu's  herbarium, 
which  is  said  to  contain  many  Lamarck  and  Poiret ; 
to  spend  a  little  time  in  Richard's,  a  few  hours  more 
for  Desfontaines  at  Webb's,  and  perhaps  Berlandier's l 
plants,  though  these  are  distributed  through  Webb's 
immense  collection ;  this  I  can  do,  however,  in  evenings. 
Then  a  morning  or  two  at  Delessert's,  which  will  be 
more  occupied  with  examination  of  books  than  plants, 
will,  I  believe,  finish.  Webb  has  promised  to  give 
me  some  plants  of  Labilliardi£re,  whose  herbarium  he 
bought,  as  he  did  Mercier's,  in  which  he  got  many  of 
Nuttall's  plants.  He  has  also  a  collection  of  Lady 
Dalhousie's  from  North  America,  all  Drummond's, 
etc.,  etc. ;  so  he  is  pretty  rich  in  North  American 
plants,  but  they  are  not  all  arranged  yet.  Webb  has 
most  generously  presented  me  with  a  complete  copy 
of  L'Heritier's  Works  (in  sheets)  except  the  "  Cor- 
nus,"  which  I  have  this  day  bought  of  the  Jew  Meil- 
hac,  and  for  which  I  was  obliged  to  give  six  francs.  I 
shall  have  the  whole  bound  in  two  large  folio  volumes  : 
"  Cornus  "  and  "  Sertum  Anglicum  "  in  one,  "  Stirpes 
Novae"  and  "  Geraniologia  "  in  the  other.  I  think 
thus  far  that  the  few  copies  of  the  "  Flora"  I  have 
given  away  have  turned  to  good  account.  I  meant 

1  Jean  Louis  Berlandier,  died  1851  ;  a  Belgian.  Established  as  an 
apothecary  at  Matamoras,  1827  or  1828.  The  first  botanist  to  ex- 
plore New  Spain.  He  also  made  large  collections  in  western  Texas. 

174  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

to  go  to  Jussieu  to-morrow,  but  Webb  has  made  an 
appointment  with  me  to  see  Dr.  Montague  (muscolo- 
gist,  etc.)  and  his  microscope,  which  is  one  of  the 
latest  and  best  of  Chevalier,  and  will  enable  me  to 
decide  if  I  may  venture  upon  one  for  Sullivant. 

On  Saturday  Decaisne  told  me,  almost  by  acci- 
dent, that  he  was  to  do  the  Asclepiadeae  for  De  Can- 
dolle's  "  Prodromus,"  at  the  same  time  showing  me  a 
paper  of  his  on  the  family  that  I  was  unacquainted 
with,  much  to  his  surprise,  but  he  at  once  gave  me  a 
copy.  You  must  know,  that  although  I  knew  no- 
thing scarcely  of  this  family  when  I  left  you,  and  now 
know  little  as  to  general  structure,  yet  I  pride  myself 
a  little  on  my  researches  in  extricating  the  synonymy 
of  the  species  in  London,  in  Herbarium  LiiinaBus, 
Hort.  Clift.,  Herbarium  Gronovius,  Banks,  Walter 
and  Pursh,  and  here  of  Michaux.  Accordingly  on 
Monday  (yesterday)  Decaisne  and  myself  had  a  regu- 
lar examination  of  all  the  species  we  could  find  here, 
and  I  furnished  him  with  all  my  notes  upon  the 
synonymy,  and  left  with  him  those  I  had  with  me 
from  your  herbarium,  to  be  returned  to  London  in 
September  next.  Decaisne  has  been  with  me  also  all 
this  evening. 

I  find  that  very  many  of  the  pamphlets  we  have 
sent  from  time  to  time  have  miscarried,  particularly 
the  copies  of  my  "  Ceratophyllacese,"  sent  by  Castil- 
neaux,  and,  what  is  mortifying,  Guillemin  and  Jus- 
sieu received  copies,  but  Brongniart  and  Decaisne 
none.  I  have  just  sent  my  only  remaining  copy 
here  (for  you  sent  me  none)  to  Brongniart,1  with 
an  explanation. 

1  Adolphe  Theodore  Brongniart,  1801-1876;  distinguished  French 
botanist,  more  especially  in  fossil  botany ;  professor  of  botany  at  the 
Jardin  des  Plantes. 

JET.  28.]  JOURNAL.  175 

There  is  a  second  species  of  Podophyllum  from 
Cashmere  or  Himalaya,  P.  Emodi,  also  collected  by 
Jacquemont,  from  whose  specimens  Decaisne  has 
given  me  a  piece.  What  is  most  curious,  it  is  six- 
androus,  and  therefore  comes  into  Berberideae  except 
in  wanting  the  dehiscence  of  the  anthers  by  valves 
(which  Decaisne  tells  me  is  also  the  case  in  Nandina), 
and  so  Robert  Brown's  views  are  confirmed.  I  should 
not  wonder  if  the  sly  old  chap  had  seen  a  specimen 
from  Wallich  when  he  appended  the  note  to  the 
"  Congo  Voyage  "  on  Berberideae. 

Thursday  evening,  April  4.  —  Yesterday  saw  Dr. 
Montagne,  the  muscologist,  and  examined  his  micro- 
scope thoroughly,  which  is  one  of  the  latest  and  best 
of  Charles  Chevalier's.  To-day  I  spent  the  morning 
at  Jussieu's,  looking  up  Lamarckian  species,  etc.,  in 
A.  L.  de  Jussieu's  herbarium ;  was  very  successful  in 
Hypericum,  but  have  no  time  now  to  give  you  details. 
In  the  afternoon  Webb,  by  appointment,  met  me  at 
the  Garden,  and  we  went  to  see  Mirbel,  —  a  man  well 
worth  seeing,  I  assure  you.  Webb  acted  as  inter- 
preter, when  it  was  necessary,  for  Mirbel  speaks  with 
such  distinctness  that  knowing  what  he  was  about  I 
could  understand  him  pretty  well. 

I  like  Mirbel  excessively.  Considering  I  was  a 
perfect  stranger,  of  whom  he  knew  nothing,  I  think 
he  took  great  pains  to  show  me  what  I  wanted  to  see. 
Sullivant's  microscope  will  be  of  the  same  kind  as 
his,  only  better,  so  that  he  will  have  the  means  of 
being  a  second  Mirbel.  Examined  his  microscope, 
which  is  a  good  one,  but  I  think  not  equal  to  the  best 
English ;  got  some  good  hints,  etc. ;  am  to  call  again. 
He  is  very  communicative,  and  you  missed  much  in 
not  seeing  so  extraordinary  a  man.  He  showed  me 

176  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

a  series  of  drawings  and  engravings  on  which  he  has 
been  long  engaged,  for  a  memoire  on  the  structure  of 
roots,  —  splendid  drawings  ;  and  he  explained  to  me 
what  I  before  could  not  form  a  clear  idea  about,  how 
the  curious  emboitemeiit  or  thickening  of  the  walls  of 
cells  takes  place  by  the  development  of  new  cells 
within  the  old.  He  showed  me  what  I  at  once  recog- 
nized as  the  so-called  gridiron-tissue  which  I  had  seen 
in  England,  and  I  noticed  that  he  explained  it  in  the 
same  way  as  Brown.  He  promised  me  copies  for  self 
and  friends  of  the  late  paper  of  his  on  Embryologia 
in  the  "  Comptes  Rendus,"  just  now  read  before  the 
Institute  (which  will  also  be  published  with  a  part  of 
the  plates  in  the  "  Annales  des  Sciences  Naturelles " 
and  finally  completely  in  "Archives  du  Museum  "),  in 
which  he  says  he  has  completely  upset  the  new-fangled 
notions  of  Schleiden,  Unger,  etc.  (adopted  by  End* 
licher)  ;  and,  what  is  remarkable,  his  investigations  on 
the  subject  were  made  before  he  knew  of  their  views, 
and  the  publication  is  only  a  little  hastened  on  account 
of  theirs.  This  evening  I  have  been  with  Webb,  look- 
ing up  Desfontaines  and  Poiret  plants,  also  some  of 
Spach.  Did  I  tell  you  I  have  seen  a  good  deal  of 
Spach  of  late  ?  He  does  not  agree  well  with  the  other 
botanists  of  the  Garden,  but  there  are  some  good 
points  about  him,  and  he  is  mending  every  day.  I 
pushed  him  rather  hard  upon  some  of  his  bad  ways, 
particularly  that  of  his  changing  specific  names,  which 
he  bore  very  well.  Webb  says  he  is  now  falling  into 
an  opposite  extreme  as  to  species,  and  will  hardly  ad- 
mit anything  to  be  distinct ;  but  Webb  himself  rather 
inclines  to  multiply  species,  I  believe.  I  am  to  meet 
Spach  at  his  place  in  the  Garden  to-morrow  morning. 
He  is  married,  lately,  to  Miss  Legendre,  a  relative  of 

JST.  28.]  JOURNAL.  177 

Mirbel's,  who  made  his  drawings  in  Marchaiitia,  etc.r 
—  indeed  the  best  botanical  artiste  in  Paris.  What  a 
fine  library  Jussieu  has !  And  what  a  capital  advan- 
tage it  is  to  have  a  great  botanist  for  one's  father !  I 
particularly  envy  Jussieu  his  collection  of  botanical 
pamphlets,  which  fill  a  large  cabinet,  all  arranged  in 
families,  etc.,  the  largest  collection  of  the  kind  in  the 
world,  Jussieu  thinks.  He  gave  me  to-day  a  little 
print  of  his  father  taken  in  the  year  his  "  Genera  Plan- 
tarum"  was  published.  He  told  me,  what  I  did  not 
know  before,  that  Bernard  de  Jussieu  superintended 
the  publication  of  Aublet's  "  Plantes  de  la  Guiane."  I 
could  buy  that  work  rather  cheap,  but  think  I  must 
refrain.  I  bought  to-day  Schreber's  edition  of  the 
"Genera  Plantarum,"  two  francs,  two  vols.  in  one, 
bound,  for  myself  (you  have  it,  I  believe),  and  a  sec- 
ond copy  of  "Linnaei  Species  Plantarum,"  ed.  3 
(which  is  the  2d  Holm.,  as  you  know,  reprinted  pagi- 
natim  at  Vienna).  I  gave  five  francs,  and  shall  put  it 
down  for  Sullivant,  who  should  have  it,  unless  indeed 
you  desire  to  keep  it  yourself.  I  have  bought  (ten 
francs)  the  first  four  vols.  of  "  Memoires  de  1'Insti- 
tut,"  4to,  bound,  for  library  of  Michigan.  Ventenat's 
memoire  of  Tilia  is  contained  in  one,  also  other  botan- 
ical papers,  and  some  good  old  chemical  ones,  etc. 
Webb  is  to  put  up  for  me  a  small  parcel  of  Labilliar- 
di£re's  New  Holland  plants. 

I  have  bought  L'Heritier's  "  Cornus,"  so  now  I  have 
the  whole  complete,  and  must  get  it  all  bound* 

P.  S.  —  I  have  just  discovered  that  the  copy  of 
L'He*ritier  is  imperfect.  I  feel  confident  that  Webb 
knows  it  not,  and  I  of  course  cannot  tell  him.  I  shall 
have  all  bound  up  in  one  thick  volume. 

Monday  evening,  April  8.  —  I  finished  early  this 

178  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

morning,  at  Richard's,  the  examination  of  those  species 
upon  which  Michaux's  herbarium  is  not  satisfactory. 
Richard  boasts  of  his  set  as  the  authentic  one  (which 
is  true),  but  it  is  not  as  complete  nor  as  good  as  the 
other,  which  is  partly  owing  to  Richard  having  di- 
vided with  Kunth  when  he  could.  Michaux  must  have 
made  a  capital  collection,  since  it  has  moreover  sup- 
plied the  general  herbarium  with  a  pretty  extensive 
set,  and  Desf  ontaines  and  Jussieu  with  many ;  others  I 
meet  in  the  Yentenat  herbarium  (Delessert).  They 
say  De  Candolle  has  some  of  Michaux's  plants,  and 
who  besides  I  know  not.  .  .  . 

But  I  have  something  better  than  all  this  to  tell 
you.  I  have  discovered  a  new  genus  in  Michaux's 
herbarium  —  at  the  end,  among  plants  ignotas.  It  is 
from  that  great  unknown  region,  the  high  mountains 
of  North  Carolina.  We  have  the  fruit,  with  the  per- 
sistent calyx  and  style,  but  no  flowers,  and  a  guess 
that  I  made  about  its  affinities  has  been  amply  borne 
out  on  examination  by  Decaisne  and  myself.  It  is 
allied  to  Galax,  but  "  un  tres-distinct  genus,"  having 
axillary  one-flowered  scapes  (the  flower  large)  and  a 
style  like  that  of  a  Pyrola,  long  and  declined.  Indeed 
I  hope  it  will  settle  the  riddle  about  the  family  of 
Galax,  and  prove  Richard  to  be  right  when  he  says 
Ordo  Ericarcum.  I  claim  the  right  of  a  discoverer  to 
affix  the  name.  So  I  say,  as  this  is  a  good  North 
American  genus  and  comes  from  near  Kentucky,  it 
shall  be  christened  Shortia,  to  which  we  will  stand  as 
godfathers.  So  Shortia  galacifolia,  Torr.  and  Gr.,  it 
shall  be.  I  beg  you  to  inform  Dr.  Short,  and  to  say 
that  we  will  lay  upon  him  no  greater  penalty  than  this 
necessary  thing,  —  that  he  make  a  pilgrimage  to  the 
mountains  of  Carolina  this  coming  summer  and  pro- 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  179 

cure  the  flowers.  Please  lay  an  injunction  upon  Nut- 
tall,  that  he  publish  no  other  Short ia,  and  I  will  do 
the  same  to  Hooker  in  a  letter  that  I  am  now  writing. 
Indeed  I  think  I  will  tell  him  some  of  its  chief  pecul- 
iarities, and  then  give  him  leave  to  publish  the  extract 
in  the  "  Annals  of  Natural  History  "if  he  thinks  it 
worth  while.1 

I  attended  a  meeting  of  the  Institute  this  after- 
noon. An  election  of  a  correspondent  took  place, 
which  ran  very  close  between  Charles  Buonaparte  and 
Agassiz,  but  the  latter  carried  it ! 

I  must  not  forget  to  tell  you  about  the  Loganiaceous 
plant  from  Florida,  for  so  Decaisne,  to  whom  I  gave 
leave  to  sacrifice  a  flower  for  drawing,  has  determined 
it  to  be ;  so  Brown's  hint  is  confirmed.  There  is 
something  rather  queer  about  the  style,  which,  as 
Brown's  "  Prodromus  "  is  not  before  me,  I  cannot  say 
is  also  the  case  in  any  of  the  subgenera  or  genera  he 
has  indicated. 

Euploca,  Decaisne  says,  is  certainly  apocyneous. 
Nuttall,  I  believe,  places  it  in  Boraginese. 

April  9.  —  I  heard  Mirbel  lecture  to-day,  commen- 
cing his  course  at  the  Sorbonne.  He  is  a  very  good 
and  clear  lecturer,  of  the  colloquial  sort,  and  illus- 
trates very  well  by  rapid  sketches  on  the  blackboard. 
I  believe  you  did  not  see  him.  In  the  contour  of  his 
features  and  in  expression  he  is  a  good  deal  like  Dr. 
Peters,  except  that  his  countenance  is  more  attenu- 
ated, his  features  small  and  very  little  prominent,  and 
his  complexion  light.  At  the  Ecole  de  Medecine  I 
was  not  fortunate  enough  to  hit  the  chemical  profes- 
sor. I  heard  a  portion  of  a  lecture  in  the  anatomical 
theatre,  but  soon  came  away. 

1  The  rediscovery  of  Shortia  in  1878  is  described  on  p.  682. 

180  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

I  have  had  another  fine  lesson  from  Mirbel.  He 
showed  me  all  the  drawings  of  the  paper,  of  which  I 
send  three  copies.  I  quit  to-day. 

LYONS,  Wednesday  evening,  April  17,  1839. 

At  six  o'clock  precisely  the  malle-postes  for  every 
part  of  France  began  to  leave,  one  after  the  other : 
that  for  Lyons  came  up;  our  baggage  all  in,  our 
seats  selected  and  arranged  for  us,  in  ten  seconds  we 
were  in  our  places,  and  before  the  word  adieu  was 
fairly  beyond  my  lips  we  were  off  at  full  speed.  We 
took  the  route  by  Burgundy,  passed  Sens  in  the  night, 
breakfasted  at  six  next  morning  at  Auxerre,  and  dur- 
ing the  day  should  have  passed  through  Autun,  but  I 
believe  we  did  not ;  passed  Chalons-sur-Saone  at  dusk, 
and  arrived  at  Lyons  at  six  precisely  the  next  morn- 
ing, —  a  rather  fatiguing  ride,  but  I  saved  much  time 
over  the  diligence,  which  would  have  been  even  more 
fatiguing.  The  mail-coach  takes  four  passengers  only, 
three  inside  and  one  with  the  conducteur;  it  is 
drawn  by  seven  horses  guided  by  a  postillion,  in  boots 
almost  as  high  as  himself,  and  the  horses  are  changed 
every  five  miles  or  thereabouts.  The  time  it  took  to 
change  the  horses  I  believe  never  exceeded  a  minute. 
I  timed  them  once  or  twice  by  the  watch,  and  we  were 
moving  again  before  the  expiration  of  the  minute.  The 
country  through  which  we  passed  was  more  fertile  and 
in  better  cultivation  than  what  I  saw  of  Normandy ; 
it  was  beautiful  but  monotonous,  except  the  latter 
part,  which  grew  quite  picturesque  as  we  approached 
the  Rhone  and  the  rivers  that  fall  into  it.  ... 

Lyons  is  finely  situated  just  above  the  confluence 
of  the  Saone  and  the  Rhone,  occupying  the  space  be- 
tween the  two  rivers  and  also  the  other  bank  of  the 

MT.  28.]  JOURNAL.  181 

former.  It  has  two  beautiful  and  very  steep  hills, 
between  which  the  Saone  winds,  which  add  much  to 
its  appearance.  .  .  . 

April  25.  —  I  broke  off  here  some  time  ago,  and  left 
a  space  which  I  intended  to  fill  up  the  first  spare  mo- 
ment, by  telling  you  what  I  saw  at  Lyons ;  what  kind 
of  a  town  it  is ;  how  I  might  possibly  have  seen  Mont 
Blanc  from  it  had  it  not  been  a  rainy  day ;  how  I 
called  on  Seringe,1  saw  the  little  botanical  garden, 
took  notice  of  many  little  contrivances,  particularly 
the  way  he  keeps  the  aquatic  plants  wet ;  how  he  went 
with  me  to  the  Academic  of  Lyons,  the  branch  of  the 
University  of  Paris.  ...  I  could  also  describe  the 
manufacture  of  velvet,  which  I  also  saw,  but  for  all 
these  things  time  does  not  permit ;  a  good  opportunity 
of  sending  to  New  York  occurring  to-morrow  morn- 
ing. So  I  must  leave  the  hiatus.  .  .  . 

I  was  called  this  morning  at  a  quarter  before  four ; 
went  down  to  the  steamboat,  which  was  to  start 
promptly  at  five,  but  which  did  not  until  half  an  hour 
later,  —  a  narrow  comfortless  vessel,  with  no  awning 
or  protection  for  the  decks,  in  which  point,  and  in  the 
lack  of  all  comfortable  arrangements,  it  is  just  like 
every  other  steamboat  I  have  seen  since  I  left  New 
York,  those  between  Liverpool  and  Glasgow  alone 
excepted.  The  Rhone,  even  at  Lyons  and  far  below, 
merits  pretty  well  the  epithets  applied  to  it,  where 
it  "  leaves  the  bosom  of  its  nursing  lake,"  —  "  the  blue 
rushing  of  the  arrowy  Rhone,"  for  it  is  rapid  the 
whole  course.  At  Lyons  it  has  a  blue  tint  like  that 
of  the  ocean,  though  not  so  deep.  Well,  we  were  off 
at  length,  and  aided  by  the  current  we  made  very 

1  Nicolas  Charles  Seringe,  1775-1856 ;  professor  at  Lyons.  Seringia 
named  for  him. 

182  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

satisfactory  progress.  The  distance  by  post  between 
Lyons  and  Avignon  is  one  hundred  and  sixty-seven 
miles,  but  including  all  the  turnings  of  the  river  it 
must  be  much  more  ;  however,  at  six  o'clock  and  a 
quarter  the  spires  and  battlements  of  Avignon,  lighted 
by  the  setting  sun,  were  in  sight,  and  a  beautiful  sight 
they  were  as  we  drew  near.  The  wall  of  the  city,  built 
by  Pope  Innocent  VI.  in  the  twelfth  century,  is  still 
perfect,  and  very  pretty,  the  architecture  being  what 
I  should  have  thought  Moorish  (judging  from  pictures 
merely)  ;  the  numerous  spires  of  this  very  ecclesiasti- 
cal town  rising  above  it ;  the  huge  rocky  elevation  next 
the  river,  —  the  site  of  the  ancient  fortress,  and  of 
old  temples,  churches,  etc.,  —  and  not  least  the  ruined 
bridge  of  very  ancient  date,  that  still  throws  its  beau- 
tiful arches  half  across  the  river,  the  lovely  Italian 
landscape  around,  so  fresh  and  green,  the  distant 
mountains  encircling  the  whole,  made  it  altogether  as 
delightful  a  scene  as  one  could  wish  to  behold.  But 
you  must  know  that  I  am  now  in  the  region  of  the 
olive  and  myrtle,  and  have  in  the  short  space  of  three 
days  concentrated,  as  it  were,  the  pleasure  we  experi- 
ence in  watching  the  gradual  approach  of  summer. 
The  season  is  said  to  be  later  than  usual  at  Paris ; 
it  is  like  April  in  New  York,  —  a  few  warm  days,  but 
the  evenings  all  chilly  and  most  of  the  days  raw  and 
unpleasant.  The  horse-chestnut  trees  of  the  Tui- 
leries  were  just  bursting  their  buds ;  but  every  hour 
since,  and  particularly  to-day,  I  have  noticed  little  by 
little  the  advance.  Here  nearly  all  the  trees  have 
assumed  their  foliage,  —  that  pure  and  delicate  vernal 
foliage  which  we  always  so  much  admire,  but  which 
you  enjoy  very  much  to  come  upon  in  the  way  I  have 
done,  instead  of  waiting  week  after  week,  with  every 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  183 

now  and  then  a  snowstorm,  just  to  keep  winter  in  re- 
membrance. But  I  must  not  forget  that  I  have  seen 
snow  also  to-day.  The  summit  of  Mont  Ventoux, 
which  we  have  had  in  full  sight  since  twelve  o'clock,  is 
covered  with  snow,  its  brilliant  whiteness  contrasting 
finely  with  the  craggy  brown  mountains  of  lesser  ele- 
vation, as  with  the  green  fields  and  tender  foliage  of 
the  valleys.  There  is  nothing  very  grand  in  the 
scenery  of  the  Rhone  from  Lyons  to  this  place.  The 
upper  portion  is  very  much  like  the  Hudson  between 
New  York  and  the  Highlands,  but  I  think  scarcely  as 
fine,  if  you  make  due  allowance  for  the  effect  of  the 
old  villages,  etc.  (not  half  so  comfortable  as  ours 
surely,  but  much  better  adapted  to  improve  the  beauty 
of  the  landscape),  with  now  and  then  a  gray  ruin, 
which  is  a  vast  improvement.  But  from  Tournon 
quite  to  Avignon,  the  scenery  quite  surpasses  the 
Hudson,  and  exhibits  such  variety,  moreover,  that  you 
are  charmed  continually :  now  bold  and  magnificent 
even;  again,  picturesque,  particularly  where  the  ba- 
saltic rocks,  for  it  is  wholly  a  volcanic  country,  form 
parapets  like  the  Palisades,  but  much  more  curious  and 
diversified,  the  more  friable  material  being  worn  away 
in  places,  leaving  columns  and  salient  portions  in  all 
fantastic  shapes.  And  again,  especially  in  the  lower 
portion,  we  see  the  hills  widely  separated,  leaving  most 
beautiful  broad  valleys  between,  with  high  mountains 
for  a  distant  background.  At  St.  Esprit  we  passed 
under  the  curious  old  bridge  built  in  the  eleventh  cen- 
tury, which  is  still  in  as  perfect  a  state  apparently  as 
if  finished  but  yesterday.  It  is  three  thousand  feet 
long,  and  is  said  to  be  the  longest  bridge  in  Europe ; 
it  consists  of  twenty-six  arches,  and  each  abutment 
has  also  a  little  arch  above  it.  We  passed  other 

184  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

very  pretty  or  striking  views  of  which  I  should  like 
vastly  to  have  good  prints,  but  I  do  not  know  whether 
any  person  has  of  late  been  illustrating  the  Khone. 
But  I  must  come  to  a  close,  not  to  fatigue  you  longer. 
I  arrived  at  the  most  excellent  Hotel  du  Palais  Royal 
(recommended  by  Bentham)  just  in  time  for  the  table 
d'hote  at  seven  o'clock,  and  after  dinner  sallied  out, 
with  a  guide  to  conduct  me  to  see  Requien,1  to  whom 
Bentham  had  given  me  a  letter.  I  found  him  a  prompt 
man,  and  in  almost  ten  words  we  settled  my  plan  for 
to-morrow,  which  is  to  start  in  a  cabriolet  for  Vau- 
cluse  at  five  o'clock  in  the  morning,  arrive  at  eight, 
spend  two  hours,  breakfast,  and  return  here  by  one 
o'clock  ;  spend  the  afternoon  and  evening  in  seeing  the 
most  interesting  objects  in  town,  looking  at  his  collec- 
tions, his  pictures,  etc.,  etc.  What  would  you  give  to 
see  Vaucluse?  I  have  many  doubts  whether  it  will 
equal  my  expectations,  which  are  raised  by  the  descrip- 
tion ;  according  to  the  account  it  must  be  very  curi- 
ous arid  strange,  apart  from  the  associations  of  the 
place,  which  here  pass  for  little  with  me,  as  I  feel  no 
interest  at  all  in  Petrarch  or  Laura,  whoever  she  may 
have  been. 

AVIGNON,  Friday  evening,  April  19,  half  past  eight  o'clock. 

I  think  you  will  scarcely  call  me  an  idle  lad.  It 
was  about  midnight  when  I  went  to  bed  last  night ;  I 
was  called  this  morning  at  half  past  four ;  a  few  min- 
utes past  five  I  was  on  my  way  in  a  cabriolet  for  Vau- 
cluse, with  a  very  lazy  horse,  so  that  it  was  nine 
o'clock  when  I  arrived.  I  visited  the  famous  fountain, 
admired  the  rocks,  etc. ;  collected  a  few  plants  as  a 

1  Esprit  Requien,  1788-1851  ;  a  pupil  of  A.  P.  de  Candolle  at  Mont- 
pell  ier.  Often  quoted  in  the  Flore  Franqaise. 

JET.  28.]  JOURNAL.  185 

souvenir ;  took  my  breakfast,  a  very  substantial  one, 
consisting  in  part  of  delicate  trout  from  the  stream 
which  issues  from  the  fountain  ;  left  at  eleven,  arrived 
at  Avignon  again  at  half  past  two ;  saw  the  Requien 
museum  of  antiquities,  which  is  rich,  the  paintings,  the 
little  botanic  garden ;  saw  also  Requien's  library  and 
collection  of  plants,  etc ;  made  arrangements  for  cor- 
respondence ;  climbed  the  rocky  hill  which  overlooks 
the  town  and  river  ;  enjoyed  the  view ;  visited  the  ca- 
thedral (a  small  affair)  which  stands  upon  it ;  saw  the 
old  papal  palace,  now  converted  into  a  prison ;  returned 
to  the  Hotel  Palais  Royal,  and  a  most  excellent  hotel 
it  is,  which  I  hope  you  will  patronize  the  first  time  you 
come  to  Avignon  ;  dined  at  seven,  having  first  secured 
a  place  in  the  diligence  for  Nimes  at  ten  o'clock  this 
evening,  where  I  hope  to  arrive  by  daylight  and  be 
ready  to  go  on  the  same  day  to  Montpellier,  where  I 
prefer  to  pass  the  Sabbath.  Now  I  think  this  is  do- 
ing pretty  well.  .  .  . 

MONTPELLIER,  Saturday  evening,  April  20, 1839. 
At  twelve  o'clock  I  left  Nimes;  rode  through  a 
highly  fertile  and  level  country,  mostly  occupied  with 
vineyards,  getting  now  and  then  a  distant  view  of 
the  mountains  of  Cevennes  on  the  right,  and  soon  of 
the  Pic  San  Loup,  by  which  I  knew  we  were  not  very 
far  from  Montpellier.  At  this  last  place  we  arrived 
at  five  o'clock  precisely,  and  here  I  am  quartered  at 
the  most  comfortable  hotel  imaginable,  the  Hotel  du 
Midi.  All  my  stopping-places  being  indicated  to  me 
by  Bentham,  I  have  no  difficulty  in  choosing  where  to 
stop.  Here  you  are  not  put  into  a  little  seven  by  nine 
chamber  up  five  pairs  of  stairs,  as  is  the  inevitable  lot 
of  a  single  man  traveling  in  the  United  States,  but 

186  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

I  have  a  room  like  a  large  parlor,  airy,  the  two 
windows  looking  into  a  pretty  shady  garden,  a  sofa, 
cushioned  chairs,  and  every  convenience  you  can  think 
of.  The  town  itself  has  nothing  pleasant  except  its 
situation,  but  there  are  in  it  two  delightful  spots,  which 
I  sought  at  once,  after  having  taken  my  dinner,  —  the 
Esplanade,  very  near  me,  an  elevated  plateau  planted 
with  trees,  from  which  you  have  an  extensive  view  of 
the  country  around.  From  this  I  had  my  first  view 
of  the  Mediterranean,  distant,  I  suppose,  about  eight 
miles !  At  the  opposite  side  of  the  town  is  the  Place 
du  Peyrou,  one  of  the  finest  squares  in  the  world,  on 
a  fine  elevation,  descending  by  bold  terraces  into  the 
country  around,  the  green  fields  coming  up  on  one 
side  close  to  the  parapet.  The  view  is  beautiful  and 
very  extensive,  the  Mediterranean  on  one  side,  the  Pic 
San  Loup  and  the  mountains  of  Cevennes  on  the 
other,  while  toward  the  south,  it  is  said,  the  Pyrenees 
may  be  seen  in  very  clear  weather.  From  this  point 
I  discovered  the  Botanic  Garden,  the  oldest  in  Europe 
and  in  many  respects  still  the  finest.  So  I  descended, 
sought  out  Delile  the  director,  who  it  seems  expected 
me,  and  expressed  his  delight  in  a  most  exaggerated 
and  truly  French  manner.  I  stayed  with  him  until 
nine  o'clock ;  returned  here,  commenced  this,  but  be- 
ing fatigued  soon  gave  it  up  and  went  to  bed. 

Monday  morning,  April  22.  —  Nearly  all  of  the  fore- 
going has  been  written  this  morning ;  but  I  cannot 
stay  longer,  as  I  should  be  stirring.  There  are  many 
Protestants  in  Montpellier,  it  is  said,  but  I  fancy  that 
they  are  chiefly  not  very  pious,  and  as  I  should  not 
understand  the  language  well  enough  to  be  benefited, 
I  thought  it  better  to  spend  the  Sabbath  by  myself. 
This  was  my  first  Sabbath  on  land  in  which  I  have  not 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  187 

attended  divine  worship  conducted  in  the  English 

Tuesday  morning,  April  23.  —  As  early  as  possible 
in  the  morning  yesterday  I  called  on  Lady  Bentham, 
the  mother  of  my  good  friend  who  has  taken  so  much 
pains  to  aid  me  and  her  daughter,  Madame  Duchesnil ; 
they  live  quite  retired,  and  are  occupied  in  directing 
the  education  of  the  son  of  Madame  Duchesnil,  a  fine 
lad  of  about  thirteen.  .  .  .  The  ladies  received  me 
with  great  cordiality.  I  prolonged  my  call  to  an  hour, 
and  accepted  an  invitation  to  take  tea  with  them  this 
evening.  ...  I  went  to  the  Garden,  called  upon  M. 
Dunal,1  the  best  botanist  here,  who,  having  lived  single 
to  the  age  of  I  should  say  fifty  years,  has  found  out 
that  it  is  not  good  to  be  alone,  and  has  just  taken  a 
wife.  I  did  not  stay  very  long,  as  I  found  when  I 
called  that  he  was  not  in  his  study,  but  I  suppose  in 
his  drawing-room,  and  I  could  not  be  so  cruel  as  to 
keep  him  from  the  company  of  his  beloved. 

I  called  next  upon  Delile,2  but  as  he  was  not  in,  I 
spent  a  long  time  in  looking  over  the  Garden,  noticing 
all  the  little  details  and  arrangements  that  it  would  be 
useful  for  me  to  know.  On  his  return  we  spent  the 
remainder  of  the  afternoon  in  looking  over  his  plants 
collected  in  America.  I  dined  with  him  at  six  o'clock, 
and  spent  nearly  all  the  evening.  .  .  .  They  have  not 
water  enough,  however,  to  supply  the  Botanic  Garden 
sufficiently,  which  has  a  very  barren  soil,  and  in  this 
dry  climate,  where  it  seldom  rains  from  this  time  till 

1  Michel  Felix  Dunal,  1789-1856 ;  professor  of  botany  at  Montpel- 
lier.     "  One  of  the  earliest  friends  of  A.  P.  De  Candolle.     Author  of 
several  important  monographs  "  [A.  G.]. 

2  Alire  Raffeneau  Delile,  1778-1850;    director  of  the  Garden  of 
Agriculture  established  at  Cairo.    Later  he  succeeded  De  Candolle  in 
the  Botanic  Garden,  Montpellier.     A  celebrated  botanist. 

188  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

October,  it  suffers  greatly.  The  first  view  of  this 
garden  is  very  striking,  but  upon  a  more  careful  ob- 
servation I  see  less  to  admire.  Still  I  learn  some 
thing  from  every  garden  I  visit. 

Previously  to  calling  on  Lady  Bentham  I  had  ac- 
cepted an  invitation  to  dine  this  evening  with  Captain 
Gordon,  a  retired  officer  of  the  British  army  residing 
here,  a  friend  of  the  Bentham  family,  who,  hearing 
from  Lady  Bentham  and  Delile  that  I  was  soon  ex- 
pected here,  called  par  hasard  at  the  Hotel  du  Midi, 
to  request  that  they  would  send  him  word  when  I 
arrived.  On  finding  me  he  insisted  on  my  dining  with 
him  this  evening.  I  have  this  moment,  while  I  was 
writing,  received  a  note  from  Lady  Bentham,  asking 
me  to  call  on  her  this  morning,  saying  she  has  a  col- 
lection of  plants  made  by  herself  for  her  son  George 
at  some  interesting  locality  among  the  mountains,  a 
set  of  which  she  is  to  have  ready  for  me,  knowing,  as 
she  says,  that  George  would  surely  offer  them  to  me. 
Although  I  had  arranged  my  time  a  little  differently, 
of  course  I  shall  call  immediately  after  breakfast. 
Lady  B.,  who  is  now  very  aged,  is  evidently  a  very 
superior  woman  ;  she  is  a  very  good  botanist  also, 
therefore,  as  I  do  not  know  the  plants  of  the  south  of 
Europe  very  well,  I  am  a  little  afraid  of  her. 

Marseilles,  April  25,  Thursday  evening.  —  I  broke 
off  my  narrative  on  Tuesday  morning,  two  days  ago. 
I  must  continue  my  brief  account,  and  then  close  my 
letters  to  send  from  this  port.  After  breakfast,  Cap- 
tain Gordon  called  on  me,  and  we  went  together  to 
Lady  Bentham.  We  found  his  dinner  hour  so  late 
that  we  were  obliged  to  give  up  the  expectation  of 
returning  to  take  tea  with  the  ladies  here.  Delile 
joined  us,  and  soon  after  I  went  with  him  to  see  the 

,KT.  28.]  JOURNAL.  189 

museum  of  painting  and  sculpture,  which,  by  a  curi- 
ous circumstance,  is  the  richest  in  France,  except 
that  of  Paris.  There  are  not  a  few  of  originals  of 
great  masters ;  two  or  three  Raphaels  ;  as  many  of  Sal- 
vator  Rosa,  Rubens,  Poussin,  Carlo  Dolci,  etc.,  many 
of  which  I  know  from  engravings.  We  went  next  to 
the  Medical  School,  which  occupies  the  former  palace 
of  the  archbishop,  who  was  ousted  at  the  time  of  the 
revolution.  This  is  one  of  the  oldest  medical  schools, 
and  for  a  long  time  very  celebrated.  It  is  declining 
now ;  they  have  no  professor  of  very  great  talent  at 
present,  except  Lallemand.  I  was  shown  the  gallery 
of  portraits  of  the  professors  from  the  commencement 
almost,  a  prodigious  number,  and  some  of  the  old  fel- 
lows very  queer  to  look  at.  I  saw  also  the  library, 
the  collection  of  manuscripts,  classical,  theological,  a 
few  Persian,  Arabic,  etc.,  which  fell  into  their  hands 
some  years  ago. 

Thence  we  went  to  the  Garden,  looked  at  plants, 
but  did  not  get  on  very  much,  Delile  being  fonder 
of  telling  long  stories,  complaining  all  the  while  how 
much  he  is  pressed  by  his  avocations,  than  of  work- 
ing hard.  I  then  arranged  my  baggage,  took  a  place 
in  the  diligence  for  Marseilles,  called  again  on  Lady 
Bentham,  to  take  leave ;  dined  with  Captain  Gordon, 
returned,  and  went  to  bed. 

Rose  on  Wednesday  (yesterday)  morning  at  half 
past  four;  took  diligence  at  five,  arrived  at  Nimes 
at  half  past  ten ;  had  time  to  take  another  survey  of 
the  Amphitheatre,  the  Maison  Carree,  and  so  forth ; 
took  breakfast  at  half  past  eleven ;  off  again  at  twelve, 
passed  in  sight  of  Beaucaire  and  Tarascon;  crossed 
the  Rhone,  here  a  large  river,  near  its  mouth  at 
Aries,  a  curious  old  town  which  has  nothing  modern 

190  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

about  it,  and  thus  was  again  in  Provence.  The 
court  of  Constantine  the  Great  was  for  several  years  at 
Aries,  which  was  celebrated  for  its  refinement,  and  the 
women  and  children  are  said  to  be  still  handsome  and 
graceful.  Certainly  nearly  all  I  saw,  young  or  old,  were 
comely,  and  many  handsome.  They  are  all  brunettes, 
and  not  a  little  sunburnt ;  but  their  black  hair,  large 
dark  eyes,  and  long  eyelashes  appear  to  advantage. 
We  were  soon  on  the  road  again,  traveled  over  an 
immense  plain,  bordered  on  the  north  by  a  long  ridge 
of  mountains,  composed  of  naked  jagged  rocks,  —  a 
picturesque  range,  in  fine  contrast  to  the  fertile  plain 
from  which  it  abruptly  rises.  They  are,  I  believe, 
the  mountains  of  the  Durance.  At  length  the  plain 
became  as  barren  as  the  mountains  ;  night  came  on, 
and  rather  late  in  the  evening  we  reached  Aix,  took 
our  supper.  ...  I  slept  pretty  well,  and  when  I 
awoke  we  were  in  sight  of  the  town  and  bay  of  Mar- 
seilles, the  latter  superb  as  seen  from  the  elevated 
place  of  our  view  ;  but  the  town  did  not  present  such 
an  imposing  view  as  I  had  been  taught  to  expect.  .  .  . 
Genoa,  April  27,  1839.  Saturday  evening.  —  I 
have  just  finished  my  afternoon  and  evening  stroll 
through  this,  to  me,  the  first  Italian  city :  the  birth- 
place of  Columbus,  the  city  of  the  Dorias,  the  rival 
and  even  the  conqueror  of  that  other  proud  republic 
of  the  Middle  Ages,  Venice,  in  remembrance  of  which, 
huge  pieces  of  the  chains  which  were  employed  to  bar 
the  harbors  of  the  latter  city  are  suspended  from  the 
gates  of  Genoa.  We  arrived  in  the  bay  before  twelve 
o'clock  to-day,  and  during  our  gradual  approach  to 
the  town  enjoyed  the  view  to  the  full ;  both  the  dis- 
tant view  and  the  near  are  very  fine,  —  equal,  I  may 
say,  to  what  I  expected,  which  is  saying  a  great  deal. 

*:T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  191 

As  seen  from  the  bay  it  certainly  deserves  the  name 
its  citizens  long  ago  gave  it,  —  Genoa  the  Superb. 
You  have  the  whole  completely  before  you  in  one 
view,  the  buildings  rising  one  behind  the  other,  the 
fortifications  that  overtop  the  whole,  with  the  vast 
mountain  amphitheatre  for  a  background.  .  .  .  You 
are  not  much  disturbed  with  the  rattling  of  carriage 
wheels  here.  With  the  exception  of  one  street,  and 
this  a  new  one  (Strada  Nuova)  at  least  as  to  its 
present  dimensions,  they  are  barely  wide  enough  for 
a  wheelbarrow,  and  mostly  too  steep  for  a  carriage, 
even  if  they  were  wider.  The  houses  are  very  high  ; 
six,  seven,  or  eight  stories  being  very  common,  indeed 
usual,  so  that  the  streets  are  mere  chinks  or  crevices. 
I  found  the  same  advantage  from  this  in  Avignon 
and  the  other  towns  of  the  south  of  France,  that  is, 
the  perfect  protection  afforded  these  warm  days  from 
the  heat  of  the  sun.  You  are  sure  of  shade ;  and 
the  air  is  so  dry  that  none  of  the  inconvenience  and 
unhealthiness  results  which  would  surely  be  the  case 
in  other  countries.  I  am  at  the  Hotel  des  Etrangers, 
not  far  from  the  quay,  and  my  room,  five  or  six  stories 
high,  looks  down  upon  the  harbor  and  bay.  It  is 
nine  o'clock  in  the  evening.  The  light  is  burning 
quietly  in  the  light-house,  a  tall  and  very  slender 
column  at  the  entrance  of  the  harbor,  forming  a  bea- 
con which  is  visible  far  and  wide.  I  don't  know  as  I 
may  say  that 

"  The  scene  is  more  beautiful  far  to  my  eye 
Than  if  day  in  her  pride  had  arrayed  it;  " 

but  it  is  much  softer.  The  evening  gun  has  just 
been  fired  off  from  one  of  the  batteries  next  the  sea, 
the  signal,  I  suppose,  for  closing  the  harbor,  and  the 
echo  sent  back  by  the  hills  on  either  side  was  pro- 

192  FIRST  JOURNEY   IN    EUROPE.  [1839, 

longed  and  repeated  fainter  and  fainter  for  nearly  a 
minute.  .  .  . 

The  coast  at  Marseilles  and  that  I  saw  yesterday 
may  be  described  in  a  few  words  :  bare,  jagged,  sterile, 
rocky  mountains ;  scarcely  high  enough  to  be  pictur- 
esque, perfectly  destitute  of  verdure,  barely  support- 
ing here  and  there  a  few  stunted  olive-trees.  We 
passed  Toulon  and  had  a  distant  view.  We  sailed 
between  the  mainland  and  the  islands  of  Hyeres,  so 
remarkable  for  their  fine  climate  and  healthfulness, 
but  they  did  not  look  very  inviting  to  me. 

When  I  rose  this  morning  the  scenery  had  become 
bolder  and  more  interesting.  We  were  where  the 
Alps  first  come  down  to  the  sea,  and  we  have  since 
sailed  along  a  coast  so  closely  skirted  by  the  Maritime 
Alps,  the  chain  which  passing  into  Italy  forms  the 
Apennines,  that  there  is  scarcely  room  to  construct  a 
road  between.  The  loftier  peaks,  the  whole  day,  were 
covered  with  snow,  in  fine  contrast  with  the  gray  and 
sterile  cliffs  below  and  the  dark  blue  sea  which  seems 
to  lave  their  base,  for  the  Mediterranean  has  the  deep 
azure  tint  of  mid-ocean  quite  up  to  the  shore.  There 
are  many  pretty  villages  also,  which  either  seem  hung 
on  the  mountain's  side  or  to  rise  out  of  the  water.  In 
one  place  I  counted  twelve  in  a  single  view,  by  no 
means  a  wide  one.  We  passed  Savona,  the  town 
where  the  pope  lived  while  Napoleon  was  master  of 
Italy.  Here  the  hills  are  more  fertile,  and  vines, 
olives,  and  oranges  are  cultivated  wherever  room  or 
soil  enough  to  plant  them  can  be  found.  .  .  . 

IN  THE  HARBOR  OF  LEGHORN,  Monday  evening,  five  o'clock. 
I  must  tell  you  of  the  pretty  view  I  had  Saturday 
night.    My  room,  I  think  I  mentioned,  looked  directly 

MT.  28.]  JOURNAL.  193 

into  the  bay,  and  also  gave  me  a  fine  view  of  the 
western  part  of  the  town,  the  mountains  of  that  side 
of  the  bay,  and  peeping  over  them,  the  sharp  crests  of 
the  Maritime  Alps,  still  white  with  snow,  and  looking 
rather  like  bright  clouds  than  a  portion  of  terra  firma. 

While  I  was  sleeping  soundly,  about  two  o'clock 
in  the  morning  the  moon  shone  into  the  window 
directly  into  my  face,  and  thinking  it  a  pity  I  should 
lose  so  fine  a  sight,  she  awoke  me.  She  was  near  her 
full ;  she  hung  in  the  middle  of  the  bay  at  just  the 
proper  angle  that  the  flood  of  golden  light  she  was 
pouring  upon  the  tranquil  sea  was  reflected  directly 
to  my  eyes.  The  city,  too,  looked  beautiful  indeed,  and 
the  mountains,  and  even  the  Alps,  were  all  visible.  I 
enjoyed  it  for  a  long  time,  and  went  to  bed  again  re- 
gretfing  that  I  had  no  one  to  share  the  scene  with  me.1 

There  is  or  was  a  British  chapel  here,  belonging  to 
the  British  embassy,  but  'I  could  find  nothing  of  it, 
and  so  spent  the  Sabbath  by  myself,  which  was  as  well 
perhaps.  At  seven  in  the  evening  our  boat  left,  and 
I  was  obliged  to  continue  my  voyage.  I  wrapped  my- 
self in  my  cloak  and  slept  soundly  and  quietly,  and 
when  we  reached  the  harbor  of  Leghorn  at  five  o'clock 
awoke  refreshed,  vigorous,  and  in  the  finest  spirits. 
I  obtained  a  light  breakfast  on  board ;  at  seven  o'clock 
was  ashore ;  in  five  minutes  more  was  in  a  cabriolet 
and  on  the  road  to  Pisa,  distant  from  here  fourteen 
Tuscan  miles,  which  make,  I  should  judge,  about  ten 
English  ones.  My  bargain  was  that  I  should  be  driven 

1  There  is  a  gigantic  statue  of  Columbus,  placed  in  a  conspicuous 
place  and  looking  down  into  the  harbor.  They  make  very  much  of 
him  now,  as  well  they  may  ;  they  derided  him  when  living,  they  set 
up  his  image  long  after  he  is  dead.  Of  course  we  are  very  much 
obliged  to  him,  for  if  he  had  not  discovered  America  what  would  have 
become  of  us !  —  A.  G. 

194  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN   EUROPE.          [1839, 

to  Pisa  in  two  hours  at  farthest,  have  two  hours  and 
a  half  there,  and  be  returned  again  safe  and  sound  be- 
fore two  o'clock.  This  was  easily  accomplished ;  the 
journey  being  made  in  less  than  two  hours,  I  had  the 
more  time  there,  quite  as  much,  indeed,  as  I  wished. 
It  is  a  great  comfort  to  be  able  to  leave  a  place  the 
moment  you  have  done  with  it,  and  so  avoid  being 
sated  with  it.  I  had  a  letter  and  a  little  parcel  from 
Mirbel  to  deliver  to  old  Savi,1  the  professor  of  botany 
in  the  university  ;  so  I  was  dropped  at  the  door  of 
the  university,  once  so  famous,  but  now  far  from 
formidable.  I  found  Savi,  gave  my  letter,  was  in- 
troduced to  his  two  sons,  the  one  professor  of  nat- 
ural history,  the  other  assistant  professor  of  botany, 
who  showed  me  through  the  museum,  which  was  in- 
teresting, the  botanic  garden,  which  was  not  m'uch; 
I  then  set  out  to  see  the  four  chief  lions,  the  Duomo 
or  cathedral,  the  Baptistery,  the  Campanile  or  famous 
leaning  tower,  and  the  Campo  Santo,  which  all  stand 
near  each  other  and  are  soon  dispatched.  In  fact  they 
are  the  separate  parts  of  a  cathedral,  the  Campanile 
being,  as  the  name  denotes,  the  bell-tower,  and  the 
Campo  Santo  the  burial-place.  .  .  . 

The  vine  in  Tuscany  is  not  kept  close  to  the  ground 
as  in  France,  but  is  trained  in  arbors  and  festoons 
along  the  borders  of  wheat-fields,  and  when  their 
leaves  appear  must  add  very  much  to  the  beauty  of 
the  country.  One  here  could  sit  under  the  shade  of 
his  vine,  which  would  be  out  of  the  question  in  France. 
But  the  boat  is  leaving  the  harbor.  On  the  right  we 
can  dimly  discern  the  northern  extremity  of  Corsica. 
Elba  we  shall  pass  in  the  night,  and  sometime  in  the 
course  of  the  morning  be  landed  in  Civita  Vecchia. 
1  Gaetano  Savi,  1769-1844. 

ACT.  28.]  JOURNAL.  195 

I  have  made  the  acquaintance  of  an  English  clergy- 
man of  warm  piety,  who  is  in  ill  health,  who  has  been 
obliged  to  reside  for  several  years  in  Nice  in  the 
winter,  and  at  Interlaken  in  Switzerland  in  the  sum- 
mer, at  both  of  which  places  he  preaches  regularly. 
He  has  traveled  in  Greece,  Turkey,  and  Asia  Minor, 
and  passed  much  time  with  our  missionaries  there,  of 
whom  he  speaks  in  the  warmest  terms.  His  name  is 
Hartley.  We  shall  go  on  in  company  to  Rome. 

ROME,  1st  May,  1839,  Wednesday  evening. 

And  I  am  indeed  in  Rome.  This  is  enough  to  re- 
pay one  for  long  and  tedious  journeys  and  even  for 
transient  separation  from  friends,  and  when  I  leave 
this  place  I  feel  as  though  my  face  was  set  homeward. 
I  feel  it  is  something  to  be  in  Rome.  .  .  . 

I  distinctly  recollect  the  time  when,  a  very  small 
boy,  in  the  course  of  a  long  ride  with  a  relative,  the 
story  of  Romulus  and  Remus  was  first  related  to  me, 
and  how  it  struck  my  wondering  fancy.  And  I  recol- 
lect most  perfectly  my  first  lesson  in  Yirgil,  and  how, 
commencing  with  "  Arma  virumque  cano,"  I  slowly 
worked  my  way  into  the  mysteries  of  Latin  prosody 
and  the  story  of  the  JEneid.  Little  did  I  think  in 
those  days  that  I  should  ever  stand  within  the  "  walls 
of  lofty  Rome  ;  " 

"  Should  tread  the  Appian 

Or  climb  the  Palatine,  and  stand  within  those  very  walls 
Where  Virgil  read  aloud  his  tale  divine." 

My  enthusiasm  has  risen  by  degrees,  for  I  arrived 
here  this  morning,  after  a  delay  at  that  most  wretched 
of  all  places,  Civita  Vecchia,  where  an  Austrian  sol- 
dier, stationed  there,  told  us  he  was  sent  as  to  a  kind 
of  earthly  purgatory  to  do  penance  for  his  sins  ;  after 

196  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

being  subjected  to  those  numberless  petty  exactions 
by  which  the  purse  of  the  pope  is  replenished  from 
the  pockets  of  us  poor  Protestants,  after  tedious  de- 
lays on  the  road,  and  a  most  uncomfortable  ride  for 
the  whole  night,  which  altogether  is  enough  to  put  one 
in  a  bad  humor  with  everything,  —  after  all  this  you 
may  be  sure  I  found  myself  in  such  a  prosaic  care-f  or- 
nothing  mood  that  it  was  a  long  time  before  I  could 
feel  the  interest  which  the  Eternal  City  is  calculated  to 
inspire.  A  fog  in  the  morning  prevented  us  from  a 
good  view  on  our  approach  ;  the  streets  of  the  modern 
town  through  which  we  passed  were  mostly  devoid  of 
interest,  and  we  saw  nothing  but  the  dome  of  St. 
Peter's  and  the  Castle  of  St.  Angelo.  However,  we 
got  established  at  the  Hotel  d'Allemagne,  and  took 
breakfast.  Mr.  Hartley,  being  worn  out  by  the  jour- 
ney, took  to  his  room  for  the  day,  and  I  was  left  to 
myself.  Though  perfectly  ignorant  of  localities  here, 
I  was  determined  not  to  be  deprived  of  the  satisfac- 
tion of  discovering  the  most  interesting  places  for  my- 
self. My  guide-book  (Madame  Starke)  describes  ob- 
jects somewhat  particularly,  but  gives  no  information 
as  to  where  they  are  to  be  found.  I  hate  the  chatter 
of  a  cicerone,  and  felt  confident  that  I  should  stumble 
upon  something  worth  seeing.  So  I  climbed  the  hill 
just  before  me  by  a  magnificent  flight  of  marble  steps, 
where  the  Egyptian  obelisk  stands  which  the  inscrip- 
tion says  was  found  in  the  Circus  of  Sallust.  I  saw 
an  imposing  building  at  the  end  of  a  long  avenue,  on 
the  summit  of  a  rise  which  I  afterwards  learned  was 
the  Esquiline  Hill.  On  reaching  it  and  examining 
the  interior  I  found  by  the  guide-book  that  it  was  the 
Basilica  of  Santa  Maria  Maggiore.  These  basilicas, 
retaining  the  name  of  ancient  structures,  are  a  larger 

*:T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  197 

kind  of  churches,  which  were  mostly  established  upon 
the  foundations  of  ancient  temples,  or  they  were  these 
temples  themselves  turned  into  churches.  .  .  . 

As  I  emerged  from  the  Coliseum  I  stood  between 
the  Palatine  and  the  Coelian  Hills,  the  Arch  of  Con- 
stantine  just  before  me,  the  Arch  of  Titus  in  view  on 
the  right  hand,  and  just  beyond  the  Roman  Forum, 
all  crowded  with  ruins ;  the  very  soil  is  mouldering 
brickwork  and  fragments  of  columns.  Here  I  spent 
the  greater  part  of  the  morning,  silent  and  undis- 
turbed, finding  out  by  the  description  the  ruins  as  they 
presented  themselves.  .  .  . 

The  journal  is  so  long  that  most  of  the  Italian,  more 
especially  the  Roman,  journey  must  be  omitted.  Dr. 
Gray,  as  is  shown,  was  a  busy  sightseer,  enjoying  the 
historical  and  romantic  associations  with  his  natural 
enthusiasm.  Here  began  his  great  love  of  painting, 
of  sculpture,  and  of  architecture ;  he  carried  the  de- 
tails of  churches  and  cathedrals  in  his  memory  re- 
markably, recognizing  quickly  a  print  or  photograph 
of  something  he  had  seen  perhaps  thirty  years  before ; 
he  had  the  memory  for  form  which  helped  him  so 
much  in  his  science.  He  was  a  good  critic  of  paint- 
ing and  enjoyed  extremely  his  favorite  pictures,  liking 
to  wander  off  alone  to  enjoy  them.  Titian  on  the 
whole  ranked  highest  in  his  estimation.  He  enjoyed 
much  of  the  old  church  music,  though  his  preference 
in  music  was  for  simple  songs,  hymns  especially,  and 
the  old  tunes  to  which  words  had  long  been  wedded. 
There  are  many  quotations  from  Byron  and  Rogers  in 
the  original  journal.  For  Byron,  with  his  brilliant 
descriptions  and  versification,  he  always  kept  much 
feeling ;  and  his  great  love  of  natural  scenery  had 
full  play. 

198  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 


LEGHORN,  May  8. 

Whenever  I  have  an  hour  to  spare  I  know  of 
no  pleasanter  mode  of  occupying  it  than  by  writing  to 
you,  for  to  you  my  thoughts,  whenever  they  are  at 
rest,  spontaneously  revert.  I  have  yet  an  hour  before 
the  vetturino  starts  for  Florence,  and  I  may  as  well 
commence  another  sheet,  the  first  of  a  series  which  I 
may  be  unable  to  send  you  for  several  weeks,  as  I  here 
leave  the  Mediterranean,  loveliest  of  seas,  and  ex- 
cept I  find  an  American  ship  on  the  Adriatic,  which 
is  not  very  probable,  I  must  keep  them  all  until  I 
reach  Hamburg.  I  have  just  closed  a  formidable 
packet  of  journal,  to  be  sent  from  here  in  the  ship 
Sarah  and  Arsilia,  which  is  to  sail  for  New  York 
next  week.  .  .  . 

I  am  very  well  satisfied  with  my  visit  to  Rome.  In 
the  brief  space  of  time  I  spent  there  I  saw  everything 
I  wished  except  the  pope  himself,  and  I  believe  I  had 
a  glimpse  of  him ;  one  statue  of  Michael  Angelo's, 
which  I  only  learned  about  when  it  was  too  late ;  the 
Catacombs,  where  the  early  Christians  used  to  con- 
ceal themselves,  which  are  some  miles  off ;  the  monu- 
ment of  Cecilia  Metella,  which  is  not  handsome,  but  is 
immortalized  by  three  or  four  singularly  sweet  stanzas 
in  "Childe  Harold;"  and  the  Basilica  of  St.  Paul, 
which  is  some  distance  out  of  the  city,  and  was  nearly 
destroyed  by  fire  about  ten  years  ago.  This  is  a  very 
small  list  compared  with  what  I  have  seen,  so  I  am 
quite  content.  I  wish  you  could  see  Rome  ;  there  is 
so  much  that  you  would  enjoy  in  the  highest  degree, 
and  it  is  laying  up  a  fund  to  be  enjoyed  afterwards  as 
long  as  you  live. 

^:T.  28.J  JOURNAL.  199 

It  is  now  just  sunset,  and  the  air  is  remarkably 
balmy,  —  a  mild  sea-breeze,  just  enough  to  fan  you. 
And  let  me  tell  you,  however,  as  to  Italian  skies  and 
sunsets  that  they  are  not  a  bit  superior  to  our  own. 
You  may  enjoy  from  your  own  parlor  windows  finer 
sunsets  every  clear  day  in  summer  than  I  have  yet 
seen  in  Italy  ;  though  they  certainly  are  very  near 
ours.  It  is  only  to  those  who  are  accustomed  to 
British  clouds  and  fogs  that  they  are  remarkable. 

The  peripatetic  grinders  of  music  upon  hand-organs 
so  common  in  all  our  towns  are  usually  Italians,  and 
I  supposed  that  street  music  here  was  of  much  the 
same  kind.  This  is  a  mistake.  I  have  not  seen  such 
a  thing  in  Italy  or  the  south  of  France.  You  have 
universally  the  harp,  commonly  two  players  in  concert, 
and  very  frequently  a  violin  also  for  accompaniment, 
and  the  music  is  always  creditable.  At  Avignon, 
the  very  land  of  troubadours,  we  were  serenaded  at 
dinner  with  a  concert  of  harps,  guitars,  etc.,  but  when 
they  called  for  the  coppers  we  found,  shame  to  this 
degenerate  age,  that  the  troubadours  were  all  women, 
and  of  the  most  unromantic  appearance  possible.  The 
patois  of  all  this  part  of  France  and  of  Piedmont, 
however,  is  the  same  as  the  language  in  which  the 
trouveres  are  written,  and  one  who  understands  the 
patois  as  now  spoken  can  read  the  former  without 

The  Italian  language  is  very  soft  and  musical,  far 
more  pleasant  to  the  ear  than  the  deep  nasal  tones  of 
the  French. 


FLORENCE,  May  9,  Thursday  evening. 

Finding  Jittle  more  that  I  could  do  to-day,  I  then 
called  at  the  residence  of  Mr.  Sloane,  a  descendant  of 

200  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

Sir  Hans  Sloane  of  famous  memory,  who  resides  in 
the  Bontrouline  palace,  and  not  finding  him  at  home 
left  a  note  of  introduction  written  by  two  ladies, 
Mrs.  Boott  and  Miss  Boott,  and  also  a  letter  intrusted 
to  my  care  by  Mirbel.  I  called  also  at  the  Botanic 
Garden,  but  Mr.  Targioni-Tozzetti 1  was  not  at  home, 
and  the  garden  was  of  no  great  consequence.  While 
at  dinner  Mr.  Sloane  called  to  welcome  me  to  Flor- 
ence, and  to  take  me  out  of  the  city  to  the  Campagna, 
—  lawns  and  beautiful  pleasure-grounds  and  groves 
skirting  the  Arno  for  a  mile  or  two,  which  are  thrown 
open  to  the  public,  forming  the  favorite  drive  or  prome- 
nade. Almost  the  whole  city  was  there,  and  I  never 
saw  a  more  pleasant  place.  The  roads  were  thronged 
with  carriages,  from  the  barouche  of  the  grand  duke 
to  the  peasant's  cart,  all  on  terms  of  perfect  equality. 
The  grand  duke  passed  us  twice.  He  mingles  much 
with  the  people,  is  accessible  to  all,  and  is  greatly  be- 
loved. The  government,  though  despotic,  is  paternal, 
the  people  are  not  burdened  with  taxes,  and  are  con- 
tented and  industrious.  The  difference  between 
Tuscany  and  the  Papal  States  is  manifest  enough. 
But  I  must  hasten  with  my  narrative.  Early  the  next 
morning,  Friday,  I  called  on  Mr.  Sloane,  looked  at  his 
garden,  where  he  has  many  fine  things.  We  then 
crossed  the  Arno  to  the  other  side  of  the  town,  called 
on  Professor  Amici,2  who  removed  here  from  Modena 
a  few  years  since,  and  has  charge  of  the  grand 
duke's  observatory.  He  was  very  obliging,  showed 
me  his  microscopes,  which  he  thinks  unrivaled,  but  I 
don't,  and  then  the  observatory,  where  I  saw  all  the 

1  Antonio   Targioni-Tozzetti,  1785-1856;  distinguished   Florentine 

2  Giovanni  Battista  Amici,  1784-1863  ;  an  Italian  astronomer,  espe- 
cially skilled  in  the  construction  of  optical  instruments. 

^:T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  201 

instruments,  peeped  through  his  telescope,  and  from 
the  top  of  the  tower  had  a  most  beautiful  panoramic 
view  of  Florence  and  the  surrounding  country.  We 
then  passed  through  the  museum  of  natural  history, 
which  is  in  the  same  building,  and  is  prettily  arranged ; 
saw  the  famous  flowers  and  fruits  done  in  wax,  but 
not  the  figures  which  represent  the  Plague,  which  were 
in  the  anatomical  museum  adjoining,  and  which  I  did 
not  care  to  see.  In  the  collection  were  some  recent 
models  made  under  Amici's  superintendence  to  illus- 
trate his  discoveries,  etc.  They  were  wonderfully  fine, 
and  would  be  useful  in  a  class-room.  Amici  is  a  good 
observer  with  the  microscope,  but  his  anatomical  or 
physiological  notions  are  in  some  cases  very  wide  of 
the  mark,  and  quite  surprised  me. 

On  leaving,  Mr.  Sloane  and  myself  separated,  he 
going  to  fulfill  some  engagement,  and  I  to  the  Palazzo 
Pitti,  as  it  is  still  called  from  the  founder,  though  it 
early  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  Medici  family,  who 
finished  it,  and  now  it  is  the  ducal  residence.  I  must 
tell  you,  by  the  way,  that  I  should  have  seen  a  remark- 
able person  in  Florence,  had  she  not  been  sick.  Sloane 
is  very  intimate  with  her  and  wished  me  to  see  her ; 
she  is  the  ex-queen  of  Naples,  the  widow  of  Murat 
and  the  sister  of  Napoleon.  .  .  . 

On  returning  to  the  hotel,  however,  I  learned  that  I 
could  not  get  a  place  with  the  courier  next  day,  that 
the  diligence  which  left  at  mid-day  did  not  arrive  at 
Bologna  until  Sunday  afternoon,  so  I  engaged  a 
cabriolet,  to  start  with  me  after  dinner,  arranged  my 
affairs,  called  on  Mr.  Sloane  to  bid  him  an  unexpected 
adieu,  dined  at  the  table  d'hote  at  five,  and  at  dark  I 
was  climbing  the  outskirts  of  the  Apennines. 

I   would    have    liked   to   call   upon    our     sculptor 

202  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

Greenough  :  to  see  how  the  statue  of  Washington  is 
coming  on,  but  had  not  time. 

At  sunrise  I  was  on  the  mountain-summits,  among 
the  clouds,  which  a  strong  wind  for  a  moment  blew 
aside,  and  gave  me  some  magnificent  views.  We 
journeyed  for  some  hours  in  this  elevated  region,  but 
at  length  crossed  the  Tuscan  frontier  and  were  once 
more  in  the  country  of  his  Holiness.  Just  as  we 
commenced  our  descent,  which  is  very  abrupt,  a  dense 
fog  enveloped  us  and  it  began  to  rain  ;  in  consequence 
of  this  I  lost  the  view  which  you  often  have  of  the 
Adriatic  and  the  Mediterranean  at  the  same  time,  as 
well  as  the  plains  of  the  Po  on  the  north.  This  was 
the  first  rain  I  encountered,  excepting  a  few  drops  at 
Rome,  since  I  left  Lyons  ;  so  you  may  judge  of  the 
dryness  of  the  climate  in  the  south  of  France  and 
Italy.  It  is  very  different,  however,  near  the  moun- 
tains. At  length,  after  a  long  and  rapid  descent,  we 
arrived  at  the  foot  of  the  mountain,  and  stopped  at  a 
comfortable  inn  to  take  our  dinner  and  breakfast  at 
once,  it  being  about  two  o'clock.  Several  carriages 
were  there  before  us,  and  just  before  I  left  another 
arrived,  bringing  with  it  a  most  genuine  Yankee,  who 
amused  me  excessively.  It  seems  that  he  came  out  in 
the  Great  Western,  a  few  weeks  ago,  had  seen  what 
he  thought  worth  seeing  in  London  and  Paris,  had 
been  even  to  Naples,  and  was  now  on  his  way  from 
Rome  to  Switzerland,  and  expected  to  reach  London 
to  return  by  steamship  in  —  I  forget  how  many  days  ! 
But  the  feat  upon  which  he  prided  himself  above  all 
was  that  he  had  ascended  Vesuvius  and  come  back 
again  in —  I  don't  remember  precisely  how  many  min- 
utes, but  in  an  inconceivably  short  space  of  time,  and 

1  Horatio  Greenough  ;  the  American  sculptor  in  Florence. 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  203 

very  much  quicker  than  had  ever  been  done  before ! 
to  the  great  wonderment  of  the  guides,  as  he  said, 
and  as  I  do  not  doubt.  This  was  his  chef  d'oauvre, 
and  I  assure  you  he  felt  quite  proud  of  it.  I  laughed 
most  heartily  at  the  absurdity  of  the  thing,  until  I 
reflected  how  rapidly  I  had  been  doing  the  sights  my- 
self, and  felt  I  might  justly  come  in  for  a  share  of  the 
ridicule.  In  this  day's  journey  I  think  I  outdid  the 
Yankee,  for,  arriving  at  Bologna  about  five  o'clock,  I 
immediately  made  arrangements  for  going  on  to  Fer- 
rara  the  same  night,  and  this  accomplished,  I  had  but 
two  or  three  hours  to  spend  at  Bologna,  a  city  fa- 
mous for  its  university  and  its  sausages ;  the  former 
decayed  almost  to  nothing,  the  latter  still  in  great  de- 
mand, diffusing  their  abominable  garlic  odor  from 
every  table.  I  visited  all  the  large  churches,  took 
some  coffee,  and  before  nine  o'clock  was  on  my  way 
through  the  vast  plain  watered  by  the  Po,  which,  like 
most  large  rivers,  branches  near  its  mouth  into  sev- 
eral streams.  The  lad  who  drove  me  did  not  know 
the  road  very  well,  and  lost  his  way  several  times,  so 
that  instead  of  arriving  before  daybreak  it  was  six 
o'clock  in  the  morning  when  we  entered  Ferrara.  In- 
deed he  came  near  losing  his  horse  as  well  as  the 
road,  for  while  I  was  sleeping  soundly  in  the  carriage 
I  was  roused  by  a  prodigious  clatter,  and  jumping  out 
as  quick  as  I  could,  found  that  he  had  driven  into  a 
heap  of  rough  stones  deposited  to  mend  the  road ;  the 
horse  had  slipped  and  was  lying  flat  upon  his  back  in 
the  bottom  of  the  ditch.  With  much  ado  we  liber- 
ated him  from  the  carriage  and  lifted  him  out  of  the 
ditch,  repaired  the  injury  to  the  harness  as  well  as 
we  could  with  bits  of  rope,  and  were  again  on  our 
way.  I  have  wondered  since  how  I  could  ride  thus 

204  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

through  the  night,  with  only  a  boy  with  me,  through  a 
country  which  some  years  ago  would  not  have  been 
deemed  safe.  But  I  felt  not  the  slightest  alarm,  and 
slept  as  soundly  as  possible. 

Ferrara  is  famous  for  possessing  the  tomb  and  chair 
of  Ariosto,  but  except  this  is  as  uninteresting  as  you 
can  imagine.  It  was  Sunday,  and  I  spent  the  day 
within  doors  as  well  as  I  could. 

By  making  a  very  early  ride  I  succeeded  in  reach- 
ing Padua  at  ten  o'clock  this  morning;  visited  the 
university  so  famed  of  old,  the  churches,  the  splendid 
Gaffe  Pedrocchi,  the  Botanic  Garden,  —  the  most  an- 
cient in  Italy,  of  which  Alpinius,  the  elder  and  the 
younger,  and  Pontedera  were  the  directors.  It  is  un- 
der the  care  of  Visiani, 1  to  whom  I  brought  a  letter 
from  Bentham,  and  who  politely  showed  me  all  I 
wished  to  see.  The  university  is  a  queer  old  place 
indeed,  and  the  lecture-rooms  the  most  dark,  gloomy, 
and  incommodious  places  you  can  conceive ;  every- 
thing is  as  old  as  the  fifteenth  century.  I  wish  I 
could  describe  the  anatomical  theatre,  which  is  the 
most  curious  specimen  of  antiquity  I  have  seen.  The 
Museum  of  Natural  History  is  so-so.  There  is  still 
a  goodly  number  of  students,  but  nothing  to  what 
there  was  in  the  olden  time.  The  Duomo  is  a 
small  affair,  but  the  church  of  St.  Antonio  is  like 
a  mosque,  the  most  Saracenic  building  I  ever  saw,  — 
with  its  seven  or  eight  balloon-shaped  domes  of  vari- 
ous sizes,  and  three  or  four  tall  and  slender  minarets. 
I  am  sorry  I  can't  get  a  decent  print  of  it.  The 
interior  is  noble,  and  very  rich  in  tombs  and  shrines 
and  sculptures.  Here  are  tombs  of  many  of  the  old 

1  Roberto  de  Visiani,  1809-1878;  professor  of  botany  at  Padua; 
author  of  a  Flora  Dalmatica. 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  205 

professors.  The  church  of  St.  Augustine  is  in  the  same 
style,  and  not  much  inferior.  .  .  .  There  is  very  much 
that  I  wish  to  write,  but  I  have  not  the  time  nor  the 
strength  to  write  longer,  and  must  sleep.  To  under- 
stand the  full  luxury  of  a  bed  you  should  sleep  with- 
out one,  as  I  have  done  very  often  of  late.  Good- 

VENICE,  on  board  steamboat  for  Triest,  lying  at  anchor, 
Wednesday  evening,  May  15,  1839. 

For  nearly  two  days  I  have  been  "  a  looker-on  in 
Venice,"  a  strange  place,  as  unlike  any  other  city  of 
Europe  as  can  be,  unless  Constantinople  resemble  it 
in  some  respects.  It  is  more  like  some  place  you 
visit  in  dreams,  some  creation  of  fancy,  than  a  real, 
earthly  city,  if  it  can  be  called  earthly  which  scarcely 
stands  upon  earth. 

We  left  Padua  at  five  o'clock  in  the  morning,  yes- 
terday, by  the  diligence,  passing  along  the  banks  of  a 
canal,  bordered  with  numerous  villas  ;  all  of  them  had 
been  fine,  some  very  magnificent,  but  they  are  now 
decaying.  The  clouds  prevented  me  from  obtaining 
a  view  of  the  Rhaetian  Alps,  which  bound  the  view  on 
the  north,  but  I  hope  to  make  up  for  this  to-morrow, 
which  will  give  me  some  amends  for  our  detention  here  ; 
for  you  must  know  that  the  steamboat  was  to  have  left 
at  nine  o'clock  this  evening,  and  I  expected  to  have 
been  in  Triest  this  morning ;  but  the  day  has  been 
stormy,  and  the  water  is  a  little  rough,  so,  forsooth, 
the  boat  is  to  remain  until  morning ;  but  as  it  is  to  start 
early,  I  have  remained  on  board,  where  I  have  a  com- 
fortable place  to  sleep,  and  a  quiet  hour  to  write. 

Oh,  I  wish  you  could  see  Venice! — and  the  dear 
girls  —  whenever  I  see  anything  particularly  queer,  I 
think  of  them  at  once,  and  wish  for  them  to  enjoy  it 

206  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

with  me.  And  here  everything  is  strange,  canals  for 
streets,  gondolas  for  coaches  ;  not  a  horse  to  be  seen 
in  the  city,  except  the  celebrated  bronze  gilt  steeds  of 
St.  Mark ;  palaces  of  barbaric  magnificence,  splendid 
churches ;  people  of  all  nations  and  tongues,  Christians, 
Turks,  and  Jews.  Surely  there  is  nothing  like  it. 
The  view  from  Fusina,  on  the  mainland,  which  was 
the  first  I  obtained,  was  charming.  .  .  . 

You  will  wonder  at  the  comparison,  but  the  dis- 
tant view  of  Venice  reminded  me  strongly  of  New 
York,  as  you  approach  from  Amboy.  The  gondola 
that  brought  us  stopped  in  the  Grand  Canal  near  the 
Kialto,  or  rather  the  bridge  of  the  Rialto,  for  the  name 
properly  belongs  to  the  island ;  and  in  crossing  this 
bridge  during  the  day,  I  found  some  of  the  little  shops 
still  occupied  by  money-changers,  and  I  saw  more 
than  one  hard  Jewish  countenance  that  might  sit  for 
the  picture  of  Shylock.  This  part  of  the  town  is  un- 
pleasant, although  the  canals  are  lined  with  what  were 
once  stately  palaces,  which  now  look  as  if  about  to 
sink  again  into  the  water.  While  on  my  way  to  a  ho- 
tel, I  came  abruptly  upon  a  view  that  seemed  like  en- 
chantment :  the  Piazza  of  St.  Mark,  a  large  quadrangle, 
three  sides  inclosed  by  a  magnificent  range  like  the 
Palais  Royal ;  on  the  fourth,  the  church  of  St.  Mark, 
and  adjoining  it  the  Palace  of  the  Doges,  scarcely 
less  magnificent,  and  in  an  equally  Oriental  style.  In 
front  is  the  Campanile,  taller  than  that  of  Florence, 
but  not  handsome.  As  you  turn  out  of  the  quadrangle 
in  full  front  of  the  palace,  you  see  the  two  granite  col- 
umns, one  of  them  surmounted  with  the  winged  lion  ; 
and  you  stand  on  the  mole,  with  the  most  superb  view 
of  sea  and  city,  shipping,  churches  and  palaces,  before 
and  around  you.  I  never  expect  again  to  see  anything 

JCT.  28.]  JOURNAL.  207 

like  it.  I  have  walked  over  this  ground  again  ;  and 
one  is  never  wearied  with  the  sight.  .  .  .  The  street 
musicians  here  are  very  good.  A  party  stops  at  the 
door  of  the  cafe  :  a  man  with  a  violin,  his  wife  and 
son  each  with  a  guitar,  and  they  perform  several  airs 
exceedingly  well,  the  woman  sometimes  accompanying 
with  her  voice.  She  enters  the  cafe  with  the  little 
wooden  cup  in  her  hand,  and  is  well  satisfied  with  a 
kreutzer  (about  half  a  cent)  from  those  who  choose  to 
give,  and  a  sweet  "  grazia  "  in  the  softest  Italian  ex- 
presses her  thanks.  There  is  one  cafe  here  frequented 
almost  exclusively  by  Turks,  who  sit  smoking  their 
large  pipes  with  such  an  air  of  ridiculous  gravity. 
Their  turbans  or  the  red  caps  they  often  wear,  their 
flowing  robes  and  their  nether  garments,  which  are 
something  between  pantaloons  and  petticoats,  are 
very  queer.  .  .  . 

I  spare  you  a  detailed  account  of  my  movements  to- 
day and  yesterday,  of  the  fine  churches,  enough  to  fur- 
nish cathedrals  to  half  a  dozen  cities,  of  the  arsenal,  its 
ship-yard,  the  antique  lions,  the  public  garden,  the  Ar- 
menian convent,  the  gondolas  and  my  rides  therein. 
I  have  enjoyed  it  greatly,  and  have  laid  up  a  stock  for 
future  enjoyment,  for  I  shall  read  hereafter  of  Venice 
with  greater  interest.  One  who  travels  as  rapidly  as 
I  do,  if  he  would  enjoy  the  full  benefit  of  his  journey, 
should  know  almost  everything  before  he  leaves  home. 
The  true  way  for  those  who  have  time  and  means  suf- 
ficient is  to  study  the  history  of  each  place  on  the 
spot  with  all  its  monuments  and  relics  around  them. 
So  more  might  be  learned  in  one  month  than  in  a  year 
at  home.  If  I  had  what  I  am  not  likely  to  have,  — 
a  family  of  children  to  bring  up,  money  sufficient  for 
the  purpose,  and  no  other  duties  to  prevent,  I  think  I 

208  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

would  educate  them  in  this  peripatetic  way.    But  now 
to  bed. 

Thursday  evening,  May  16.  ...  We  are  to  start 
at  nine  o'clock.  The  rain  is  over,  but  it  is  still  cloudy. 
I  have  been  for  some  days  in  Austrian  dominions,  but 
I  wish  to  be  in  Austria  itself.  It  cleared  up  a  little 
just  at  sunset,  and  gave,  me  from  the  deck  of  the  ves- 
sel, a  most  beautiful  view  of  the  town  and  harbor,  with 
hundreds  of  gondolas  gliding  swiftly  through  the 
water  in  every  direction.  .  .  . 

TRIEST,  Saturday  evening-,  May  18,  1839. 

As  misfortunes  never  come  single,  I  found  this  morn- 
ing that  our  places  were  not  secured  in  the  mail-coach 
for  Monday.  ThQ  fellow  who  was  to  arrange  the 
business  found,  after  getting  our  passports  in  order, 
that  there  was  only  one  place  left,  and  supposing  that 
we  were  certainly  to  go  together,  did  not  secure  that. 
It  was  immediately  arranged  between  us  that  I  was  to 
have  the  place,  but  on  arriving  at  the  office  I  had  the 
mortification  to  find  it  already  taken.  For  an  hour  or 
so  we  made  various  plans,  negotiated  with  a  vetturino, 
but  were  stopped  by  the  information  we  received,  that 
they  would  be  five  days  on  the  road  to  Gratz,  from 
where  to  Vienna  it  would  require  at  least  two  days, 
more  by  the  same  kind  of  conveyance,  or  twenty-seven 
hours  in  the  mail-coach  if  we  could  get  a  place  in  it. 
We  found  that  the  quickest  way  left  for  us  was  to 
take  places  for  Tuesday  by  the  mail,  and  go  on  Mon- 
day by  a  private  conveyance  to  Adelsberg,  as  we  had 
intended,  where  we  shall  have  a  day  longer  than  we 
desire  ;  and  these  places  we  were  fortunate  enough  to 
secure.  So  I  cannot  expect  to  reach  Vienna  before 
Friday  morning  of  next  week !  I  had  hoped  to  reach 
that  place  by  the  twentieth. 

*:T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  209 

It  rained  hard  all  the  morning,  so  that  botanizing 
was  out  of  the  question.  So  I  put  my  collection  of 
yesterday  in  press ;  visited  Biasoletto, l  and  after 
dinner  met  Tommasini,2  who  has  given  me  a  very 
pretty  collection  of  plants  of  the  country.  .  .  . 

VIENNA,  24th  May,  Friday  evening. 

The  great  fete  of  the  Grotto  of  Adelsberg,  of  which 
I  wrote  you,  was  to  take  place  on  Monday  afternoon. 
Mr.  Philip,  the  painter,  and  myself  took  a  carriage  to 
that  place  and  arrived  in  good  time,  and  saw  this  very 
strange  grotto  with  greater  advantage  and  under  more 
curious  circumstances,  I  suspect,  than  was  ever  done 
by  an  American  before.  I  had  all  the  next  day  before 
me,  as  the  coach  from  Triest  did  not  arrive  tilt  evening. 
My  companion  was  taken  somewhat  ill  and  kept  the 
house,  while  I  took  my  portfolio  and  walked  through 
the  fields  of  this  retired  valley  to  a  bold  and  high 
mountain  range,  more  distant  than  I  had  calculated 
on ;  climbed  the  rocks  with  much  difficulty  ;  enjoyed  a 
charming  prospect  from  the  summit ;  filled  my  port- 
folio with  plants ;  got  back  about  five  o'clock,  regu- 
larly tired  and  hungry,  and  just  had  time  to  eat  my 
dinner  and  secure  my  specimens  before  the  coach 
came  from  Triest.  We  took  our  places  just  at  dusk, 
Tuesday  evening,  and  have  been  on  the  road  day  and 
night,  stopping  just  long  enough  to  take  our  meals, 
until  this  morning ;  when  at  early  daylight,  just  as  I 
opened  my  eyes  from  such  sleep  as  one  might  catch 
after  three  consecutive  nights  of  such  confinement,  the 
vale  of  the  Wien  and  the  beautiful  city  of  Vienna 

1  B.  Biasoletto,  M.  D.,  1793-1858.     Triest.    "A  botanist  of  merit 
and  investigator  of  Algae  of  the  Adriatic  "  [A.  G.]. 

2  M.  J.  Tommasini,  1794-1879.      Triest.     Author  of  a  Botany  of 
Mt.  Slavonik,  Istria. 

210  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

lay  before  me,  the  green  fields  reaching  up  to  the 
very  gates.  It  was  a  lovely  sight.  I  have  never  seen 
the  like.  It  began  raining  very  soon,  however,  and  has 
rained  all  day,  so  that  I  have  seen  little.  Philip,  who 
understands  German,  has  been  confined  to  his  room 
by  illness.  But  as  soon  as  I  got  my  breakfast  and 
was  fairly  fixed  in  my  lodgings,  which  we  found  as 
difficult  to  get  as  if  we  were  at  New  York  at  this  sea- 
son (I  am  at  the  Gasthof  zur  Dreyfaltigkeit,  a  good 
and  cheap  house,  and  the  head  waiter  speaks  French), 
I  took  a  guide  to  direct  me  to  the  Joseph-Platz,  where 
the  Imperial  Library  and  Cabinet  are,  to  find  End- 
licher.1  I  found  the  man  in  his  den,  and  the  moment 
I  put  my  letters  into  his  hand  he  recognized  Ben- 
tham's  writing  and  addressed  me  by  name,  Bentham 
having  apprised  him  of  my  intended  visit.  Endlicher 
received  me  very  cordially,  and  I  remained  with  him 
till  two  o'clock.  He  is  extremely  good-looking,  and 
younger  even  in  appearance  than  I  expected,  although 
Bentham  told  me  he  was  about  his  own  age ;  he  looks 
about  thirty-three.  I  had  the  pleasure  to  present  in 
person  the  copy  of  the  "  Flora  "  designed  for  him. 

The  usual  dinner  hour  here  is  from  twelve  to  three. 
The  common  people  dine  at  twelve,  the  gentry  from 
two  to  four,  the  imperial  family  setting  a  good  ex- 
ample by  dining  between  one  and  two.  After  dinner 
I  went  to  the  police  office  to  procure  the  necessary 
leave  to  remain  here  for  a  week  or  so,  answered  all 
the  questions  which  are  put  in  such  cases  to  the  trav- 
eler, such  as  where  I  stopped,  how  long  I  intended 
to  stay,  what  my  business  was,  produced  my  letter  of 
credit,  in  order  to  show  that  I  was  not  likely  to  run 

1  Stephen  Ladislaus  Endlicher,  1804-1849 ;  professor  of  botany  in 
the  University  of  Vienna ;  author  of  Genera  Plantarum. 

JET.  28.]  JOURNAL.  211 

away  with  unpaid  bills,  —  to  ascertain  this  point  is  said 
to  be  the  chief  object  of  all  this  inquiry.  When  you 
arrive  at  any  hotel  and  remain  over  night,  you  are 
presented  with  a  blank  formula  comprising  still  more 
particular  inquiries,  which  you  are  required  to  fill  up, 
and  it  is  sent  to  the  police  office.  You  give  first  your 
name,  then  your  country,  age,  religion,  occupation, 
state  whether  you  are  married  or  not !  whether  you 
are  traveling  alone  or  in  company ;  where  you  came 
from  last ;  your  probable  stay ;  whether  you  have  let- 
ters of  credit  or  not,  with  some  equally  particular 
inquiries!  I  went  next  to  my  banker's,  found  no 
letters !  I  drew  some  money,  and  obtained  a  ticket 
of  admission  to  a  commercial  reading-room,  which  is 
well  supplied  with  English  and  French  newspapers. 
Here  I  stayed  until  sunset,  reading  up  my  English 
news,  in  which  I  had  got  far  behind,  and  which  oil 
the  present  occasion  I  found  very  interesting.  I 
gleaned  occasionally  a  little  news  from  home,  but 
vaguely.  The  information  seemed  in  general  satisfac- 
tory, but  one  letter  from  home  were  worth  it  all ! 

I  have  this  morning  changed  the  plants  I  have  been 
drying,  and  have  taken  care  of  my  companion  Philip, 
who  is  quite  sick  with  the  fatigue  of  his  journey  and 
so  forth.  I  have  endured  it  very  well,  but  must  get 
into  bed.  Not  having  had  my  clothes  off  for  three 
nights  in  succession,  nor  enjoyed  rational  sleep,  I 
wonder  much  that  I  am  not  more  fatigued.  Endlicher 
asked  me  to  go  to  the  opera  this  evening,  where  there 
is  some  especially  fine  music,  as  he  says,  but  I  de- 
clined, telling  him  that  under  present  circumstances 
I  should  sleep  through  the  finest  music  in  the  world. 
I  suppose  it  would  be  perfectly  impossible  to  make 
him  understand  how  one  could  have  any  scruples 
against  this  amusement. 

212  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

Saturday,  25th,  1839.  —  I  went  early  this  morning  to 
the  Imperial  Cabinet ;  remained  there  until  two,  when 
the  rooms  are  closed.  After  dinner  I  explored  about 
the  city  until  sunset ;  saw  many  of  the  public  build- 
ings, the  gardens,  etc.  I  understand  the  localities  of 
the  town  proper  very  well.  The  city  itself  is  not  large ; 
the  strong  walls  that  inclose  it  are  still  kept  up,  and 
immediately  outside  of  this  there  is  a  large  open  space, 
planted  with  trees  and  laid  out  into  roads  and  walks. 
Beyond  this  are  the  faubourgs  or  suburbs,  larger 
many  times  than  the  city  itself;  very  pleasant,  but 
rather  inconvenient  to  reach.  Most  of  the  public 
buildings,  the  shops,  etc.,  are  in  the  city  itself.  I 
went  to  see  the  fine  old  Gothic  Cathedral  of  St.  Ste- 
phen's. It  is  a  very  old  and  exceedingly  fine,  large 
building,  but  the  roof  is  very  awkward.  The  spire 
is  the  finest  thing  I  ever  saw  in  the  way  of  Gothic 
architecture.  It  is  four  hundred  and  sixty-five  feet 
high,  and  is  the  very  poetry  of  steeples.  I  intend  to 
climb  to  the  top  presently.  .  .  . 

Monday  morning,  27th  May.  —  I  find  we  are  in  a 
different  climate  from  Italy.  It  has  been  cold  ever 
since  my  arrival  here ;  the  first  day  was  rainy,  and 
yesterday  it  rained  from  morning  to  night,  and  was 
very  cold  and  unpleasant;  so  of  course  I  kept  my 
room  nearly  all  day.  I  had  also  to  take  care  of  Mr. 
Philip,  whose  indisposition  has  turned  into  intermit- 
tent fever,  such  as  he  has  been  subject  to  at  Rome. 
It  is  a  most  distressing  thing  to  be  sick  in  a  strange 
land,  and  I  cannot  be  too  grateful  for  the  uninter- 
rupted good  health  I  have  enjoyed  ever  since  I  left 

I  have  deferred  telling  you  anything  about  the 
Grotto  of  Adelsberg,  on  account  of  the  great  difficulty 

JST.  28.]  JOURNAL.  213 

I  find  in  conveying  any  idea  of  it.  It  is  without 
doubt  the  most  wonderful  thing  of  its  kind  in  the 

Adelsberg  itself  is  a  little  German  village  perched 
under  a  steep  conical  hill  which  is  crowned  with  the 
ruins  of  an  old  castle  ;  it  is  at  one  border  of  a  circular 
plain,  several  miles  in  extent,  dotted  here  and  there 
with  little  hamlets,  and  surrounded  with  mountains,  so 
that  it  is  like  a  large  basin,  and  seems  wholly  shut 
out  from  the  rest  of  the  world.  It  is  so  still  and 
quiet  that  it  would  do  very  well  for  the  valley  of 
Rasselas,  but  the  mountains  do  not  form  precipices 
except  on  one  side,  where  they  are  accessible  at  a  few 
points  only,  and  there  with  much  difficulty,  as  I  had 
occasion  to  know.  The  streams  that  come  down  from 
the  mountains  unite  to  form  a  little  river,  perhaps 
nearly  twice  the  size  of  the  Fishkill  Creek ;  and  this, 
after  running  about  the  valley  seeking  an  outlet  in 
vain,  at  length  in  despair,  as  it  seems,  dives  into  the 
solid  rock  at  the  foot  of  hills  near  the  village.  The 
entrance  for  visitors  is  a  small  hole  above  this,  which 
opens  into  a  long  gallery,  perhaps  two  hundred  yards 
in  extent.  From  this  you  descend  into  a  vast  hall, 
called  the  Dome,  more  than  one  hundred  feet  high, 
and  three  or  four  hundred  feet  in  length.  As  you  de- 
scend you  hear  the  roar  of  the  waters  confined  in  their 
deep  prison-house,  and  at  the  bottom  you  meet  the 
river  which  rushes  swiftly  to  the  distant  extremity  of 
this  hall,  and  there  sinks  into  the  dark  depths.  In- 
stead of  a  stupid  monument  and  inscription  by  the 
late  emperor,  placed  above  this,  it  would  have  been 
much  better  taste  to  have  placed  in  the  stream  a  piece 
of  statuary  representing  Charon  and  his  boat,  for 
never  was  seen  so  perfect  a  beau-ideal  of  the  fabled 

214  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

river  Styx.  This  is  the  last  you  see  of  the  river 
Poik ;  but  the  Unz,  which  bursts  forth  a  large  stream 
from  the  rocks  at  Planina,  is  believed  to  be  the  same. 
This  river  is  crossed  by  a  bridge.  Then  we  went  on 
to  another  hall  about  three  quarters  of  a  mile  from 
the  entrance ;  the  ball-room,  where  a  large  gathering 
of  peasants  of  the  surrounding  country,  in  their  na- 
tional costume,  were  dancing  waltzes  in  the  bowels  of 
the  earth ! 

Hiatus  vastus.  —  I  left  this  account  of  the  Adels- 
berg  Grotto,  and  my  journey  through  Illyria  and  Sty- 
ria,  for  the  first  convenient  opportunity,  —  a  time  that 
never  comes,  —  so  now  I  must  send  it  as  it  is.  The 
grotto  is  wonderful  past  all  description,  and  our  visit 
was  very  opportune  ;  the  whole  scene  not  soon  to  be 

29th  May.  —  It  rained  all  day  yesterday,  so  Schon- 
brunn  was  out  of  the  question,  and  I  spent  the  morn- 
ing again  at  the  Cabinet  of  Botany ;  and  after  dinner 
Philip  and  myself,  in  spite  of  the  rain,  set  out  to  visit 
the  imperial  picture-gallery  in  the  Upper  Belvedere 
Palace,  which  is  finely  situated  in  one  of  the  suburbs. 
The  gallery  is  very  extensive  and  excellent,  especially 
in  the  Dutch  school,  and  we  had  barely  time  to  finish 
our  hasty  reconnoissance  before  it  closed  for  the  night. 
I  had  a  fine  view  of  the  city  from  the  windows  of  the 
upper  story.  We  stopped  at  a  cafe  on  our  way  home, 
took  some  lemonade  and  ice-cream,  while  I  read  "  Ga- 
lignani's  Messenger  "  for  English  news.  This  morn- 
ing I  went  to  the  gallery  as  usual,  and  after  working 
for  a  little  time,  Mr.  Putterlich,1  the  sub-assistant, 

1  Aloys  Putterlich,  1810-1845 ;  keeper  of  the  Botanical  Museum, 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  215 

went  with  me  to  the  famous  Mineralogical  Cabinet, 
the  finest  in  the  world.  A  most  splendid  affair  it  is. 
It  occupies  a  suite  of  quite  ordinary  rooms,  but  is 
excellently  arranged  and  shows  to  great  advantage. 
Here  are  all  the  fine  gems,  diamonds,  emeralds,  topaz, 
and  all  sorts  of  precious  stones,  both  polished  and 
natural.  I  saw  also  the  bouquet  of  precious  stones 
made  for  Maria  Theresa,  a  most  brilliant  affair.  The 
collection  of  aerolites  is  unique.  I  intend  to  visit  it 
again  on  Saturday.  I  obtained  some  useful  informa- 
tion here  as  to  the  mode  of  constructing  the  shelves, 
etc.,  in  a  mineralogical  cabinet ;  their  plan  here  is  the 
best  I  have  seen.  If  I  knew  what  I  now  do,  I  could 
have  given  a  plan  for  the  construction  of  the  cabi- 
nets at  the  Lyceum  infinitely  better  than  the  present. 
Returning  to  the  Botanical  Gallery  I  occupied  myself 
in  selecting  specimens  for  myself  from  Rugel's  New 
Holland  collections.  Endlicher  offers  me  these  and 
other  plants,  as  many  as  I  like.  He  also  offered  to 
send  to  Hamburg  for  me  a  copy  of  the  "Icono- 
graphia  Generum  Plantarum,"  the  "  Annals  of  the  Vi- 
enna Museum,"  and  some  other  of  his  works.  After 
dinner,  finding  nothing  else  to  do  for  a  few  moments,  I 
went  into  a  bookseller's,  —  the  publisher  of  Endlicher's 
"  Genera  Plantarum,"  -  —  to  look  up  some  reports  on 
education,  etc.  I  asked  also  for  botanical  works  ;  and 
after  offering  me  several  things  which  I  did  not  want, 
they  brought  out,  as  a  great  rarity,  our  own  "  Flora,"  > 
which  I  told  them  I  did  not  want  at  all.  At  six 
o'clock,  Endlicher  called  upon  me  to  take  me  to  the 
Botanic  Garden  of  the  university,  under  the  care  of 
Baron  Jacquin,  who  is  professor,  at  the  same  time,  of 
both  botany  and  chemistry  in  the  university,  and 
scarcely  lectures  on  either.  He  introduced  me  to  the 

216  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

old  fellow,  a  hard-featured  chap,  who  managed  to 
speak  a  little  English  and  talked  to  me  of  the  year 
he  spent  at  Sir  Joseph  Banks'  in  bygone  times.  We 
went  through  the  garden,  which  is  finely  situated, 
covers  much  ground,  and  has  fine  trees,  but  is  wretch- 
edly cared  for ;  hi  fact  it  is  almost  left  to  run  wild, 
although  well  endowed.  ...  I  have  some  curious  an- 
ecdotes to  give  you  about  the  censorship  of  the  press 
at  Vienna,  but  have  not  energy  enough  left  to  write 
this  evening. 

Thursday  evening.  —  Nothing  can  be  printed  and 
published  here,  without  first  being  examined  and  ap- 
proved by  a  censor  of  the  press.  The  government 
appoints  four  or  five  persons  in  Vienna,  who  examine 
in  different  departments,  one  for  newspapers,  one  for 
works  of  science !  others  for  different  branches  of  lit- 
erature. Every  author  must  send  his  manuscript  to 
the  police-office,  whence  it  is  handed  over  to  the  proper 
censor,  who  certifies  that  it  contains  nothing  immoral, 
nothing  against  the  government,  and  that  it  is  good 
literature,  or  science,  or  poetry,  as  the  case  may  be, 
and  worthy  of  being  published ;  it  is  then  returned  to 
the  author,  with  permission  to  print  it.  The  author's 
annoyance  does  not  end  here.  He  is  obliged  to  leave 
a  copy  of  his  manuscript  with  the  police,  and  a  copy 
of  the  work  as  soon  as  printed,  so  that  they  may  be 
compared,  and  any  alterations  or  additions  detected. 
If  he  desires  to  make  any  alterations  in  his  manuscript 
after  it  has  passed  the  censorship,  he  must  send  it 
back  for  a  second  examination.  Persons  holding 
responsible  official  situations  are  not  exempt:  if  a 
censor  himself  wishes  to  publish  anything,  his  manu- 
script must  be  given  to  the  police  that  it  may  be  ex- 
amined by  some  other  censor.  All  kinds  of  works, 

JET.  28.]  JOURNAL.  217 

books  of  dry  science  not  excepted,  are  subject  to  the 
censorship.  To  my  great  surprise,  Endlicher,  who 
gave  me  all  this  information,  informed  me  that  all  the 
manuscript  of  his  "  Genera  Plantarum  "  is  sent  to  the 
police,  who  transmit  it  to  Baron  Jacquin,  the  censor 
for  natural  history,  etc.,  and  who  is  well  paid  for  the 
business,  but  who  knows  just  as  much  about  it  as  if  it 
were  written  in  Arabic,  and  who  certifies  to  each  por- 
tion that  it  contains  nothing  hurtful  to  the  people, 
nothing  offensive  to  the  emperor,  to  religion,  etc.,  and 
more  than  all,  that  it  is  good  science !  To  avoid  the 
annoyance  of  sending  it  back  repeatedly,  as  he  has 
alterations  to  make,  he  is  obliged  to  promise  the 
printer  to  indemnify  him,  in  case  any  discrepancy  is 
observed  between  the  manuscript  and  the  printed 
work.  Endlicher  spoke  of  all  this  in  terms  which 
there  is  no  necessity  for  me  to  record  just  at  present. 
He  gave  me  an  anecdote  respecting  the  publication  of 
his  earliest  botanical  work  of  any  consequence,  a 
Flora  of  his  native  town,  the  "  Flora  Posoniensis : " 
the  manuscript  being  duly  sent  to  Jacquin,  that  worthy 
refused  to  give  it  his  imprimatur,  because  it  was  ar- 
ranged according  to  the  natural  system !  which  Jac- 
quin did  not  like ;  and  Endlicher  was  obliged  to 
apply  personally  to  the  ministers  and  take  great 
pains,  when  he  obtained  permission  to  print  in  spite 
of  the  censor ;  he  took  his  revenge  by  dedicating  the 
work  to  Baron  Jacquin  himself  !  This  system  suffi- 
ciently explains  the  low  state  of  literature  in  Austria, 
as  compared  with  northern  Germany.  I  could  hardly 
believe  all  I  have  heard,  had  I  not  obtained  my  in- 
formation from  such  authentic  sources.  .  .  . 

Friday  evening,  31st  May,  1839.  —  The  remainder 
of  the  morning  was  devoted  to  the  botanical  cabinet ; 

218  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

and  in  the  afternoon  and  early  part  of  the  evening  I 
called  with  Endlicher  upon  Mr.  Fenzl,1  the  aide- 
naturaliste  in  the  botanical  department,  who  is  con- 
fined to  his  bed  by  some  affection  of  one  of  his 
legs.  He  is  engaged  in  a  monograph  of  Alsinea?, 
which  I  think  will  be  very  faithfully  done,  and  we 
looked  over  several  collections  by  his  bedside.  I  made 
a  bundle  of  all  I  wished  to  examine,  which  are  sent 
to  my  lodgings  for  the  purpose,  and  which  will  give 
me  occupation  for  the  evening.  He  introduced  me 
to  his  frau,  a  regular  German  lassie,  and  we  managed 
to  converse  altogether  for  some  time  in  a  curious  mix- 
ture of  French,  German,  and  English. 

ON  THE  DANUBE,  on  board  the  Dampschiff 
(steamboat)  Maria-Anna,  bound  for  Linz,  5th  June. 

Schonbrunn,  the  Versailles  of  Austria,  is  much 
like  Versailles  itself  on  a  smaller  scale,  but  much  less 
magnificent.  I  visited  the  grounds  with  Endlicher, 
and  also  visited  the  botanic  garden  attached,  under 
the  care  of  M.  Schott.2  The  garden  is  very  finely  ar- 
ranged, but  all  that  is  particularly  worth  seeing  is  the 
conservatories  and  the  large  collection  of  exotics,  many 
of  them  very  old  like  those  of  Kew.  It  is  richer  than 
Kew  in  Palms,  Aroideae,  etc.,  but  in  other  things  it 
seems  not  quite  equal.  As  we  passed  by  the  palace, 
the  emperor  was  pointed  out  to  me,  through  the  open 
windows  of  his  cabinet.  I  am  told  privately  that  he 
is  scarcely  compos  mentis,  and  that  all  government 
affairs  are  managed  by  a  regency  of  which  Metternich 
and  Archduke  Charles  are  chief.  We  went  next  to 

1  Edward  Fenzl,  1807-1879 ;  professor  of  botany  and  director  of 
the  Botanic  Garden  at  Vienna. 

2  Dr.  Heinrich  Schott,  1794-1865 ;  director  of  the  Imperial  Gardens, 
Schonbrunn.     "  He  was  the  highest  authority  on  Aroidese  "  [A.  G.]. 

MT.  28.]  JOURNAL.  219 

see  Baron  Hiigel,  and  the  extensive  collection  of  living 
plants  he  has  collected  during  his  travels.  I  think  I 
have  not  told  you  the  cause  of  his  long  journeying. 
He  was,  it  appears,  the  accepted  lover  of  an  accom- 
plished and  beautiful  lady  of  very  good  family  here, 
and  their  union  was  considered  as  a  settled  affair. 
But  unfortunately  for  poor  Hiigel,  Prince  Metter- 
nich  looked  upon  the  lady  and  determined  to  have  her. 
So  he  sent  Hiigel  upon  some  humbugging  political 
mission,  to  Paris  I  believe,  and  during  his  absence  he 
made  his  propositions  to  the  father  and  mother,  who 
were  not  slow  in  discovering  that  Metternich,  with  all 
his  riches  and  power,  malgre  his  sixty-odd  years,  was 
the  fittest  bridegroom ;  and  I  am  sorry  to  add  that  they 
persuaded  the  daughter  to  the  same  opinion,  though 
she  could  have  had  little  liking  to  the  old  fellow  per- 
sonally, and  was  said  to  be  much  attached  to  Hiigel. 
The  latter  at  length  found  out  why  he  was  sent  to 
Paris,  and  came  back  with  all  speed,  but  he  was  too 
late.  His  intended  became  Princess  Metternich,  and 
Hiigel  set  out  to  cure  his  disappointment  or  forget  his 
love  by  traveling  in  foreign  lands.  Metternich,  being 
glad  to  get  rid  of  him,  threw  facilities  in  his  way,  and 
being  fond  of  plants  he  collected  and  sent  home  an 
immense  quantity  for  his  garden.  At  the  same  time 
he  made  extensive  collections  of  dried  specimens,  etc., 
which  all  reached  Vienna  safely.  He  spent  nearly 
all  his  fortune  in  traveling,  and  would  have  been  in  a 
quandary,  but  the  government,  that  is  to  say,  Metter- 
nich, bought  all  his  collections  of  dried  plants,  ani- 
mals, etc.,  for  the  Imperial  Cabinet,  giving  for  them 
an  immense  price,  some  thirty  times  more  than  they 
are  worth,  and  so  Hiigel  is  able  to  enlarge  and  embel- 
lish his  place,  improve  his  garden,  and  build  most 

220  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

beautiful  greenhouses.  He  has  fitted  up  his  house 
very  tastefully,  and  filled  it  with  all  manner  of  strange 
things,  arms,  idols,  and  so  forth.  His  collection  of 
living  plants  is  larger  than  that  of  Schonbrunn, 
though  the  trees  are  younger. 

Several  days  after  my  arrival  I  called  to  pay  my  re- 
spects to  our  minister  here,  Mr.  Muhlenberg,  and  the 
secretary  of  legation,  Mr.  Clay.  Philip  and  myself 
also  spent  an  evening  at  Mr.  Clay's,  where  we  met 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Muhlenberg,  and  their  daughter,  a 
young  lady  of  about  seventeen;  also  Mrs.  Clay,  a 
pretty  woman,  and  Mr.  Schwartz  (the  American  con- 
sul here)  and  his  wife,  who  both  speak  English  indif- 
ferently well.  Muhlenberg  seems  quite  sick  of  living 
here,  and  speaks  of  the  Austrians  with  anything  but 

We  went  one  evening  to  a  public  garden,  of  which 
there  are  many  here,  to  hear  the  most  celebrated  mu- 
sician here,  Mr.  Strauss.  A  few  kreutzers  are  charged 
for  admission,  and  the  company  are  nearly  all  seated, 
at  little  tables,  eating  a  substantial  supper,  or  sipping 
coffee  or  ices,  as  they  incline,  while  Strauss  with  his 
fine  band  played  the  finest  music,  mostly  pieces  of 
his  own  composition.  It  was  the  best  music  I  ever 

Philip  left  me  on  Monday  evening  and  went  to 
Prague.  On  Tuesday  I  arranged  passport,  left  par- 
cels to  be  sent  to  Hamburg,  took  leave ;  came  out  to 
Nussdorf  after  dinner,  from  which  the  steamboat 
leaves,  and  after  seeing  my  luggage  deposited  safely 
on  board,  I  climbed  the  Leopoldsberg,  a  steep  moun- 
tain between  eight  hundred  and  nine  hundred  feet 
high,  and  enjoyed  the  beautiful  and  extensive  view 
from  its  summit,  —  a  fine  view  of  Vienna,  of  the 

*:T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  221 

Danube  branching  into  many  different  streams,  form- 
ing pretty  green  islands,  and  the  whole  of  the  broad 
valley  far  into  Hungary.  In  a  fine  day,  it  is  said 
the  towers  of  Pressburg,  forty  miles  off,  may  be  dis- 
tinguished. The  Danube,  which  is  here  as  large  as 
the  Niagara,  broad  and  swift,  washes  the  base  of  the 
mountains,  and  the  view  up  the  river,  though  not  so 
extensive,  is  more  picturesque.  I  collected  a  handful 
of  plants,  bid  good-by  to  Vienna,  and  descended,  slept 
on  shore,  and  was  on  board  the  boat  in  time  to  start 
with  it  at  five  o'clock  this  morning. 

This  is  the  first  time  I  have  slept  in  a  genuine  Ger- 
man bed,  —  a  feather-bed  beneath,  and  an  eider-down 
bed  the  only  cover.  It  is  inclosed  in  a  sheet  like  a 
pillow-case,  and  under  this  you  creep.  In  the  winter 
it  might  do  very  well,  but  at  this  time  of  the  year  it  is 
very  oppressive.  The  upper  sheet  here  I  find,  in  all 
cases,  is  tied  fast  to  the  coverlet,  which  is  all  of  one 
piece,  and  just  long  enough  to  cover  a  moderately 
sized  man  like  myself  from  the  chin  to  the  toes.  A 
taller  person  must  choose  between  his  shoulders  and 
his  toes,  for  they  cannot  both  be  covered. 

Living  is  dear  in  Vienna.  I  stopped  at  a  cheap 
hotel,  being  aware  of  this,  and  lived  as  economically 
as  I  well  could,  but  I  find  I  have  made  way  with  a  very 
considerable  sum.  The  only  way  to  travel  cheaply 
anywhere  on  the  Continent  is  not  to  be  in  a  hurry, 
and  to  understand  the  language. 

Notabilia  for  Dr.  T.  —  I  have  seen  Corda1  at 
Vienna.  He  is  one  of  the  curators  of  the  collection  at 
Prague,  and  was  at  Vienna  on  a  visit.  Learning  that 
I  was  there,  he  called  and  left  his  card.  I  afterwards 

1  A.  C.  J.  Corda,  1809-1849.  Prague.  A  distinguished  mycologist. 
Lost  at  sea  on  returning  from  America. 

222  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

saw  him  at  his  hotel.  He  is  a  little  fellow  about  thirty, 
with  a  small  expressive  countenance.  He  works  chiefly 
at  minute  fungi,  on  which  he  is  publishing  a  large 
work.  I  saw  a  part  of  it  in  London.  He  showed  me 
an  immense  quantity  of  drawings,  which  he  makes 
with  great  rapidity.  He  is  also  publishing  a  work 
supplementary  to  Sternberg's  "  Flora  of  the  Former 
World,"  a  work  of  which  Corda  did  a  good  part.  He 
gave  me  two  copies  of  a  lithograph  of  Count  Stern- 
berg,  —  now  dead,  as  you  know,  —  done  by  himself. 
I  observe  by  his  drawings  that  he  has  anticipated  an 
unpublished  discovery  of  Valentine's,  which  he  showed 
to  Lindley  and  myself  in  London,  about  the  holes  in 
the  tissue  of  Sphagnum  opening  exteriorly.  I  looked 
at  Corda's  microscope  (one  of  Shiek  [?]  at  Berlin), 
but  it  is  inferior  to  the  English  or  Chevalier's. 

I  made  a  second  visit  to  Fenzl,  as  he  lay  in  bed ; 
had  a  long  botanical  talk  with  him,  and  think  him  a 
most  promising  botanist. 

Ungnadia  (the  character  of  which  Endlicher  has 
not  yet  published,  —  the  last  plate  in  the  "  Atakta  ") 
was  named  in  memory  of  Baron  Ungnade,  once  an  am- 
bassador from  Austria  to  Constantinople  or  Persia,  I 
forget  which,  and  the  first  to  introduce  ^sculus  Hip- 
pocastanum  into  Europe,  —  hence  the  propriety  of  the 
name.  Endlicher  is  soon  to  publish  the  description 
in  the  "Annals  of  the  Vienna  Museum,"  which  work, 
with  the  "  Iconographia  Generum  Plantarum,"  he  has 
promised  to  send  to  Hamburg  for  me,  along  with  the 
parcels  of  plants  given  me.  We  have  studied  the  new 
Loganiaceous  plant  from  Florida.  It  proves,  as  Brown 
guessed,  near  his  Logania  §  (or  Gen.)  Stomandra,  but 
extremely  distinct  from  that  or  any  other  genus,  by 
the  character  of  the  style  which  Decaisne  first  noticed. 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  223 

Endlicher  is  to  give  a  figure  in  "  Iconographia  Gen- 
erum  Plantarum,"  and  the  description  has  gone  to 
the  printer  in  one  of  Endlicher 's  articles  in  the  "  An- 
nals of  the  Vienna  Museum,"  —  Coelostylis  Logani- 
oides,  Torr.  &  Gr.  Can't  we  get  more  of  it  ?  Has 
Leavenworth  found  it  ? 

I  have  been  looking  over  the  "  Reliquiae  Hsenkeanse," 
and  examining  what  specimens  of  the  collection  from 
North  America  they  have  in  the  Vienna  Herbarium. 
Endlicher  goes  this  week  to  Carlsbad  to  recruit  his 
health,  stopping  a  day  at  Prague.  He  has  kindly 
taken  a  list  of  my  desiderata  of  the  species  published 
in  that  work,  and  I  hope  to  get  some  bits  of  them.  I 
have  copied  so  much  from  the  work  that  we  can  get 
along  even  if  I  do  not  see  it  again,  but  as  I  was  about 
to  purchase  it,  Endlicher  suggested  that  he  should  see 
if  Presl  himself  has  not  a  copy  left  for  us.  Follow- 
ing this  hint  I  have  sent  by  Endlicher  a  copy  of  the 
"  Flora  "  to  Presl,1  in  nomine  auctorum. 

There  is  a  new  genus  of  Presl  in  Loaseae  ( Acrolasia) 
from  Mexico,  which  may  be  Nuttall's.  The  most  curi- 
ous thing  is  a  new  genus  of  Datisceae  from  Monterey 
(why  have  none  of  the  other  collectors  found  it?), 
called  Tricerastes  ;  very  interesting. 

I  find  from  all  inquiries  that  it  is  very  difficult  to 
find  Nees  von  Esenbeck  2  at  Breslau,  especially  in  the 
summer.  He  is  a  queer  stick  altogether,  is  not  well 
satisfied  with  his  situation  at  Breslau,  and  spends  the 
greater  part  of  his  time  at  a  little  place  high  up  in  the 
Riesengebirge,  studying  Hepaticae. 

1  Karel  B.  Presl,  1794-1852 ;   professor  at  Prague  and  curator  of 
the  herbarium. 

2  Christian  Gottfried   Nees   von  Esenbeck,  1776-1858;    professor 
of  natural  history  at  Bonn  and  Breslau. 

224  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

I  have  bought  Grisebach's  new  "  Genera  et  Species 
Gentianearum,"  and  have  been  studying  it  011  my  way 
in  the  steamboat.  It  seems  very  well  done,  particu- 
larly his  preliminary  matter  on  structure,  affinities,  de- 
velopment, geographical  distribution,  etc.,  which  is  very 
interesting.  It  is  very  carelessly  printed.  Our  well- 
known  "  Tuckerton,"  in  the  pine-barrens,  figures  under 
the  form  of  "  Juckerten  "  !  Let  this  suffice  at  present. 

SALZBURG,  June  10. 

Arrived  at  Linz  Friday  noon,  dined,  looked  a  little 
about  the  town,  which  is  remarkable  for  nothing  ex- 
cept its  agreeable  situation  on  the  Danube,  and  its 
unusual  kind  of  fortification ;  and  at  half  past  one 
started  for  Gmiinden,  about  thirty-five  miles  by  rail- 
road, in  a  car  drawn  by  horses.  This  railroad,  the 
oldest  in  Germany,  is  rather  a  primitive  affair ;  we 
were  jolted  more  than  on  the  ordinary  roads,  which 
I  have  found  everywhere  excellent.  The  first  part 
of  the  road  was  very  uninteresting.  I  was  seated 
in  the  middle  of  the  car,  with  five  or  six  inveterate 
German  smokers  around  me,  each  equipped  with  a 
huge  meerschaum  pipe  with  a  wooden  stem  nearly 
as  long  as  your  arm,  which  he  replenished  as  often  as 
it  was  exhausted,  and  all  puffed  away  in  concert  as  if 
they  were  locomotive  engines  and  our  progress  de- 
pended upon  their  exertions.  You  are  everywhere 
annoyed  in  the  same  way,  but  I  have  become  accus- 
tomed to  it  so  that  it  does  not  trouble  me  as  at  first. 
At  length  a  fat  military  officer  next  me  smoked  him- 
self to  sleep  ;  and  I  was  amusing  myself  with  the  ridic- 
ulous pendulum-like  motions  he  was  making,  his  pipe 
still  grasped  by  his  mouth  at  one  end  and  by  his  hand 
at  the  other,  when  he  knocked  his  head  against  the 

JET.  28.]  JOURNAL.  225 

window  and  pitched  his  hat  into  the  road,  to  his  great 
astonishment  and  our  infinite  amusement.  We  passed 
through  Wels,  and  afterwards  Lambach,  a  pretty  place 
and  most  beautifully  situated  upon  the  Traun.  In  this 
part  of  the  journey  we  had  a  fine  view  of  the  Salzburg 
Alps,  which  rise  to  their  greatest  height  just  where 
Austria  proper  and  the  provinces  of  Styria  and  Salz- 
burg meet.  From  Lambach  to  the  end  of  the  journey, 
the  country  appeared  completely  American:  finely 
wooded  with  fir  and  larch  with  here  and  there  a  clump 
of  beech.  We  reached  Gmiinden  just  at  twilight,  a 
neat  village  on  the  very  bank  of  the  Gmiinden  see  or 
Traunsee,  for  it  is  called  by  both  names.  The  situa- 
tion, close  down  upon  the  water  and  in  the  bosom  of 
green  undulating  hills,  is  as  lovely  as  can  be  conceived, 
and  is  in  fine  contrast  with  the  upper  extremity  of  the 
little  lake,  where  the  dark  and  lofty  mountains  rise  ab- 
ruptly from  the  very  edge  of  the  water,  not  leaving  room 
enough  even  for  a  footpath.  Their  summits  were  still 
covered  with  patches  of  snow,  but  they  are  overtopped 
by  the  peaks  of  the  Dachstein  and  other  portions  of 
these  Alps  which  are  crowned  with  perpetual  snow. 
I  found  at  the  Goldenes  Schiff  neat  rooms,  and  a  most 
comfortable  bed,  which  I  was  prepared  fully  to  enjoy, 
having  first  made  a  supper 'on  nice  trout  from  the  lake, 
with  a  few  etceteras.  At  seven  o'clock  the  next  morn- 
ing I  was  on  board  the  little  steamboat,  —  commanded 
by  an  Englishman,  as  most  boats  are  in  Austria,  — 
which  affords  the  only  means  of  communication  with 
the  country  beyond.  The  morning  was  pleasant,  and 
I  had  a  good  opportunity  of  seeing  the  finest  scenery  I 
9  ever  beheld ;  indeed  I  do  not  expect  ever  to  see  it 
surpassed.  As  we  left  the  green  slopes  at  Gmiinden 
behind  us,  the  mountains  which  inclose  the  upper  por- 

226  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

tion  of  the  lake  gradually  disclosed  themselves  more 
distinctly;  halfway  up,  we  were  opposite  the  gigan- 
tic Traunstein,  whose  naked  and  weather-beaten  sum- 
mit had  been  full  in  view  almost  ever  since  we  left 
Linz  the  day  before.  It  is  a  huge  mountain,  appear- 
ing as  if  split  from  top  to  bottom  and  turned  with  the 
cloven  side  toward  the  lake,  so  that  it  presents  a  per- 
pendicular wall  of  jagged  rock  nearly  three  thousand 
feet  high !  leaving  just  room  sufficient  between  it  and 
the  water  for  one  or  two  fishermen's  huts,  which  look 
the  veriest  pygmies.  The  mountains  beyond  this  on 
the  same  side  are  equally  picturesque,  but  not  so  high. 
They  rise  in  sharp  isolated  peaks,  leaving  the  wildest 
glens  between,  down  which  streams  fed  by  the  snows 
of  the  mountains  in  the  background  come  leaping  to 
the  lake.  On  a  promontory  which  seems  from  the  lower 
part  of  the  lake  to  form  its  southern  extremity  stands 
the  little  hamlet  of  Traunkirchen  ;  the  picturesque  lit- 
tle church  was  founded  by  the  Jesuits,  who  once  had  a 
small  establishment  here  ;  a  little  nook  is  occupied  with 
the  wee  bits  of  cabins  belonging  to  the  peasantry  em- 
ployed in  the  salt-works  or  in  rowing  the  salt-barges 
down  the  lake ;  they  ar.e  set  down  here  and  there,  as 
room  can  be  found,  and  add  much  to  the  beauty  of  the 
view.  As  the  boat  doubles  this  promontory,  Gmiiii- 
den  and  all  the  lower  part  of  the  lake  is  lost  sight  of, 
and  you  seem  to  be  on  another  smaller  but  wilder  lake, 
entirely  shut  in  by  the  precipitous  mountains  ;  a  few 
minutes  more  and  we  are  landed  at  Ebensee,  the  little 
salt-village  at  the  head,  where  the  Traun  enters,  and 
you  regret  that  the  voyage  is  so  short.  I  was  strongly 
inclined  to  go  back  again  with  the  boat,  and  return 
again  in  the  afternoon ;  but  knowing  I  had  no  time  to 
lose,  and  that  I  might  not  readily  find  another  con- 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  227 

venient  opportunity  of  going  on  to  Ischl,  I  was  obliged 
to  bid  farewell  to  Gmiindensee.  Loveliest,  wildest  of 
lakes,  I  shall  not  soon  forget  thee. 

I  had  not  time  at  Ebensee  to  look  at  the  works 
where  the  brine  is  evaporated,  which  seem  to  be  on  a 
large  scale.  The  brine  is  brought  here  in  aqueducts, 
some  fifteen  or  twenty-four  miles,  since  fuel  is  more 
plenty  here,  and  it  is  found  more  economical  to  bring 
the  brine  to  the  fuel  than  the  fuel  to  the  brine.  The 
stellwagen  was  ready,  and  I  took  my  seat.  A  ride  of 
ten  or  eleven  miles  up  the  valley  of  the  Traun,  a  nar- 
row defile  bordered  by  lofty  mountains,  brought  us 
before  noon  to  Ischl.  It  is  a  pretty  village,  lying  in  a 
green  valley  formed  by  the  junction  of  the  little  river 
Ischl  with  the  Traun ;  it  contains  extensive  salt-works 
and  is  a  favorite  bathing-place,  people  of  all  degrees 
coming  here  in  the  summer  to  pickle  themselves  in  the 
salt  water.  Three  immense  ridges  of  mountains  come 
down  almost  into  the  village,  leaving  a  triangular 
space  for  the  village,  with  just  three  ways  of  getting  in 
or  out,  viz.,  by  ascending  the  river  as  we  came,  or  by 
either  the  Ischl  or  the  Traun  as  they  enter  the  valley. 

I  took  a  hasty  dinner,  and  left  the  hotel  at  one 
o'clock,  determined  to  enjoy  the  satisfaction  of  climb- 
ing a  real  mountain.  The  Zeimitz,  the  highest  in  the 
neighborhood,  is  said  to  command  the  finest  prospect, 
and  it  looked  as  if  I  could  ascend  it  in  an  hour  or  two 
with  the  greatest  ease,  although  the  guide-book  says 
that  ten  to  twelve  hours  are  necessary  for  going  and 
returning.  I  have  accomplished  the  task ;  I  climbed 
the  mountain,  5000  feet  high,  traveled  over  the  snow 
from  one  to  the  other  of  its  four  peaks  at  considerable 
distance  from  each  other  ;  enjoyed  the  most  magnifi- 
cent prospect ;  filled  my  portfolio  with  alpine  plants, 

228  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

descended  the  steepest  side,  picking  my  difficult  way 
down  the  rocks  and  sliding  down  immense  snow- 
banks, until  I  was  past  the  alpine  portion;  then 
making  a  turn  to  a  subalpine  pasture,  where  cows  and 
goats  are  driven  to  pass  the  summer,  I  struck  an  old 
path,  and  ran  with  all  speed  to  the  gorge  at  the  base, 
where  the  stream  that  I  had  traced  from  its  source  as 
it  trickled  from  a  snowbank,  and  down  a  succession 
of  little  cataracts,  was  now  a  foaming  and  rushing 
torrent.  It  was  then  just  twilight,  and  a  quiet  walk 
of  an  hour  brought  me  back  to  the  hotel  at  nine 
o'clock,  quite  proud  of  my  feat  and  delighted  with  the 
fine  view  I  had  obtained.  But  I  have  paid  well  for  it. 
In  the  morning  I  could  scarcely  stir  for  the  aches  and 
pains  in  my  bones,  and  even  now  the  extensor  muscles 
of  my  legs  are  sore  to  the  touch  and  bear  woeful  tes- 
timony to  the  hard  service  they  have  been  obliged 
to  perform.  "  I  shall  think  about  it,"  as  Mr.  Davis 
says,  before  I  ascend  another  mountain. 

And  yet  I  feel  myself  well  repaid  for  all  my 
fatigue.  To  say  nothing  of  the  prospect  opening  out 
wider  and  grander  as  I  ascended,  I  had  from  the  sum- 
mit a  magnificent  mountain  panorama  which  it  was 
well  worth  the  labor  to  see  ;  the  summits  of  more  than 
one  peak  white  and  brilliant  with  perpetual  snow  and 
ice.  The  most  stupendous  of  all  is  the  Thorstein  or 
Dachstein,  which  closes  the  view  to  the  south,  with  its 
immense  glaciers  of  the  most  dazzling  whiteness,  from 
which  numerous  steep  pinnacles  rise  like  spires,  tow- 
ering high  above  all  surrounding  objects,  illuminated 
by  the  rays  of  the  setting  sun  long  after  all  other  ob- 
jects are  left  in  the  shade.  The  dark  lake  of  Hall- 
stadt  was  distinctly  seen,  appearing  to  reach  up  to  its 
very  base.  I  could  not  distinguish  the  village  which 

JET.  28.]  JOURNAL.  229 

is  hidden  under  the  cliffs  at  that  end  of  the  lake, 
where  from  November  to  February  the  inhabitants  do 
not  see  the  sun,  they  are  so  shut  in  by  high  moun- 
tains. Four  other  lakes  were  in  full  view,  two  of 
them  lying  almost  beneath  my  feet. 

And  then  imagine  my  pleasure  at  collecting  alpine 
plants  for  the  first  time,  some  of  them  in  full  blossom 
under  the  very  edge  of  a  snowbank.  I  filled  my 
portfolio  with  Soldanella,  Rhododendron,  Primula 
Auricula,  Ranunculus  Thora,  and  another  with  white 
flowers,  etc.,  etc.  I  am  sorry  to  say  that  hi  my  eager- 
ness I  have  left  my  knife,  last  relic  of  the  Expedi- 
tion, and  so  long  my  trusty  companion,  somewhere 
on  the  top  of  the  mountain.  Sunday  was  at  least  a 
day  of  bodily  rest,  for  I  did  not  rise  until  past  ten 
o'clock,  and  hobbled  out  but  once  beyond  the  limits  of 
my  hotel.  I  was  obliged  to  leave,  however,  late  in  the 
evening,  about  half  past  ten,  when  the  eilwagen,  which 
comes  but  twice  a  week,  arrived  from  Gratz  on  its  way 
to  Salzburg ;  and  here  I  found  myself  at  six  o'clock 
this  morning ;  a  rainy  day,  and  a  very  dull  town,  with 
nothing  but  its  fortress  and  its  exceedingly  beautiful 
and  romantic  situation  to  make  it  interesting.  There 
are  many  objects  of  great  interest  in  the  neighbor- 
hood, but  this  rainy  day  prevents  any  distant  excur- 
sion ;  my  place  is  taken  for  Munich  for  to-morrow 
morning,  and  not  even  the  inducements  of  "  the  most 
beautiful  region  in  all  Germany,"  as  it  is  called,  not 
even  the  sublimities  of  the  Berchtesgaden  and  the 
Konigsee,  which  are  but  fifteen  miles  off,  shall  de- 
tain me  longer.  I  begin  to  look  with  expectation 
toward  the  end  of  my  journey,  and  have  already  in  my 
plans  shortened  it  a  little.  I  have  looked  about  the 
old  churches  and  buildings  of  this  town,  and  am  wait- 

230  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

ing  now  for  it  to  clear  up  that  I  may  climb  the  Mbnchs- 
berg,  and  enjoy  the  prospect  that  is  said  to  be  so 
fine.  At  midday  I  had  hopes  of  a  pleasant  afternoon, 
but  it  is  now  raining  harder  than  ever. 

In  this  region,  as  in  the  retired  parts  of  Styria, 
through  which  I  passed  to  Vienna,  you  are  charmed 
with  the  kind-hearted  simplicity  of  the  people.  If 
you  meet  them  in  walking,  they  always  give  you  some 
word  of  greeting,  and  commonly  take  off  their  hats 
and  bow  to  you ;  yet  there  seems  to  be  nothing  servile 
or  cringing  in  it.  You  get  a  porter  to  carry  your 
baggage,  who,  instead  of  asking  for  more  when  you 
have  given  him  already  more  than  he  expected  to  re- 
ceive, takes  off  his  hat,  makes  you  a  low  bow,  and 
thanks  you  most  heartily,  though  without  any  palaver. 
So  with  the  servants,  who  never  ask  anything,  and  I 
suppose  would  not  if  you  were  to  forget  them  alto- 
gether ;  I  doubt  if  they  would  ever  remind  you ;  you 
give  them  about  a  third  part  of  what  an  English  ser- 
vant would  expect,  and  you  have  them  all  most  heartily 
wishing  you  bon  voyage  or  gliickliche  reise,  accord- 
ing to  the  language  they  speak.  In  some  places  they 
say  the  chambermaid  kisses  your  hand,  but  this  has 
not  happened  to  me  yet.  The  women,  when  not  ren- 
dered wholly  masculine  in  appearance  by  performing 
the  labor  of  men,  which  is  very  common,  are  almost 
universally  good-looking,  and  in  such  vigorous  health. 
I  do  not  admire  their  head-dress,  which  is  ordinarily 
a  black  silk  thing  tied  closely  around  the  head  and 
tied  in  rather  fantastic  bows  behind.  The  women  of 
Linz  and  all  this  part  of  the  Danube  wear,  when  in 
full  dress,  a  cap  of  tinsel  or  gold  lace,  shaped  exactly 
like  the  Roman  helmet,  which  fits  close  to  the  top 
of  the  head.  But  fashions  never  leave  this  world; 

JET.  28.]  JOURNAL.  231 

when  you  ladies  throw  aside  some  mode,  it  is  picked 
up  and  perpetuated  in  some  out-of-the-way  part  of  the 
world.  Thus,  for  example,  all  the  young  fraus  of 
Ischl  wear  balloon  sleeves,  after  the  most  approved 
fashion  some  three  or  four  years  ago.  I  assure  you  it 
looked  quite  natural  to  see  them  again,  even  upon  the 
buxom  damsels  of  the  Salzkammergut  (there  's  a  name 
for  you). 

It  is  now  half  past  seven ;  and  it  is  still  raining 
most  obstinately,  so  ascending  the  Monchsberg  is  not 
to  be  thought  of ;  and  I  must  make  up  my  mind  to 
leave  Salzburg  without  this  view.  My  trunk  is  sent 
to  the  office  of  the  brief-post-eilwagen,  all  ready  for 
starting  at  six  o'clock  in  the  morning,  and  to-morrow 
evening  at  eleven  I  hope  (D.  V.)  to  be  in  Munich^ 
seventy-eight  miles.  I  owe  Bentham  a  letter,  and 
have  not  written  him  or  any  one  else  since  I  left 
Paris.  I  will  take  this  convenient  opportunity  and 
write  forthwith. 

MUNICH,  12th  June. 

I  arrived  in  this  capital  of  Bavaria  last  evening  at 
eleven  o'clock,  after  a  tedious,  though  not  uninterest- 
ing ride  of  seventeen  hours.  The  day  proved  a  fine 
one,  and  after  leaving  Salzburg  through  the  curious 
tunnel  that  penetrates  the  Monchsberg  we  came 
abruptly  into  the  open  country ;  and  as  the  mists  grad- 
ually rose  from  the  sides  of  the  mountains  and  we 
ascended  some  small  hills,  I  obtained  some  most  beau- 
tiful and  picturesque  views  of  the  surrounding  moun- 
tains. The  Stauffenberg,  which  stood  between  us  and 
Berchtesgaden,  a  magnificent  mountain,  was  for  a  long 
time  the  most  prominent  object ;  backed  by  the  more 
distant  central  portions  of  the  Salzburg  Alps,  all 
white  with  snow.  It  was  only  as  I  left  this  place 

232  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

that  I  could  appreciate  the  beauty  of  its  situation,  and 
I  felt  a  momentary  regret  that  I  had  not  stayed  a  day 
longer  and  visited  Berchtesgaden.  These  fine  moun- 
tains and  those  of  the  Tyrol  (the  more  western  portion 
of  the  same  chain)  were  in  full  view  during  the  whole 
journey,  filling  the  southern  horizon,  while  we  jour- 
neyed through  a  rather  level  country ;  for  the  whole 
of  Bavaria  south  of  the  Danube  is  a  great  plain, 
stretching  from  that  river  to  these  mountains  that 
skirt  its  southern  border.  It  is  an  inclined  plain, 
since  Munich,  though  in  a  perfectly  flat  region,  is 
about  sixteen  hundred  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea. 
We  crossed  the  frontier  in  an  hour  after  we  started, 
where  our  baggage  was  slightly  and  very  civilly  ex- 
amined, and  our  passports  vised  by  the  Bavarian 
police.  We  passed  two  pretty  lakes,  but  no  place  of 
interest  except  Wasserburg,  situated  in  a  picturesque 
dell  on  the  river  Inn.  For  companions  I  had  a  Dane, 
who  spoke  a  little  English  surprisingly  well,  and  was 
very  agreeable ;  a  German,  who  spoke  a  little  French ; 
and  a  Frenchman,  who  had  come  up  the  Danube  from 
Constantinople,  and  who  tired  us  all  with  the  continual 
clack  of  his  very  disagreeable  voice.  I  took  up  my 
abode  at  the  Schwarzer  Adler,  a  very  comfortable 
and  quite  cheap  hotel ;  slept  pretty  well ;  rose  early 
this  morning  to  take  a  look  at  the  town,  which 
within  these  last  twenty  years  has  become  a  mag- 
nificent capital ;  saw  many  of  the  public  buildings,  — 
that  is,  their  exterior,  —  churches,  and  squares  ;  went 
to  the  office  of  the  police  and  obtained  the  required 
permission  de  sejour  ;  and  then  went  to  the  Royal 
Cabinet  to  find  Martius,  for  whom  I  had  three  letters 
of  introduction.  He  is  a  small  man,  not  so  tall  as  I, 
quite  thin,  but  rather  good-looking,  apparently  fifty 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  233 

years  old,  but  his  hair  may  be  prematurely  gray.  He 
seems  to  have  his  hands  very  full  of  business,  but  he 
received  me  with  cordiality;  took  me  to  the  library 
and  the  cabinet  of  natural  history,  which  are  in  the 
same  building,  told  me  to  amuse  myself  till  one  (the 
universal  dinner  hour),  and  meet  him  at  the  Botanic 
Garden  at  three,  and  afterwards  spend  the  evening  at 
his  house.  The  cabinets  here  are  in  an  old,  rather  in- 
convenient building,  once  a  Jesuits'  college,  which  now 
contains  them  all,  as  well  as  the  library,  the  lecture- 
rooms  of  the  university,  etc.,  but  in  a  year  or  so  all 
will  be  removed  to  very  fine  buildings  the  king  is 
erecting  for  their  reception.  Excepting  the  Brazilian 
collections,  which  are  large  and  good,  there  is  nothing 
worth  particular  notice  in  the  zoological  and  minera- 
logical  cabinets ;  they  make  no  great  show  after  that 
of  Vienna.  The  library  is  immense,  this  and  the  one 
at  Paris  being  the  two  largest  in  the  world ;  the  books 
fill  a  great  number  of  rooms,  none  of  them  magnifi- 
cent but  very  convenient ;  the  whole  is  soon  to  be 
transferred  to  other  quarters.  I  was  introduced  to 
one  of  the  librarians,  who  was  at  the  moment  showing 
the  curiosities  of  the  collection,  very  old  and  rich  man- 
uscripts, —  the  earliest  attempts  at  wood-engraving, 
etc.,  —  to  a  party  of  English.  When  he  had  done 
with  them  I  told  him  he  must  have  been  bored  quite 
sufficiently  for  once,  and  that  I  would  not  trouble  him 
any  further  just  then,  but  that  I  wished  to  acquire 
some  useful  information  about  the  plan  and  arrange- 
ment of  the  library,  rather  than  to  see  its  curiosities. 
So  he  fixed  upon  Friday  morning,  when  he  would  be 
quite  disengaged,  and  would  gladly  afford  me  all  the 
information  I  desired.  Shortly  after  dinner  I  went 
down  to  the  Botanic  Garden  ;  found  Martius,  who, 

234  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

having  an  unexpected  engagement,  consigned  me  to 
the  head  gardener,  and  I  was  very  kindly  shown  over 
the  whole  establishment,  which  is  much  larger  and 
better  than  I  had  supposed,  and  in  excellent  condition. 

Afterwards  I  strolled  about  the  town  for  an  hour 
or  two,  heard  the  fine  military  band  in  the  Hofgarten, 
and  at  half  past  six  went  to  the  house  of  Martius ;  saw 
his  wife,  who  looks  much  younger  than  he,  and  I  suspect 
he  was  not  married  until  after  his  return  from  Brazil. 
She  seems  a  very  intelligent  and  pleasant  lady,  under- 
stands English  pretty  well,  but  does  not  speak  it,  while 
Martius  speaks  extremely  well ;  the  eldest  daughter, 
a  pretty  girl  of  thirteen,  speaks  French  fluently,  has 
taken  lessons  in  English,  which  she  reads  readily,  but 
speaks  slightly  ;  there  is  another  daughter  of  about 
ten,  another  still  younger,  and  a  boy  a  little  more  than 
a  year  old  completes  the  list.  Professor  Zuccarini1 
was  there,  and  afterwards  an  entomologist,  whose 
name  I  forget,  dropped  in ;  also  a  young  man  from 
Rio  Janeiro,  a  Dr.  Hentz  from  Vienna,  who  inquired 
especially  after  Dr.  Buck;  the  director  of  the  mu- 
sic in  the  royal  chapel  here ;  and  two  ladies,  one  of 
whom  sung  exquisitely.  The  director  and  Dr.  Hentz 
both  played  the  piano  to  perfection,  and,  to  crown  all, 
Martius  seized  his  fiddle,  quite  to  my  surprise,  and 
played  with  great  spirit.  Before  they  were  done  a 
little  crowd  had  begun  to  assemble  before  the  windows. 
So  the  evening  passed  off  very  pleasantly. 

I  like  the  sound  of  the  German  language  much  ;  it 
is  manly,  and  certainly  not  more  rough  than  the  Eng- 
lish. From  the  lips  of  the  women  and  the  little  chil- 
dren I  assure  you  it  sounds  very  musical,  and  I  often 

1  Joseph  Gerhard  Zuccarini,  1797-1848  ;  professor  of  botany  at 
Munich.  Among  other  publications  he  assisted  in  describing  the 
plants  collected  and  described  by  .^iebold  in  the  Flora  Japonica. 

JET.  28.]  JOURNAL.  235 

stop  in  the  street  to  listen  to  it,  when  I  do  not  under- 
stand a  word  that  is  spoken. 

13th  June,  1839.  —  I  passed  the  whole  morning,  that 
is,  until  one  o'clock,  at  the  Botanical  Cabinet,  looking 
at  grass  and  such  like.  After  dinner  Zuccarini  called 
for  me,  took  me  to  his  house,  showed  me  his  Japan 
plants,  the  work  he  is  publishing  on  them,  etc.  I 
looked  over  and  named  his  American  Cyperacea},  and 
he  made  me  most  bountiful  offers  for  exchange.  He 
gave  me  some  of  his  publications  and  even  offered  me 
his  "Japan  Flora"  (Siebold's),  which  is  an  expensive 
work,  but  it  is  very  desirable  for  us  to  have,  though  it 
will  be  rather  difficult  for  me  to  give  him  an  equiva- 
lent. It  is  now  sunset,  eight  o'clock ;  all  the  shops 
in  the  town  have  been  closed  nearly  an  hour,  the  peo- 
ple all  enjoying  themselves  in  the  gardens  round- 
about. I  am  going  to  bed  early,  in  hopes  to  rise  in 
time  to  go  down  to  the  Garden  and  hear  Martius  lec- 
ture at  seven  o'clock.  He  lectures  every  morning  at 
that  hour,  and  Zuccarini  again  every  morning  from 
eight  to  nine,  and  also  from  eleven  to  twelve.  The 
scientific  people  here  have  been  arranging  a  little  fete 
for  Saturday,  the  birthday  of  LinnaBus.  It  is  decided 
that  there  is  to  be  a  botanical  excursion,  I  believe,  to 
the  Tegernsee,  some  fifteen  miles  off,  and  I  suppose 
also  a  picnic  dinner.  I  have  not  learned  all  the  par- 
ticulars, but  this  I  shall  do  in  time,  as  I  am  to  be  one 
of  the  party. 

14th  June,  1839.  —  I  rose  early  this  morning  and 
went  to  hear  Martius  lecture  at  the  Garden  at  seven 
o'clock.  He  is  a  good  lecturer,  fluent  and  clear. 
Called  on  Dr.  Schultes  ; l  then  returned  to  breakfast ; 
afterwards  spent  the  morning  at  the  cabinet,  with  the 

1  Julius  Hermann  Schultes,  1804.     Died  in  Munich,  1840. 

236  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

exception  of  an  hour  devoted  to  the  library,  which  one 
of  the  chief  officers  very  kindly  showed  me  through. 
They  have  about  half  a  million  books,  excluding  dupli- 
cates, and  about  16,000  manuscripts.  The  librarian 
took  much  pains  to  explain  to  me  the  arrangement 
and  classification  of  the  library,  which  is  in  excellent 
order,  and  to  show  me  as  many  of  the  rarities  as  I 
desired  to  see  :  very  ancient  Greek  and  Latin  manu- 
scripts of  the  Bible  or  the  Evangelists ;  a  number  of 
very  old  and  richly  illuminated  German  manuscripts ; 
the  collection  of  printed  books  without  date,  of  which 
they  had  6000  (these  early  printed  books  being  many 
of  them  intended  to  pass  for  manuscripts)  ;  a  copy  of 
Faust's  Bible  again  (the  first  book  printed),  —  they 
have  two ;  Luther's  Bible,  beautifully  printed  on 
vellum,  and  illuminated,  —  in  the  frontispiece  his  ori- 
ginal portrait,  a  sturdy-looking  old  fellow,  who  looks 
as  if  he  might  have  been  as  fearless  as  indeed  he  was ; 
the  portrait  of  Melanchthon,  by  the  same  artist,  whose 
name  I  forget,  is  given  on  the  next  leaf.  I  saw  also 
a  manuscript  letter  of  Luther,  and  many  other  things, 
too  tedious  to  trouble  you  with  now. 

Dined  with  Martins  and  his  very  pleasant  family  ; 
stayed  until  six  o'clock,  looking  over  plants,  etc. ;  took 
a  little  walk,  now  that  it  is  a  little  cooler,  for  the  day 
has  been  exceedingly  sultry,  and  am  now  going  to 
bed,  as  I  have  to  rise  at  half  past  four  and  meet  the 
pedestrian  portion  of  the  Linna3an  party  at  half  past 
five.  If  it  be  as  sultry  a  day  as  this  has  been  we  shall 
have  warm  work  of  it. 

15th  June,  1839.  —  We  had  a  truly  German  fete 
champetre,  and  I  have  learnt  more  of  German  life 
and  manners  in  one  day  than  I  could  otherwise  have 
obtained  in  a  long  time.  I  was  at  the  place  of  rendez- 

JST.  28.]  JOURNAL.  237 

vous  at  the  time  appointed,  and  met  there  the  two 
professors  and  about  thirty  students,  with  whom  we 
set  out  on  our  excursion,  and  our  number  was  soon 
doubled  by  the  accessions  we  received.  Our  course 
lay  along  the  banks  of  the  Isar  (what  lad  that  has 
been  at  school  has  not  heard  of  "  Isar  rolling  rap- 
idly "),  along  which  we  ascended  for  about  six  miles, 
botanizing  on  the  way.  It  was  about  twelve  o'clock 
when  we  reached  the  place  where  the  Linnaean  cele- 
brations are  always  held.  Here  we  found  Madame 
Martius  and  the  girls,  who  had  arrived  in  a  carriage, 
and  the  lady  and  children  of  another  professor.  Three 
or  four  other  professors  also  joined  the  party :  Pro- 
fessor Tirsch,  the  celebrated  Grecian  scholar ;  Pro- 
fessor Neumann,  of  Oriental  languages ;  a  celebrated 
physician,  and  some  others.  We  filled  an  immense 
rustic  dinner-table  spread  in  an  open  pavilion,  orna- 
mented in  a  simple  manner  with  branches  and  flowers, 
and  a  portrait  of  Linnaeus.  Professor  Martius  then 
read  his  address,  which  I  judged  from  its  effects  upon 
the  audience  to  be  humorous ;  then  followed  the  dinner, 
plain  but  good,  consisting  of  three  or  four  courses, 
beer  supplied  ad  libitum,  and  this  was  no  trifle,  as  you 
would  understand  if  you  could  see  how  all  these  Ba- 
varians swill  their  beer.  It  is  light,  extremely  light 
as  compared  with  English.  But  you  may  judge  how 
cheaply  the  Germans  contrive  to  live,  and  how  cheaply 
and  simply  they  get  up  an  affair  which  in  England 
or  at  home  would  cost  a  round  sum,  when  I  inform 
you  that  the  whole  charge  for  dinner  was  twenty-four 
kreutzers  or  one  Austrian  zwanziger  (sixteen  cents!). 
This  I  suppose  did  not  include  the  wine,  of  which 
there  was  a  small  supply,  provided,  perhaps,  by  Martius 

238  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

Three  or  four  odes,  written  for  the  purpose,  some 
in  Latin,  others  in  German,  were  sung,  with  a  hearti- 
ness and  a  nicety  of  execution  entirely  German.  Three 
or  four  toasts  were  drunk,  some  speeches  made,  and 
the  party  left  the  table.  The  greater  part,  excluding 
the  ladies,  then  went  to  the  LinnaBan  Oak,  a  young 
tree  planted  on  the  day  of  this  fete  five  years  ago. 
Here  all  took  their  seats  on  the  grass  around  it,  and  a 
number  of  half-serious,  half-humorous  addresses  or 
meditations  were  made,  the  people  all  sitting  at  their 
ease  ;  then  a  song  for  the  purpose  was  sung,  and  the 
celebration  was  over.  Some  part  dispersed  immedi- 
ately, but  the  greater  part  assembled  around  our 
dinner-table,  and  heard  some  music  from  a  paysanne, 
who  accompanied  her  voice  with  an  instrument  like  a 
guitar.  Martius  and  Zuccarini  had  arranged  to  stay 
over  night  in  the  neighborhood  to  botanize  to-morrow, 
and  wished  me  to  stay  also,  which  I  declined  to  do, 
but  returned  in  a  carriage  with  Madame  Martius  and 
the  eldest  daughter.  We  had  a  very  agreeable  ride 
and  reached  the  city  just  as  it  grew  dark.  We  had 
all  day  most  beautiful  views  of  the  Bavarian  Alps, 
which  seemed  close  to  us.  The  different  professors 
spoke  English  with  me,  Professor  Neumann,  indeed, 
extremely  well ;  were  very  polite  to  me,  and  I  obtained 
much  important  information,  and  have  put  myself  in 
the  way  to  get  still  more.  The  whole  affair  was  ex- 
tremely well  arranged.  I  have  printed  copies  of  a 
part  of  the  odes,  and  a  copy  of  the  print  of  Linnaeus, 
a  very  good  lithograph,  which  was  brought  to  the 
place  and  sold  to  the  students  for  twenty-four  kreu- 
tzers  (sixteen  cents)  a  copy.  This  is  not  the  birthday 
of  LinnaBus  ;  the  24th  of  May  is  the  proper  one,  but 
it  is  not  then  pleasant  in  the  country  here. 

JST.  28.]  JOURNAL.  239 

18th  June.  —  On  Sunday  I  attended  service  in  the 
Protestant  church,  a  large  and  fine  building,  which 
was  well  filled.  A  part  of  the  royal  family  are  Pro- 
testants, but  the  king  himself  is  a  bigoted  Catholic. 
The  interior  of  the  church  is  made  to  resemble  a 
Catholic  chapel  as  much  as  possible  ;  the  altar  has  a 
picture  behind  it,  and  a  small  crucifix  stood  upon  the 
reading-desk.  There  was  a  very  short  liturgy,  and 
singing  in  which  all  the  congregation  took  part,  as  is 
always  the  case  in  Germany.  The  sermon  which  fol- 
lowed may  have  been  very  orthodox  for  all  I  know,  for 
I  could  understand  but  a  few  words  of  it.  I  spent  the 
remainder  of  the  day  in  my  own  room.  .  .  . 

Tuesday  evening.  —  This  morning  I  went  to  the 
cabinet  of  botany,  to  the  library,  and  after  dinner  to 
Martius  ;  looked  over  his  Carices,  etc.  We  then  walked 
to  the  Garden,  and  afterward  to  the  establishment 
for  telescopes,  etc.,  of  the  successors  of  Fraunhofer, 
where  I  bought  a  very  pretty  little  achromatic  glass 
and  a  simple  lens ;  looked  at  his  workshop  and  collec- 
tions, etc.  .  .  . 

It  is  so  long  since  I  have  seen  your  handwriting 
that  I  might  forget  it,  but  I  met  with  it  to-day  very 
unexpectedly,  you  would  never  guess  where!  Even 
on  labels  of  Carices  in  Martius'  herbarium.  After  I 
get  to  Switzerland  I  shall  count  days  until  I  see  Eng- 
land again,  from  which  there  are  but  two  steps  home, 
on  board  a  ship,  and  off  again. 

ZURICH,  June  22,  1839. 

In  the  afternoon  I  called  on  Dr.  Schultes,  who  of- 
fered me  a  pretty  little  parcel  of  Egyptian  plants. 
Made  up  my  parcels  and  left  them  with  Martius,  to  be 
sent,  with  the  things  that  he  and  Zuccarini  are  to  add, 

240  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

to  Hamburg,  against  my  arrival  there.  Spent  the  even- 
ing at  Martius'  house,  and  took  my  leave  of  madame 
and  Caroline.  I  gave  Madame  M.  my  copy  of  "  Childe 
Harold,"  a  very  pretty  one,  which  she  seemed  to  value 
considerably.  Martius  I  saw  again  the  next  morning 
at  the  cabinet,  and  took  leave  very  affectionately ;  he 
kissing  me  tenderly,  after  the  German  fashion.  Ask 
Dr.  Torrey  to  look  in  the  list  and  see  if  Martius  is  not 
an  honorary  member  of  the  Lyceum,  as  I  believe,  but 
am  not  sure.  If  he  is  he  knows  it  not.  The  Lyceum 
has  also  been  remiss  in  sending  him  the  "  Annals," 
which  should  not  be,  as  he  has  been  a  liberal  con- 
tributor. His  works  give  him  much  trouble  since  the 
death  of  the  late  king,  who  was  his  patron  and  sub- 
scribed toward  the  expense ;  the  present  king  does 
nothing  at  all  for  Martius  or  for  science  anyway,  so 
that  poor  Martius  is  a  little  embarrassed.  Meanwhile 
he  is  pressed  down  with  his  duties  as  professor,  direc- 
tor of  the  Botanic  Garden,  etc.,  for  which  he  is  most 
miserably  paid. 

The  Botanic  Garden  is  better  arranged  than  any 
other  I  have  seen  on  the  Continent,  except  at  Paris, 
and  I  have  secured  a  copy  of  the  plan.  But  I  must 
break  off  with  Munich.  —  Arrived  at  Lindau,  on  Lake 
of  Constance,  yesterday ;  a  fine  lake,  but  too  large  to 
show  well ;  the  shores  only  at  the  eastern  end  moun- 
tainous ;  the  rest  ordinary,  and  in  high  cultivation, 
dotted  with  thriving  villages ;  took  a  steamboat  after 
dinner  for  Constance.  .  .  . 

ON  THE  RIGI,  25th  June. 

I  must  resume  the  thread  of  my  narrative  where  I 
left  it,  at  my  entrance  to  Zurich.  I  did  nothing  that 
evening  but  look  about  the  town,  visit  the  old  church 

JET.  28.]  JOURNAL.  241 

where  Zwingli,  the  earliest  Swiss  reformer,  preached. 
The  prettiest  view  is  from  the  new  stone  bridge  which 
is  thrown  across  the  Limmat  just  where  it  emerges 
from  the  lake.  The  stream,  like  all  those  that  proceed 
from  these  lakes,  is  full,  and  clear  almost  as  glass,  of 
a  fine  blue  tint ;  it  rushes  with  great  rapidity,  but  is 
still  and  even.  The  view  extends  up  the  lake  to  its 
middle,  where  a  slight  change  in  its  direction  inter- 
cepts further  view  ;  beyond  rise  some  low  mountains  ; 
a  little  farther  a  higher  range  overtops  these,  and  these 
are  again  overlooked  by  the  Alps  of  Glarus,  Schwyz, 
etc.,  with  thin  tall  peaks  and  brilliant  glaciers.  The 
shores  of  the  lake  are  highly  cultivated  and  thickly 
covered  with  little  manufacturing  villages.  This  is  a 
Protestant  canton.  I  attended  church  and  heard  a 
preacher  who  seemed  to  be  very  earnest,  but  as  his 
language  was  an  unknown  tongue,  there  was  little 
chance  of  my  being  edified,  and  I  spent  the  remainder 
of  the  day  at  my  room.  The  new  hotel  here  is  ex- 
tremely good.  Early  yesterday  morning  I  prepared 
myself  for  a  pedestrian  excursion  over  the  finest  moun- 
tain regions  of  Switzerland,  which  will  take  me  about 
ten  days,  if  I  do  not  get  tired  of  it  and  give  it  up. 
Not  that  I  intend  to  walk  all  the  way,  which  would  be 
a  great  loss  of  time,  but  to  avail  myself  of  steamboats, 
etc.,  along  lakes,  and  a  diligence  when  I  am  on  routes 
which  they  traverse,  knowing  full  well  that  there  will 
remain  many  weary  and  difficult  miles  that  can  only 
be  passed  by  the  pedestrian.  So  I  have  packed  up  my 
trunk  and  sent  it  on  to  Geneva,  at  the  opposite  corner 
of  Switzerland.  The  garcon  of  the  hotel  purchased  a 
knapsack  for  me.  .  .  .  Thus  equipped,  my  knapsack 
on  my  back,  the  Guide  to  Switzerland  in  one  pocket, 
and  Keller's  excellent  map  in  the  other,  I  set  out  on 

242  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

my  travels  in  search  of  the  sublime.  At  nine  o'clock 
yesterday  morning  I  left  Zurich ;  took  the  steamboat 
down  the  lake  as  far  as  Horgen,  some  eight  or  ten 
miles,  where  I  took  a  little  lunch,  and  crossed  the 
bridge  into  the  little  canton  of  Zug,  —  Catholic,  as 
one  soon  finds  out,  by  the  crosses  and  beggars  which 
abound  by  the  wayside.  Here  the  lofty  Mont  Pilate, 
with  its  sharp  peaks,  was  in  sight ;  it  lies  on  the  other 
side  of  Lake  Lucerne.  Soon  after  I  saw  the  Lake  of 
Zug,  and  soon  after  one  o'clock  I  reached  Zug,  on  the 
borders  of  the  lake  of  the  same  name,  the  capital  of 
the  canton,  a  retired  and  lifeless  village.  I  entered 
the  best  hotel  well  heated  with  my  walk,  which  now 
amounted  to  about  twelve  miles.  I  obtained  a  plain 
but  very  good  dinner  of  soup,  the  everlasting  corned 
beef,  fish,  roast,  and  strawberries  and  cherries  ad  libi- 
tum ;  chatted  French  with  the  voluble  kellnerinn  (the 
demoiselle  of  the  inn)  ;  paid  my  bill  of  two  francs,  and 
was  again  on  my  way.  It  was  very  warm,  so  I  walked 
quite  leisurely  down  the  shore  of  the  lake ;  the  scenery 
growing  every  moment  more  picturesque,  the  Rigi 
rising  at  its  foot  on  one  side,  bold  and  abrupt,  the 
Eossberg  on  the  other.  (A  sad  tale  belongs  to  this 
last,  of  which  I  had  often  read.)  I  reached  Arth,  the 
little  village  at  the  foot  of  the  lake  and  of  these  two 
mountains,  at  half  past  four  (seven  miles)  ;  took  more 
strawberries  and  milk,  and  at  five  o'clock  commenced 
the  ascent  of  the  Rigi  by  the  shortest  but  most  dim- 
cult  footpath.  The  landlord  told  me  the  ascent  took 
four  hours  and  a  half.  This,  indeed,  I  accomplished, 
but  found  it  a  hard  task.  But  the  desire  of  witness- 
ing the  sunset  from  the  top  induced  me  to  do  my 
best.  I  had  plenty  of  offers  to  relieve  me  of  my  knap- 
sack, and  at  length,  as  I  left  the  village,  transferred 

*:T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  243 

it  to  the  shoulders  of  a  stout  fellow,  for  it  began  to 
grow  weighty.  The  poor  fellow  I  think  earned  the 
ten  batz  he  demanded  (about  thirty  cents),  though  he 
did  not  seem  to  mind  it  much.  The  first  third  of  the 
ascent  the  path  is  formed  of  steps  like  a  staircase,  and 
is  very  fatiguing.  After  we  meet  the  road  for  mules 
or  horses,  which  ascends  from  Goldau,  it  is  not  so  dif- 
ficult. Both  in  the  ascent  and  from  the  summit,  I  had 
a  full  view  of  the  vestiges  of  the  awful  landslip  of  the 
Rossberg ;  the  vacant  space  of  the  mountain  occupied 
by  the  portion  that  fell  and  the  scarred  surface  of  the 
path  are  most  distinctly  in  view,  and  at  the  bottom  of 
the  valley  lies  the  huge  and  unsightly  and  confused 
mass  of  rubbish  which  overwhelmed  and  buried  the 
three  villages  of  Goldau,  Bussingen,  and  Rothen. 
This  catastrophe  took  place  in  September,  1806. 
Several  hundred  houses  and  other  buildings  were  de- 
stroyed; cattle  in  great  number,  and  four  hundred 
and  fifty  human  beings  perished.  .  .  . 

But  time  is  becoming  precious,  and  I  must  tell  you 
in  a  few  words  of  the  view  from  the  summit  of  the  Rigi, 
though  description  is  wholly  out  of  the  question.  The 
view  from  the  Kulm,  or  peak,  owes  its  great  beauty 
and  extent,  not  so  much  to  the  height  of  the  mountain, 
which  is  only  5676  feet,  as  to  its  isolation,  giving  a 
clear  view  in  every  direction.  It  is  also  easy  of  access ; 
ladies  and  persons  who  do  not  care  to  walk  can  ride 
up  on  horses  or  mules,  by  either  side  of  the  mountain. 
So  there  are  great  crowds  here  all  the  summer.  .  .  . 

I  was  called  in  the  morning  at  half  past  three  to  as- 
cend the  peak  and  watch  the  effect  of  sunrise  upon  the 
Alps  and  valleys.  The  morning  proved  quite  favor- 
able, though  a  little  cloudy.  The  mountains,  lakes,  and 
valleys  were  all  distinct,  but  looked  cold.  At  length 

244  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

a  blast  from  a  wooden  trumpet  (a  better  instrument 
than  you  would  think)  announced  sunrise,  and  the  sun 
appeared  between  two  strips  of  cloud,  lighting-  up  first 
the  distant  and  high  peaks  and  glaciers  of  the  Bernese 
Alps,  the  Jungfrau,  the  Finster-Aarhorn,  the  Titlis, 
highest  of  all,  —  the  white  glaciers  shining  like  bur- 
nished silver.  Soon  the  serrated  ridge  of  the  gloomy 
Pilatus  is  lighted  up ;  the  dark  valleys  become  more 
distinct ;  the  lakes  look  brighter,  and  the  broad  valley 
toward  the  north  stretches  before  you  like  a  map,  far 
as  the  eye  can  reach,  covered  with  hamlets  and  vil- 
lages, and  diversified  here  and  there  with  beautiful 
lakes.  .  .  . 

Stanz,  25th  June.  ...  I  intended  to  leave  the 
Rigi  by  way  of  Waggis  on  Lake  Lucerne;  to  take 
there  the  steamboat  as  it  passed  at  two  o'clock,  and 
go  up  the  farther  part  of  the  lake,  the  Bay  of  Uri, 
and  finding,  if  possible,  the  mail-courier  at  Fluellen, 
to  go  with  him  to  the  summit  of  the  pass  of  St.  Gott- 
hard,  return  as  far  as  Hospital,  and  cross  by  the  pass 
of  the  Furca  and  the  Grimsel  to  Grindelwald,  etc.  If 
you  had  Keller's  fine  map  before  you,  it  would  be  easy 
to  trace  this  route,  and  to  find  out  also  where  I  now 
am.  Without  it  you  will  not  do  it  so  easily.  So 
having  plenty  of  time,  I  stayed  on  the  Rigi  until 
noon,  and  then  descended  leisurely,  having  grown  wise 
by  experience,  and  knowing  that  the  descent  of  a  steep 
mountain  is  much  worse  for  the  legs  and  feet  than  the 
ascent.  Besides,  a  little  storm  arose,  and  I  took  shel- 
ter under  an  overhanging  rock,  and  amused  myself  in 
watching  its  progress  down  the  lake,  and  in  hearing 
the  deep  and  prolonged  echoes  of  the  thunder  as  it  was 
reverberated  from  peak  to  peak  among  the  Alps.  It 
was  a  scene  to  be  remembered.  And  then  the  numer- 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  245 

ous  ever-changing  aspects  of  the  mountains  and  lake 
as  it  cleared  up !  Saw  the  steamboat  at  a  distance, 
and  hastened  to  the  foot  of  the  mountain,  when  it 
soon  became  evident  enough  that  the  boat  did  not  in- 
tend to  touch  there ;  so  we  took  a  boat  and  went  out 
to  meet  it.  But  although  we  drew  very  near  them  as 
they  passed,  they  did  not  choose  to  take  the  slightest 
notice  of  us,  and  I  was  obliged,  in  the  middle  of  the 
lake,  to  consider  what  should  be  done  in  such  a  pre- 
dicament. I  had  no  intention  of  awaiting  the  return 
of  the  steamboat  and  going  with  her  to  Lucerne, 
thence  to  begin  the  route  to-morrow ;  and  for  a  few 
moments  I  was  a  little  bothered.  But  fortunately  a 
pedestrian  like  me  is  not  at  the  mercy  of  steamboats 
and  stagecoaches ;  and  the  high  satisfaction  one  feels 
at  his  comparative  independence  is  one  of  the  great 
pleasures  of  this  mode  of  locomotion,  and  goes  far  to 
compensate  for  the  fatigue.  I  reflected  that  I  might 
not  find  the  courier  at  Fluellen,  and  in  that  case  should 
have  a  prodigious  journey,  and  moreover  that  I  had 
clearly  saved  the  money  I  should  have  paid.  So, 
learning  on  hasty  inquiry  that  a  blind  mountain  path 
led  from  the  opposite  shore  into  the  canton  of  Unter- 
walden  to  Staiiz,  etc.,  —  from  whence  I  knew  I  could 
reach  the  Grimsel,  and  if  I  chose  St.  Gotthard,  and 
that  it  was  the  nearest  way  to  the  Grindelwald  and 
all  the  finest  part  of  Switzerland,  —  I  ordered  the 
boat  to  take  me  to  that  shore,  where  I  was  accordingly 
left  to  shift  for  myself  as  well  as  I  could.  But  then 
came  on  one  of  the  ills  that  flesh  is  heir  to,  most  espe- 
cially in  traveling,  —  I  wanted  my  dinner  !  I  stopped 
at  a  cottage,  the  only  one  in  the  vicinity,  but  found 
no  one  but  a  little  girl,  who  stared  at  me  as  if  she  had 
never  seen  a  civilized  being  ;  saw  no  chance  of  getting 

246  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

anything  to  eat,  so  I  climbed  the  mountain,  very 
steep,  and  almost  without  a  path ;  it  evidently  had  not 
been  crossed  before,  this  season.  From  the  top  I  saw 
the  bay  and  village  of  Buochs,  and  in  the  distance, 
Stanz,  which  I  reached  at  six  o'clock ;  found  an  inn 
which  within  was  more  comfortable  than  its  exterior 
promised.  I  think  I  never  enjoyed  anything  more  than 
the  piece  of  cold  roast  veal  and  coarse  bread,  and  the 
plentiful  dish  of  strawberries  with  excellent  cream  that 
followed.  Now  that  I  had  got  out  of  the  ordinary  route 
of  travelers,  I  determined  to  visit  the  valley  of  Engel- 
berg.  I  asked  the  landlord  for  a  char-a-banc  (as  there 
is  a  good  enough  road  for  this  vehicle)  or  a  horse,  to 
go  this  evening,  but  mine  host  seemed  to  have  made 
up  his  mind  that  I  should  stay  with  him  all  night,  and 
insisted  that  there  would  not  be  time  for  Engelberg. 
So  not  to  disappoint  him,  I  made  up  my  mind  to  rest 
for  the  night,  and  sallied  out  to  look  at  the  village.  .  .  . 

METRINGEN,  26th  June. 

I  have  accomplished  a  journey  to-day,  such  as  I 
think  few  pedestrians  have  ever  surpassed,  consider- 
ing the  difficulties  of  a  great  part  of  the  way,  —  from 
Stanz  to  Engelberg,  thirteen  miles,  then  over  a  tre- 
mendous mountain,  the  Joch,  6890  feet  high,  among 
the  snows  and  near  the  glaciers  of  the  Titlis  and  the 
Wenden stock,  and  then  by  a  long  path,  through  the 
most  sublime  mountain  gorge  and  valley  of  Engstlen, 
to  Meyringen.  The  distance  from  Engelberg  is  reck- 
oned at  nine  hours  (they  always  reckon  by  hours 
here),  which  on  ordinary  routes  would  be  thirty  miles. 
I  do  not  know  how  far  it  really  is.  I  accomplished  it 
between  half  past  eleven  A.  M.  and  half  past  seven  p.  M., 
and  am  fatigued  past  all  conception,  completely  done 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  247 

over,  and  my  feet  apparently   spoiled.      To-morrow, 
perhaps,  I  will  tell  you  something  about  it. 

GRINDELWALD,  Thursday,  half  past  five,  27th  June. 
I  take  the  first  leisure  hour  to  resume  my  account. 
I  find  that  I  must  have  walked  about  thirty-four  miles 
yesterday,  making  due  allowance  for  the  windings  of 
the  path.  I  commenced  at  five  o'clock,  reached  En- 
gelberg  at  nine,  where  I  rested  till  half  past  eleven, 
and  reached  Meyringen,  as  I  said  before,  at  half  past 
seven.  The  journey  from  Stanz  is  through  a  narrow 
but  fertile  valley  inclosed  by  high  and  picturesque 
mountains  for  about  seven  miles,  when  the  valley  con- 
tracts, the  mountains  on  each  side  rise  to  a  great  height 
into  sharp  and  bare  peaks,  leaving  barely  room  for 
the  Aa  to  descend  between.  It  forms,  I  may  say,  one 
continual  cataract  from  Engelberg  to  this  point.  Be- 
fore this  pass  is  reached  I  had  gone  by  some  other 
mountains  which  were  very  remarkable ;  among  them 
the  Brisenstock,  a  ridge  of  rock  like  the  upturned 
edge  of  a  hatchet,  some  6,000  feet  high,  and  throw- 
ing up  from  one  extremity  a  column  of  rock  like  a 
vast  obelisk.  The  road,  which  is  carried  at  consid- 
erable elevation  along  one  side  of  this  narrow  valley, 
is  not  difficult,  and  exhibits  the  whole  way  the  most 
sublime  scenery.  The  Wallenstock  rises  on  one  side 
to  the  height  of  above  8,000  feet ;  and  those  on  the 
other  side  are  not  less  lofty.  Presently  the  shining 
summit  of  the  Titlis  rises  before  you,  surrounded  by 
others  scarcely  less  elevated.  The  Titlis  is  the  highest 
of  the  Unterwalden  Alps,  10,710  feet.  You  then  ar- 
rive at  a  place  where  the  Aa  forms  a  series  of  cataracts 
in  the  bottom  of  the  gorge,  nearly  a  thousand  feet 
below  you  ;  the  opposite  mountain  exhibits  an  almost 

248  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

perpendicular  wall  of  rock,  nearly  6,000  feet  high,  and 
a  little  cataract  formed  by  the  melting  snow  above 
falls  from  the  top  to  the  bottom.  Soon  I  entered  the 
little  valley  of  Engelberg,  the  most  beautiful  and  pic- 
turesque I  have  seen,  probably  the  finest  in  Switzer- 
land ;  at  least  that  of  Meyringen  and  this  of  Grindel- 
wald,  where  I  am  now  writing,  are  not  to  be  compared 
with  it.  I  only  wonder  it  is  so  little  known.  I  think 
it  not  improbable  that  I  am  the  first  American  that 
has  visited  it.  It  is  far  out  of  the  ordinary  routes, 
and  though  easily  accessible  with  chars  from  Stanz, 
yet  the  three  passes  that  lead  out  of  it  are  excessively 
difficult  footpaths.  It  is  a  green,  sunshiny  valley, 
having  perhaps  eighty  acres  of  plain,  but  very  rich 
pastures  rise  up  the  mountain-sides  to  some  distance  ; 
it  is  entirely  shut  in  by  the  high  mountains  that  rise 
on  every  side ;  the  Titlis  rising  abruptly  on  the  south 
within  a  few  yards  of  the  village,  and  sending  down 
its  avalanches  in  the  spring  close  to  the  houses.  But 
the  glaciers  are  so  situated  as  to  send  their  summer 
avalanches  in  the  other  direction,  so  that  the  hamlet 
is  not  in  danger;  the  other  mountains  toward  the 
south  have  the  glaciers  on  their  summits,  but  the 
peaks  on  the  other  sides  present  naked  precipices. 
The  Engelberg,  from  which  the  hamlet  is  named 
(angel-mountain)  is  a  lofty  mountain  shaped  like  a 
slender  cone,  with  the  apex  cut  off  obliquely.  It  rises 
almost  within  the  valley,  and  presents  a  very  curious 
appearance.  The  large  convent  stands  just  between 
the  base  of  this  mountain  and  the  Titlis.  Attached 
to  it  is  a  very  large  and  fine  church  for  such  an  out- 
of-the-world  place.  I  stopped  at  the  simple  auberge 
of  the  Engel  (angel)  ;  mine  host  could  only  speak 
o-'  understand  German  and  Italian,  so  that  our  com- 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  249 

munication  took  place  mostly  by  signs  and  single 
words,  I  giving  him  the  German  names  as  far  as  I 
could  of  what  I  wished.  I  got  a  very  comfortable 
lunch  of  cold  roast  meat ;  but  I  wanted  some  straw- 
berries, and  could  not  think  of  the  German  name,  and 
had  considerable  difficulty.  At  length  he  seemed 
dubiously  to  comprehend  what  I  wanted  ;  he  went 
out,  and  returned  in  a  few  moments  with  a  fine  dish 
of  the  article  in  question.  Excellent  cream  is  as  com- 
mon as  need  be ;  so  I  had  a  fine  feast.  I  found  that 
I  was  the  first  visitor  here  this  season.  I  amused  my- 
self with  looking  over  the  travelers'  book  (which  you 
always  find)  and  reading  the  remarks  of  former  visit- 
ors. An  Englishman  the  summer  before  had  ascended 
the  highest  peak  of  the  Titlis.  I  afterwards  saw  that 
this  could  readily  be  done,  as  my  route  led  me  close 
to  the  top  of  the  main  body  of  the  mountain. 

To  get  into  the  valley  of  the  Aar  it  was  necessary 
to  cross  the  Joch,  a  mountain  connected  with  the 
Titlis,  and  almost  as  high.  The  pass  between  the  two 
mountains  is  almost  7,000  feet  at  the  summit,  is  cov- 
ered with  snow,  and  is  in  immediate  proximity  with 
the  glaciers  of  the  Titlis.  The  ascent  is  exceedingly 
difficult ;  indeed,  from  all  I  can  learn,  it  is  much  more 
difficult  than  any  of  the  passes  at  all  frequented  by 
travelers.  I  took  a  guide  to  the  summit  and  some 
distance  beyond,  as  a  stranger  could  never  have  found 
the  way.  My  guide  was  an  old  man  of  sixty  years. 
From  a  high  ridge  near  the  summit,  which  belonged 
rather  to  the  Titlis,  I  had  a  magnificent  view  of  the 
mountains  to  the  north  and  the  valley  I  had  passed 
through,  and  on  the  other  side,  close  to  us,  of  a  vast 
glacier  ;  the  streams  emerging  from  it  formed  a  small 
river,  which  we  had  some  difficulty  in  crossing,  and 

250  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

which  emptied  into  a  dark  alpine  lake  just  below. 
Here  I  gathered  a  few  alpine  plants,  as  souvenirs  of  the 
place.  Another  weary  climb  over  the  snow  brought  us 
to  the  top  of  the  Joch,  and  here,  where  shelter  was  im- 
possible, we  were  exposed  to  a  shower,  but  our  umbrel- 
las protected  us  in  part,  and  the  view  repaid  for  a  little 
wetting.  Descending  a  little,  my  guide  showed  me  a 
lake  almost  surrounded  with  snow,  fed  by  the  glaciers  ; 
the  outlet,  the  source  of  one  branch  of  the  Aar,  was  the 
stream  which  flowed  down  the  valley  I  was  to  descend 
to  Meyringen  ;  the  knapsack  was  again  transferred  to 
my  shoulders  and  I  was  left  to  myself.  As  I  entered 
the  valley  of  Engstlen  the  scenery  grew  wonderfully 
fine.  Tired  as  I  was  I  enjoyed  the  whole  journey  ex- 
tremely, though  it  took  me  four  hours  and  a  half  of 
continual  descent ;  yet  I  look  back  upon  it  with  delight. 
The  main  stream  formed  a  succession  of  beautiful 
cascades ;  the  mountains  on  each  side  very  high, 
and  mostly  perpendicidar  faces  of  rock,  and  down 
these  a  great  multitude  of  cascades  of  all  sizes  fell, 
some  of  them  springing  500  feet  at  a  leap ;  others, 
falling  from  much  greater  height  over  the  rocks, 
looked  like  long  skeins  of  yarn,  if  you  will  pardon  the 
simile,  dangling  in  the  air.  It  must  be  much  like  the 
valley  of  the  Lauterbrunnen,  according  to  the  descrip- 
tion ;  but  I  think  the  latter  cannot  excel  it.  I  hope 
to  know  to-morrow.  A  shower  drove  me  into  a  miser- 
able chalet,  the  highest  one  inhabited  at  this  season, 
where  I  found  a  young  man,  who  dwelt  there  for  the 
summer,  with  his  herd  of  goats,  and  his  brother,  a 
young  lad  of  fifteen,  who  had  come  up  from  Mey- 
ringen to  bring  him  some  food,  etc.,  and  was  just 
about  to  return.  I  drank  about  a  quart  of  milk  fresh 
from  the  goat,  and  found  it  excellent.  When  it 

X.T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  251 

stopped  raining  the  youngster  and  I  started  together ; 
I  transferred  my  knapsack  to  his  shoulders,  and  a 
franc  and  a  half  to  his  pocket,  to  the  great  satisfaction 
of  both  parties.  He  proved  a  very  useful  little  fellow, 
though  I  could  not  understand  much  of  what  he  said  ; 
he  showed  me  some  waterfalls  and  curious  things  that 
I  should  otherwise  have  missed.  With  the  true  spirit 
of  his  nation,  ever  ready  to  improve  an  opportunity, 
he  told  me  he  had  a  brother  who  spoke  French,  who 
would  be  my  guide  for  the  next  day.  It  rained  most  of 
the  way,  but  I  was  compensated  for  the  partial  wetting 
by  the  views  of  the  most  beautiful  waterfalls,  which 
fell  into  the  valley  in  great  profusion  from  the  high 
precipices  on  each  side.  I  could  sometimes  see  twenty 
at  one  view.  After  a  long  and  weary  descent  we  came 
at  last  near  the  bottom,  where  this  valley,  and  two 
others  almost  at  the  same  point,  fell  into  the  main 
valley  of  the  Aar,  and  I  could  look  at  the  same 
moment  up  four  deep  and  wild  mountain  valleys. 
Then  skirting  along  the  side  of  the  mountain,  we  soon 
descended  to  Meyringen,  deep  in  the  main  valley  of 
the  Aar,  with  two  fine  cascades  behind  it,  and  another 
very  fine  one,  the  cascade  of  the  Reichenbach,  on 
the  opposite  side  of  the  valley.  Glad  enough  was 
I  when  we  reached  the  door  of  the  humble  auberge, 
and  great  was  the  havoc  I  made  with  the  eatables 
which  the  kind  landlady  provided  in  abundance  and 
of  excellent  quality.  I  sat  down  on  a  sofa  in  my 
chamber  to  read  a  little,  but  fell  asleep  instantly  ; 
slept  until  eleven,  then  took  my  bed  and  slept  until 
half  past  seven  in  the  morning. 

I  can  say,  with  Sancho  Panza,  "  Blest  be  the  man 
who  first  invented  sleep."  In  the  evening,  what  with 
my  great  fatigue  and  blistered  feet,  I  supposed  I 

252  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

should  be  scarcely  able  to  move  the  next  day,  and  that 
traveling  on  foot  would  be  impossible.  But  I  awoke 
perfectly  restored,  my  limbs  supple  and  my  feet  much 
better  than  I  had  anticipated ;  my  guide  made  his  ap- 
pearance while  I  was  at  breakfast ;  said  that  it  would 
take  three  days  to  make  the  excursion  over  the  Great 
Scheideck  to  Grindelwald,  then  over  the  Lesser  to  the 
Wengern  Alp,  to  Lauterbrunnen,  and  back  to  Mey- 
ringen  by  Interlaken  and  the  Lake  of  Brienz.  I  insisted 
that  it  should  be  done  in  two,  with  the  aid  of  a  char 
from  Brienz,  at  the  end  of  the  second  day.  Leaving 
my  knapsack  here,  and  taking  a  few  things  in  our 
pockets,  we  set  out  at  half  past  nine  ;  stopped  on  our 
way  to  see  the  falls  of  the  Reichenbach,  where  the 
stream  of  the  valley  we  were  climbing  makes  the  de- 
scent of  2,000  feet  in  a  succession  of  leaps ;  the  longest 
forms  the  celebrated  falls,  —  very  fine.  Farther  above 
numerous  waterfalls  are  seen  dangling  from  the  per- 
pendicular sides  of  the  narrow  valley  ;  one,  remarkably 
high  and  slender,  is  called  the  Seilbach  (rope-fall). 
Ascended  through  beautiful  mountain  pastures,  dotted 
with  chalets  5  the  peak  of  the  Wetterhorn  in  full  view 
directly  before  us,  a  sharp  pyramid,  one  side  dark 
rock,  the  other  pure  white  snow.  The  body  of  the 
mountain  was  still  hidden  by  the  Wellborn,  the  first  of 
the  chain  of  high  Bernese  Alps  we  were  approaching 
(9,500  feet) ;  then  the  Engelhorner  (angel' s-peaks) 
and  high  up  between  these,  we  had  a  fine  distant  view 
of  the  most  beautiful  glacier  in  Switzerland,  the  Ro- 
senlaui,  celebrated  above  all  others  for  the  purity  of 
its  untarnished  white  surface,  and  the  clear  azure  of 
its  depths  and  caverns.  Stopped  at  a  little  inn,  which 
is  occupied  only  through  the  summer  ;  got  an  excel- 
lent little  dinner  at  half  past  eleven,  charges  moder- 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  253 

ate  ;  visited  another  waterfall,  and  then  walked  half 
an  hour  out  of  our  way  to  the  foot  of  the  Rosenlaui 
glacier,  which  descends  to  only  4,200  feet  above  the 
level  of  the  sea ;  found  a  party  there,  two  gentlemen 
and  lady,  the  latter  carried  in  a  chair ;  admired  the 
pure  white  surface,  entered  a  little  way  into  one  of  the 
crevices,  looked  down  into  the  deep  azure  chasms ; 
returning,  viewed  the  awful  gorge  through  which  the 
stream  from  the  glaciers  makes  its  way,  at  least  500 
feet  deep,  and  only  four  or  five  feet  wide,  the  water 
rushing  and  boiling  and  roaring  in  the  bottom  like 
mad.  Threw  down  a  big  stone,  and  heard  it  crashing 
against  the  sides  and  shattered  to  atoms.  Continued 
up  the  Scheideck,  close  along  the  broad  and  vast  per- 
pendicular side  of  the  Wetterhorn ;  finally  reached 
the  summit  of  the  pass  (6,040  feet),  and  enjoyed  the 
magnificent  view  of  the  mountains  down  the  valley  of 
the  Grindelwald.  The  Wetterhorn  (peak  of  tem- 
pests) rises,  one  vast  precipice  of  alpine  limestone,  its 
base  extending  from  Grindelwald  on  the  one  side 
almost  to  Rosenlaui  on  the  other,  and  so  near  us  that 
it  seemed  easy  for  a  strong  man  to  throw  a  stone 
against  it,  though  it  is  really  more  than  a  mile  off ; 
its  summit  is  11,450  feet  above  the  sea ;  this  precipice 
consequently  forms  a  wall  about  6,000  feet  in  height. 
Next  to  this  is  the  Mettenberg  (perhaps  10,000 
feet)  ;  and  next,  the  great  Eiger  (giant,  12,220 
feet),  presenting  its  long  thin  edge,  like  the  blade  of  a 
hatchet  turned  up  into  the  air ;  while  back  of  the 
Mettenberg  appears  the  pointed  cone  of  the  Schreck- 
horn  (the  peak  of  terror,  12,500  feet).  The  vast 
space  between  these  peaks  is  filled  by  an  immense 
glacier,  here  and  there  interrupted,  which  under  vari- 
ous names  extends  from  Rosenlaui  and  Grindelwald 

254  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

almost  to  the  Grimsel,  and  to  Brieg  in  the  Valais. 
The  increasing  supply  of  ice  and  the  refrigeration  of 
such  an  immense  quantity  forces  branches  down  the 
valleys  far  below  the  level  of  perpetual  snow,  particu- 
larly these  at  Grindelwald,  the  lowest  known ;  the 
base  of  the  lowermost  being  little  more  than  3,000 
feet  above  sea-level.  I  descended  rapidly,  looked 
down  upon  the  two  glaciers  just  mentioned,  reached 
the  little  hamlet  of  Grindelwald  in  the  bottom  of  the 
valley,  close  at  the  feet  of  these  vast  mountains,  and  a 
little  above  the  foot  of  the  lower  glacier,  which  is  so 
close  that  it  seems  almost  possible  to  throw  a  stone  to 
it ;  but  I  believe  it  is  a  mile  off  ;  reached  here  at  five 
o'clock  (twenty-one  miles),  having  walked  very  deli- 
berately. It  is  now  just  at  sunset ;  the  day  has  been 
warm ;  but  now  it  is  very  cold,  and  I  am  shivering 
too  much  to  hold  my  pen  ;  besides,  it  is  time  for  sup- 
per, and  I  want  another  view  of  the  mountains. 
Adieu.  .  .  . 

Villeneuve,  4th  July,  1839.  .  .  .  Being  unexpectedly 
detained  here  for  a  few  hours,  almost  at  the  close  of 
my  Swiss  pilgrimage,  I  resume  my  pen,  which  I  have 
had  no  time  to  use  for  some  time  past,  and  must 
bring  up  my  journal  in  a  hurried  way  to  the  present. 
Since  I  broke  off  I  have  seen  more  than  half  the  won- 
ders of  Switzerland.  I  can  only  now  tell  you  where  I 
have  been  from  day  to  day  ;  but  I  shall  have  much  to 
give  you  viva  voce  some  of  the  evenings  of  the  rapidly 
approaching  autumn.  Stayed  at  Grindelwald  Thurs- 
day night  (a  week  ago)  ;  watched  the  clouds  striking 
against  the  Wetterhorn  and  the  Eiger  and  rolling 
down  its  sides ;  terribly  cold.  Friday,  28th,  rose  at 
four  ;  started  at  five,  in  fine  walking  trim,  after  pay- 
ing an  exorbitant  bill  for  very  indifferent  fare  :  was 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  255 

very  confident  that  the  guide  paid  nothing,  and  there- 
fore suspected  a  connivance  between  him  and  the 
aubergiste  to  put  all  on  my  shoulders,  —  one  of  the 
evils  of  a  guide  ;  they  are  worse  than  useless  on  all  the 
usual  routes,  indeed  anywhere,  except  in  ascending 
very  high  mountains  and  crossing  glaciers  ;  felt  a 
little  inclined  to  punish  my  guide,  and  therefore  set 
off  at  a  swinging  pace  and  took  him  up  the  Little 
Scheideck  much  more  rapidly  than  he  ever  went  be- 
fore. I  buttoned  up  my  coat  and  pretended  not  to  be 
making  any  effort  at  all,  while  the  poor  fellow  stripped 
off  first  his  coat,  then  his  waistcoat,  the  perspira- 
tion 'running  off  his  face  ;  until  finally  he  pronounced 
it  impossible  to  keep  near  me,  and  lagged  far  behind. 
At  length  I  took  pity  on  him  and  walked  slower,  but 
we  crossed  the  Scheideck  and  reached  the  Wengern 
Alp,  a  journey  of  four  hours  and  a  half,  in  a  little  less 
than  three.  .  .  . 

From  the  crest  of  the  Little  Scheideck  (6,300  feet) 
I  got  my  first  near  view  of  the  remainder  of  the  high 
Bernese  Alps,  —  the  Monch  (12,660  feet),  the  Jung- 
frau  (12,670  feet)  (I  have  been  giving  you  the  height 
all  along  in  French  feet,  as  they  are  put  down  in  Kel- 
ler ;  in  English  feet  the  numbers  will  be  considerably 
higher),  with  the  two  white  peaks,  the  Silberhorner 
(silver-peaks),  which  belong  to  it. 

Still  beyond,  though  not  quite  so  lofty,  were  the 
Grosshorn,  the  Breithorn,  etc.  The  point  where  I 
stood  commanded  nearly  the  whole  view,  from  the 
Engelhorner,  Wetterhorn,  a  glimpse  of  the  Schreck- 
horn,  the  Mettenberg,  Eiger,  Monch,  and  Jungfrau, 
as  I  stood  just  in  the  mid-distance;  an  unsurpassed 
view  it  is.  As  I  descended  the  other  side  to  the  Wen- 
gern Alp  I  lost  those  more  to  the  east,  but  came  still 
nearer  to  the  Jungfrau.  .  .  '. 

256  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

At  the  Jungfrau  hotel,  a  mere  chalet  on  the  side 
of  the  Wengern  Alp,  we  were  close  under  that  mag- 
nificent mountain,  separated  only  by  a  narrow  gorge, 
and  elevated  just  enough  to  have  the  most  perfect 
view  from  base  to  summit.  We  had  heard  the  day 
previous  the  crash  and  roar  of  falling  avalanches  on 
the  other  side  of  the  Wetterhorn,  and  I  was  very 
anxious  to  see  one;  before  long  I  saw  two,  one  of 
them  a  pretty  good  one,  come  tumbling  and  roaring 
down  the  Jungfrau.  Soon  a  thick  cloud  came  and 
enveloped  these  mountains,  so  that  I  departed  earlier 
than  I  should  have  done ;  it  threatened  to  rain ;  and 
we  descended  into  the  valley  of  Lauterbrunnen,  which 
is  very  deep  and  narrow,  and  had  on  the  way  a  fine 
view  of  the  valley  and  the  mountains  and  glaciers  that 
close  its  upper  extremity.  Saw  the  celebrated  fall  of 
the  Staubbach,  and  was  disappointed  in  it.  ... 

Walked  rapidly  down  the  valley  of  Lauterbrunnen 
to  the  lake  of  Brienz,  turning  aside  so  as  not  to  pass 
through  Interlaken,  which  is  a  little  British  colony; 
took  a  boat  to  the  opposite  end  of  the  lake  (eight 
miles)  ;  had  a  heavy  shower  and  much  wind  ;  saw  the 
falls  of  Giessbach  from  the  lake,  seven  very  fine  cas- 
cades one  above  the  other.  Landed  at  Brienz ;  took 
a  char  up  to  Meyringen  again,  looking  at  the  beauti- 
ful waterfalls  from  each  side  of  the  valley,  now  very 
full  from  the  rains.  Arrived  at  my  own  lodgings  at 
five  o'clock,  having  accomplished  in  the  twelve  hours 
fifty  miles,  of  which  thirty -two  were  traveled  on 

Saturday,  29th,  rose  in  good  condition,  breakfasted, 
and  parted  with  ray  thoroughly  Swiss  landlady  at  five 
o'clock ;  went  up  the  vale  of  Hassli,  one  of  the  finest 
in  Switzerland,  for  the  Grimsel,  perhaps  the  wildest 

^T.  28.]  JOURNAL.  257 


and  grandest  pass  across  the  Alps.  It  is  a  footpath, 
or  at  best  a  bridle-path.  I  set  out  alone,  with  my 
knapsack  on  my  back.  Ascended  a  considerable  dis- 
tance when  the  clouds  sunk  lower  and  it  began  to  rain, 
though  I  had  the  satisfaction  to  see  down  the  valley 
that  the  sun  was  shining  at  Meyringen.  Passed  the 
last  little  village  (Guttannen),  a  lonely  place  ;  above, 
the  scenery  grew  to  the  very  height  of  gloomy  gran- 
deur :  immense  blackened  granitic  mountains,  clothed 
at  the  base  with  black  stunted  firs,  above  all  naked  tre- 
mendous rocks  and  peaks ;  between,  just  room  enough 
for  the  river  to  tumble  along,  forming  here  and  there 
a  cataract.  The  view  was  heightened  much,  I  doubt 
not,  by  the  clouds  and  storm,  so  entirely  in  character 
with  the  scenery.  I  never  before  enjoyed  a  lonely 
rainy  walk  so  much. 

At  the  height  of  about  4,500  feet,  and  in  the  midst  of 
the  very  wildest  and  most  lonely  scenery,  reached  the 
falls  of  the  Aar  at  Handek,  the  finest  in  Switzerland, 
—  indeed  the  only  sublime  waterfall  here ;  viewed  it 
first  from  below,  then  from  the  rude  bridge  thrown 
across  just  a  few  feet  above  where  it  leaps  into  the 
awful  gorge.  The  scenery  and  all  is  in  character,  and 
for  savage  grandeur  I  have  seen  nothing  to  compare 
with  it.  Stopped  at  the  chalet  near,  the  only  dwelling 
within  some  miles  ;  waited  a  little  for  the  rain  to  sub- 
side, and  finding  that  even  here  a  traveler's  first  wants 
had  been  pretty  well  provided  for,  I  made  an  early  but 
most  excellent  dinner  upon  bread,  butter,  cheese,  and 
honey,  the  last  especially  excellent.  No  signs  of  better 
weather ;  so  started  on,  passing  a  spot  where  falling 
avalanches  every  winter  and  spring  had  swept  over  a 
vast  space  of  rock  and  completely  worn  it  smooth ;  was 
now  above  trees,  with  here  and  there  a  bit  of  scanty 

258  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

vegetation,  but  almost  every  step  to  the  end  was  now 
on  rock  or  snow,  and  I  walked  on  to  the  hospice  near 
the  summit  in  the  midst  of  a  snowstorm,  one  and  a 
half  hours  ;  knowing  it  could  scarcely  accumulate 
sufficiently  to  obstruct  or  obscure  entirely  the  path 
until  I  could  reach  the  place  of  shelter,  I  enjoyed  it 
intensely,  but  had  quite  enough  when,  at  one  o'clock,  I 
reached  the  hospice  (twenty  miles),  near  the  summit 
of  the  pass,  surrounded  with  unmelted  snow,  more 
than  6,000  English  feet  above  the  sea.  It  is  as  com- 
fortable a  place  as  can  be  expected  in  such  a  situation, 
now  kept  as  a  kind  of  inn  during  the  summer,  and  in 
winter  left  in  charge  of  a  single  servant,  with  a  store 
of  provisions  to  last  him  until  spring.  The  winter 
before  last  it  was  crushed  by  an  avalanche,  but  the 
man  and  his  dog  escaped,  and  reached  Meyringen  in 
safety.  It  is  now  repaired ;  the  stone  walls  are  ex- 
tremely thick,  the  roof  protected  against  the  winds,  as 
is  usual  here,  by  laying  huge  stones  upon  it.  Laid 
aside  part  of  my  wet  clothes,  and  lay  down  before  the 
fire  to  dry  the  remainder ;  fell  asleep ;  on  waking  had 
just  begun  to  write,  but  when  I  had  given  the  head- 
ing, in  came  three  more  travelers  :  two  Germans,  whom 
I  had  met  before  at  Grindelwald,  and  a  young  Eng- 
lishman ;  all  thoroughly  wet  with  the  storm,  which 
was  now  more  violent.  We  all  had  to  huddle  about 
the  fire,  so  there  was  an  end  of  writing. 

Awoke  Sunday  morning  and  found  myself  in  mid- 
winter ;  very  cold,  snowing  hard,  and  the  wind  howl- 
ing frightfully  around  our  humble  but  snug  place  of 
refuge.  The  other  travelers  determined  to  prosecute 
their  journey,  spite  of  the  Sabbath  or  the  storm,  and 
to  go  by  way  of  the  glacier  of  the  Rhone,  the  other 
side  of  the  summit  of  the  pass  and  about  four  miles 

2ET.28.]  JOURNAL. 

distant.  They  sallied  out  with  their  guide  and  left 
me  to  myself,  which  was  one  advantage.  But  in  three 
hours  they  returned,  giving  an  alarming  account  of 
the  difficulties  and  dangers  of  the  way.  When  just 
abandoning  the  attempt  they  heard  a  cry  for  help,  and 
succeeded  in  rescuing  another  party  of  three  with  their 
guide,  who  had  lost  their  way  in  the  thick  mist  and 
storm  and  were  wandering  about  in  the  drifts,  suf- 
fering extremely  with  the  cold,  and  who,  as  well  as 
their  guide,  had  given  up  all  hope  of  reaching  the 
hospice  unless  their  cries  should  perchance  be  heard 
and  bring  them  aid.  All  returned  to  the  hospice 
together,  and  no  further  attempts  to  leave  it  were 
made  that  day.  When  left  alone  I  had  the  fire  to 
myself,  and  was  spending  the  time  in  as  profitable  a 
manner  as  possible,  thinking  a  little,  too,  of  the  strange- 
ness of  passing  the  day  in  such  an  elevated  position ; 
so  their  return,  with  an  accession  to  their  company, 
though  very  desirable  for  them,  was  not  so  favorable 
to  me.  And  then  of  all  people  in  the  world  the  Ger- 
mans are  the  noisiest  talkers  ;  Frenchmen  are  nothing 
to  them  ;  the  fire  which  dried  their  clothes  and  warmed 
their  fingers  loosened  their  tongues,  and  they  kept  up 
a  continual  gabble  for  the  greater  part  of  the  day. 
Scarcely  a  winter  passes  that  some  persons  are  not 
lost  in  this  pass  during  such  storms.  A  gloomy  lake 
on  the  summit  of  the  mountain,  into  which  the  bodies 
are  thrown  for  burial,  receives  the  name  of  "  The 
Lake  of  the  Dead  "  (Todten-See). 

Monday  morning,  still  enveloped  in  the  clouds,  but 
the  storm  apparently  over.  Found  it  no  use  trying 
to  make  a  visit  to  the  Rhone  glacier ;  the  clouds  were 
so  thick  we  could  scarcely  hope  to  find  it,  and  the 
recent  snow  so  deep  nothing  could  be  seen.  Was 

260  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

disappointed  also  by  these  same  clouds  in  getting  a 
view  of  the  high  Bernese  Alps,  particularly  Finstei* 
Aarhorn  and  the  glaciers,  from  this  side,  but  deter- 
mined not  to  wait  here  longer ;  so  set  off  at  half 
past  ten  in  company  with  a  native  of  Yalais,  who  was 
traveling  towards  home  and  served  as  guide ;  traveled 
through  deep  snow,  climbed  up  to  the  summit  of  the 
pass,  more  than  a  thousand  feet  higher,  where  at  first 
we  were  so  completely  enveloped  in  the  clouds  that  we 
seemed  actually  to  be  traveling  through  them  and  on 
them  ;  dug  a  specimen  or  two  of  Soldanella  out  of  the 
snow  to  serve  as  souvenirs.  At  length  the  wind  arose 
and  now  and  then  sent  a  hole  in  the  clouds,  to  give 
me  some  glimpses  of  the  desolate  yet  grand  scenery 
through  which  we  were  passing.  Soon  I  got  a  view  of 
the  valley  of  the  Rhone  almost  at  its  commencement, 
with  the  river  flowing  through  like  a  mere  rivulet ; 
looked  down  upon  Oberwald,  the  highest  village  in 
Valais,  a  collection  of  little  chalets  all  huddled  to- 
gether as  if  to  keep  themselves  warm,  —  as  indeed 
they  have  need ;  got  out  of  winter  and  snow  and  into 
the  valley  at  the  little  village  of  Obergesteln,  and 
walked,  on  the  same  day,  through  a  quick  succession 
of  most  retired  little  Swiss  villages  of  the  humblest 
sort,  to  Brieg,  on  the  Simplon  road,  near  the  mountain 
of  that  name,  which  I  reached  at  nine  o'clock  in  the 
evening,  making  a  journey  of  forty  miles,  a  portion 
through  the  snow,  in  ten  hours  and  a  half.  I  would 
like  to  tell  you  much  about  the  upper  Valais,  a  region 
seldom  visited  by  travelers,  but  have  not  time  ;  peo- 
ple kind  and  simple  ;  got  nothing  to  eat  on  the  way 
except  hard  and  dry  brown  bread,  that  may  have  been 
baked  ten  days  ;  passed  the  villages  where  avalanches 
had  fallen  in  former  years  and  crushed  many  people  ; 

XT.  28.]  JOURNAL.  261 

the  scenery  much  more  picturesque  than  I  expected,  but 
was  most  interested  in  the  people  and  their  little  vil- 
lages ;  women  mowing,  reaping,  and  doing  every  sort  of 
the  hardest  labor  ;  all  awfully  afflicted  with  goitre, 
scarce  a  person  wholly  free  from  it ;  actually  saw  one 
woman  with  a  goitre  not  quite  as  large  as  her  own  head 
certainly,  but  about  the  size  of  that  of  the  child  she  held 
in  her  arms,  apparently  a  year  old ;  saw  one  cretin. 
Stopped  a  few  moments  at  the  principal  auberge  in 
the  village  of  Viesch ;  found  the  priest  with  two  of  his 
parishioners  playing  a  game  of  cards  together.  A 
stranger  being  a  curiosity  in  that  region,  one  person 
accosted  me  very  politely,  and  took  me  up  the  valley 
a  little  way  to  see  the  glacier  and  mountains.  Reached 
Brieg  utterly  worn  out,  but  got  a  good  supper  and 
bed ;  this  being  just  where  the  famous  Simplon  road 
commences  the  ascent  of  the  mountains,  there  are 
many  travelers  and  a  good  hotel,  though  dear. 

Rose  Tuesday  morning  at  four  o'clock ;  my  feet 
and  legs  very  stiff  and  sore  ;  thought  of  going  up 
the  Simplon  road  into  the  mountains  to  see  some  of 
the  galleries  and  bridges  and  get  fine  views,  but  the 
morning  was  cloudy  and  I  did  not  like  to  lose  the 
time ;  started  off  down  the  valley,  but  got  on  slowly 
and  very  painfully  ;  however,  walked  as  far  as  Leuk, 
I  believe  about  twenty-four  miles,  and  there  hired  a 
char,  which  took  me  on  to  Sion,  the  capital  of  the 
canton,  about  twenty-two  miles  further,  where  I  slept. 

Wednesday,  rose  at  four,  and  feeling  pretty  stout, 
I  started  off  at  five  on  foot,  and  though  certainly  in 
very  far  from  the  best  condition  for  walking,  went  on 
to  Martigny  to  breakfast,  which  place  I  reached  at  half 
past  ten,  twenty-four  miles  according  to  the  guide- 
book, but  the  latter  part  was  very  painful.  From  this 

262  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

place  one  may  go  to  the  Hospice  of  St.  Bernard  in 
ten  hours.  I  would  have  been  glad  to  have  seen  so 
famous  a  place,  but  as  to  scenery  it  is  decidedly  in- 
ferior to  much  I  had  already  seen.  One  may  go  to 
Chamouni  in  nine  hours,  getting  the  superb  view  of 
Mont  Blanc  from  the  summit  of  Col  de  Balme  on  the 
way.  Thinking  it  impossible  to  walk  farther,  I  hired 
a  mule,  and  a  person  with  him,  and  went  up  to  the  top 
of  Col  de  Balme  (five  hours),  passing  the  vale  and 
glacier  of  Trient.  Reached  the  summit  at  four 
o'clock;  enjoyed  a  fine  view  of  Mont  Blanc  and  its 
attendant  peaks  from  top  to  bottom,  or  rather  at  top 
and  bottom,  for  there  was  a  belt  of  cloud  about  the 
middle,  —  a  most  superb  and  complete  view,  Mer  de 
Glace  and  all. 

Quite  satisfied  without  going  to  Chamouni,  so  re- 
turned to  Martigny  at  eight  P.  M. ;  another  good  day's 
work,  particularly  as  I  walked  both  up  and  down  the 
worst  part  of  the  road,  being  merciful  to  the  beast. 
On  my  descent  obtained  a  splendid  view  of  the  Bern- 
ese Alps.  Much  amused  at  looking  over  the  register 
at  the  hotel,  where  the  travelers  expressed  their  opin- 
ions of  the  different  hotels  on  the  road,  praising  some, 
and  speaking  of  others  in  terms  of  great  reprobation; 
good  plan.  I  think  if  the  proprietor  of  the  hotel  at 
Sion  (a  very  dirty  hotel)  could  read  all  that  is  writ- 
ten in  his  own  book  he  would  burn  it.  ...  Lay  down 
and  slept  till  midnight. 

Thursday,  took  diligence  at  one  o'clock  A.  M.  for 
Villeneuve  ;  saw  the  falls  of  the  Sallanches  by  moon- 
light ;  arrived  at  Villeneuve  at  half  past  seven,  just 
after  the  morning  steamboat  had  left  for  Geneva ; 
am  confident  we  were  delayed  on  purpose,  to  induce 
us  to  go  on  in  the  diligence  instead  of  the  next  boat. 

MT.  28.]  JOURNAL.  263 

For  myself  I  did  not  mind  waiting  till  one  o'clock, 
that  I  might  make  myself  look  a  little  decent,  though 
I  had  not  the  means  here  of  improving  my  appearance 
much ;  as  to  my  boots,  and  indeed  all  my  habiliments, 
they  were  much  in  the  condition  of  those  of  the  Gib- 
eonites  when  they  made  their  visit  to  Joshua.  Wrote 
a  little,  went  out  to  take  a  look  at  the  Castle  of  Chil- 
lon,  which  is  near,  —  the  building  itself  not  remark- 
able, but  the  situation  fine.  .  .  . 

Took  the  steamboat  in  the  afternoon ;  passed  Vevay, 
Lausanne,  etc.,  etc.,  and  after  traversing  the  whole 
length  of  this  much-admired,  most  beautiful  lake,  ar- 
rived at  Geneva  just  at  sunset ;  having  accomplished 
my  pedestrian  tour  (long  to  be  remembered)  in  ten 
days  (excluding  the  Sunday).  .  .  . 

GENEVA,  19th  July. 

My  mornings,  between  eleven  and  four,  have  been 
constantly  and  fully  occupied  at  De  Candolle's. 
Earlier  in  the  morning  I  have  spent  much  time  with 
Mr.  Duby,1  a  botanist  and  clergyman,  —  one  of  the 
government  pastors  here,  and  it  is  said  almost  the 
only  one  who  is  a  pious  man.  I  have  yet  to  pack  up 
a  box  of  my  gatherings  and  to  send  to  the  roulage  to 
be  forwarded  to  New  York.  I  have  taken  lodgings, 
for  my  short  stay  here"  with  the  Wolff  family,  very 
pious  and  excellent  people,  who  are  pretty  well  known 
to  many  persons  of  the  same  class  in  New  York.  One 
of  the  daughters  is  the  wife  of  Dr.  Buck,2  and  I  be- 
lieve your  dear  mother  is  acquainted  with  her.  After 
dinner  I  have  sometimes  made  little  excursions  in  the 

1  Jean  Etienne  Duby,  1797-1885 ;  long  one  of  the  Genevese  clergy 
and  a  botanist  and  colleague  of  Augustin  Pyramus  de  Candolle. 

2  Dr.  Gurdon  Buck. 

264  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.  [1839, 

neighborhood  ;  once  or  twice  I  have  been  accompanied 
by  Madame  Wolff  and  the  two  daughters.  They  are 
very  fond  of  walking,  and  often  make  long  excursions 
on  foot.  The  two  daughters  walk  as  fast  as  I  can, 
and  in  fact  one  of  them  nearly  tired  me  down  the 
other  day,  when  we  were  hurrying  in  order  to  watch 
the  effect  of  the  setting  sun  on  Mont  Blanc.  I  have 
taken  quite  a  fancy  to  this  river,  the  Rhone.  I  made 
my  acquaintance  with  it  when  it  was  but  a  babbling 
brook ;  I  have  trudged  along  with  it  for  many  a  mile, 
until  it  grew  to  a  headstrong  stream,  and  became  so 
turbulent  and  muddy  that  it  was  obliged  to  jump  into 
the  lake  to  wash  itself  clean,  and  when  it  leaves  the 
lake  it  is  as  clear  as  crystal,  —  emerald,  I  should  say, 
for  it  is  about  that  color.  A  few  months  ago  I  saw 
the  same  river  in  its  old  age,  just  falling  into  the 
ocean.  Walked  back  along  the  shore  of  the  lake ; 
reached  the  house  just  in  time  to  join  in  the  evening 
worship,  —  a  sweet  hymn  was  sung  (in  French),  one 
of  the  young  ladies  leading  with  the  piano  and  all 
joining  with  their  voices,  and  hearts,  too,  I  doubt  not ; 
and  then  the  venerable  old  man  read  a  chapter,  which 
I  could  understand  very  well,  and  closed  with  a  simple 
and  fervent  prayer.  You  cannot  know  yourself  how 
pleasant  it  is,  after  being  jolted  about  in  the  rude 
world  for  months,  to  get  again  with  a  pious  family. 
The  house  is  just  without  the  town,  surrounded  with  a 
large  garden  and  fine  trees  and  shrubbery,  and  all 
very  pleasant.  Some  days  after,  we  made  another  ex- 
cursion to  visit  their  pastor.  He  was  not  at  home,  so 
I  missed  him,  but  saw  his  pretty  garden.  On  the  two 
Sundays  I  have  heard  one  of  the  pastors  of  the  Evan- 
gelical Society  preach  in  the  morning,  and  the  clergy- 
man of  the  English  chapel  in  the  afternoon.  I  have 

MT.  28.]  TO   GEORGE   P.  PUTNAM.  265 

also  had  the  satisfaction  of  seeing  Mr.  Malan,  who, 
when  he  called  here  the  other  day,  was  so  good  as  to 
hold  a  long  and  edifying  religious  conversation  with 
me.  He  is  a  very  apostle  in  appearance,  and  in  con- 
versation. Indeed,  I  have  been  thrown  here  into  the 
midst  of  religious  society  of  a  high  tone  and  of  great 
sweetness  and  simplicity.  I  hope  I  have  received 
some  benefit  from  it.  As  I  leave  here  I  shall  lose  all 
this  and  shall  see  nothing  more  like  it  until  I  get  home 
again.  .  .  . 


BALE,  July  23d. 

...  I  left  on  Saturday  morning  for  Lausanne  and 
Freiburg,  where  I  heard  the  big  organ  on  Sunday ; 
came  on  in  the  night  to  Berne,  and  yesterday  to  this 
place  over  the  Jura.  I  wished  here  to  see  Professor 
Meisner,  but  found  out  this  morning,  some  hours  after 
the  steamboat  had  left,  that  he  was  absent  on  a 
journey.  I  was  a  great  fool  for  not  finding  that  out 
last  night,  in  which  case  I  should  now  have  been 
below  Strasburg,  —  and  this  evening  at  Mannheim. 
As  it  is,  I  can't  wait  here  till  Thusday  morning  for 
the  next  boat,  and  shall  leave  this  evening  for  Schaff- 
hausen  and  Tubingen,  and  thence  push  on,  the  best 
way  I  can,  for  Dresden  and  Leipsic.  I  do  not  lose  a 
moment  of  time.  Do  not  be  surprised  if  I  drop  in 
upon  you  about  the  4th  or  5th  of  September.  I  would 
like  to  sail  for  home  the  latter  part  of  that  month.  In 
early  winter  we  will  hope  to  give  you  an  entire  volume 
of  "  Flora,"  and  see  what  you  can  do  with  it.  I  have 
blocked  out,  in  my  mind,  scientific  labor  enough  for 
several  years  to  come,  and  several  works  some  of 
which  will  be  good  in  a  publisher's  acceptance  of  the 

266  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

term  ;  others,  I  dare  say,  not.  As  Murray's  fame  is 
derived  from  Byron,  so  shall  you  be  immortalized  and 
known  to  all  posterity  as  the  publisher  of  the  cele- 
brated Dr.  Gray  !  !  ! 

We  have  not  much  time  to  lose,  and  on  my  arrival 
at  London  I  shall  be  wonderfully  busy.  I  hope  you 
will  have  picked  up  a  great  quantity  of  books  for  me 
by  that  time.  My  future  credit  and  comfort  will  very 
much  depend  upon  my  bringing  home  an  immense 
quantity  of  books  for  my  money.  .  .  .  When  I  was  in 
England  I  could  scarcely  hold  up  my  head  as  a  Yan- 
kee should  —  what  with  our  border  wars  and  domestic 
quarrels.  But  now  I  feel  greatly  relieved.  The  re- 
cent "Birmingham  affair"  and  several  other  things 
fortunately  (?)  give  me  "  wherewith  to  answer  them 
that  are  of  the  contrary  part."  Let  them  shut  their 
mouths  now !  You  know  my  address  at  Berlin,  or 
you  may  address  poste  restante  if  you  will.  I  think 
I  shall  be  there  till  about  the  25th  August.  I  shall 
stop  a  few  days  at  Hamburg.  I  think  I  may  say  that 
I  shall  not  go  up  to  Rostock.  You  will  perhaps  be 
receiving  some  letters  for  me,  which,  now  you  know 
my  movements,  you  will  act  according  to  discretion 
either  in  forwarding  to  me  or  in  retaining. 

I  have  bought  scarcely  any  books  since  I  left  Paris. 
I  have  had  some  good  ones  given  me. 

Excuse  this  hurried  epistle.  I  have  precious  little 
time,  and  I  find  I  am  growing  more  and  more  slov- 
enly every  day.  Adieu. 

Most  truly  yours, 

A.  GRAY. 

.ET.  28.]  TO   GEORGE  BENTHAM.  267 


.  .  .  Arrived  at  Geneva  by  way  of  Villeneuve  and  the 
Lake.  De  Candolle  and  Alphonse  had  returned  only 
three  days  previous  to  my  arrival.  They  received  me 
very  cordially,  and  I  went  through  the  herbarium  as 
far  as  the  "  Prodromus  "  is  prepared. 

From  Geneva  I  went  to  Lausanne  and  Freiburg ;  .  .  . 
thence  to  Berne,  where  I  made  no  stay ;  thence  to 
Bale,  to  Schaffhausen,  to  Tubingen,  where  I  spent  the 
morning  with  Mohl ; l  reached  Stuttgart  toward  even- 
ing and  Heidelberg  the  next  morning.  Frankfort  in  the 
evening  ;  took  the  eilwagen  the  same  night  for  Leipsic  ; 
saw  Pbppig,  2  Schwagrichen, 3  etc. ;  railroad  to  Dres- 
den ;  saw  Reichenbach  4  for  a  few  moments,  as  he  went 
into  the  country  the  same  day ;  visited  the  picture- 
gallery,  which  deserves  to  be  called  the  richest  out  of 
Italy ;  returned  to  Leipsic ;  to  Halle ;  passed  a  day  or 
two  with  Schlechtendal ;  5  saw  the  Carices  in  the  her- 
barium of  Schkuhr ; 6  Potsdam,  Sans-Souci,  the  mar- 
ble palace,  the  beautiful  statue  of  the  late  queen  of 
Prussia  by  Rauch  (the  second  and  best  one)  ;  and 
thence  to  Berlin,  where  I  remained  nearly  a  month ; 
saw  the  botanists,  etc. 

1  Hugo  von  Mohl,   1805-1872.      Born  at  Stuttgart.     Professor  of 
botany  at  Tubingen.    ' '  Chief  of  the  vegetable  anatomists  of  this  gen- 
eration1' [A.  G.]. 

2  Eduard  Friedrich   Poppig,  1798-1868 ;   professor  of   zoology  at 
Leipsic.     Made  collections  of  plants  in  Cuba,  Chili,  Peru,  and  on  the 
upper  Amazon. 

3  Christian    Friedrich    Schwagrichen,   1775-1853;     professor     of 
natural  history  at  Leipsic. 

4  Heinrich  Gottlieb  Reichenbach,   1793-1879 ;  professor  of  botany 
at  Dresden.     A  voluminous  author,  especially  of  illustrated  works  on 
European  plants. 

5  D.  F.  L.  von  Schlechtendal,  1784-1866.     University  of  Halle. 
Editor  of  the  Linncea  and  Botanische  Zdtung. 

6  Christian  Schkuhr,  1741-1811.     History  of  Carices,  1802. 

268  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.         [1839, 


LONDON,  September  13. 

MY  DEAR  FRIEND,  —  The  "  penny  postage  system'' 
not  being  yet  in  operation,  I  embrace  an  opportunity 
that  offers  to  send  you  a  line  in  Pamphlin's  par- 
cels. I  am  again  in  London,  you  see  ;  indeed  I  have 
been  here  about  a  week.  But  it  is  only  to-day  that  I 
have  had  intelligence  of  your  return  to  Scotland.  I 
had  some  hopes  that  I  should  find  you  in  London  on 
my  arrival,  or  that  you  would  return  here  from 
Chatham,  and  that  I  should  have  the  gratification  of 
seeing  you  once  more.  I  received  your  welcome  letter 
of  August  14th,  at  Berlin,  for  which  I  thank  you  much. 
I  wish  my  friends  at  home  were  half  as  prompt  cor- 
respondents. While  on  the  Continent  I  have  received 
precious  few  letters. 

I  have  been  much  interested  at  Berlin,  and  worked 
hard.  The  herbarium  of  Willdenow  is  larger  and  in 
better  condition  than  I  supposed,  and  the  gen- 
eral herbarium  is  very  interesting  and  rich.  Klotzsch  1 
is  very  industrious,  and  has  got  the  whole  collection  in 
much  better  order  than  most  of  the  herbaria  on  the 
Continent.  I  am  under  great  obligations  to  Dr. 
Klotzsch,  who  not  only  afforded  me  every  facility  at 
the  Herbarium,  but  most  cheerfully  aided  me  in  every 
possible  way,  and  during  a  transient  illness  (for  I 
was  confined  to  my  room  for  a  week  or  so,  and  to  my 
bed  for  a  few  days)  he  procured  for  me  the  best  med- 
ical advice,  and  took  a  great  deal  of  trouble  on  my 

I  lost  some  time  by  this,  but  fortunately  I  had  nearly 
finished  my  work  at  the  Herbarium,  and  afterwards 

1  Dr.  J.  H.  Klotzsch,  1805-1800 ;    keeper  of  the  Royal  Herbarium 
at  Berlin. 

*:T.  28.]  TO    WILLIAM  J.  HOOKER.  269 

I  had  a  few  days  to  finish,  and  to  look  at  Kunth's1 
herbarium,  with  which  I  was  rather  disappointed. 
Kunth  was  extremely  polite  and  attentive  to  me.  He 
is  at  work  upon  the  third  volume  of  his  "  Enumeratio," 
but  I  fear  it  will  not  be  very  well  done.  I  saw  Ehren- 
berg2  frequently,  and  Link3  once  or  twice,  but  nearly 
all  my  time  was  spent  at  Schonberg,  where  the  Bo- 
tanic Garden  and  Herbarium  are  situated,  which  is 
nearly  a  half  hour's  ride  from  the  city.  The  garden 
is  much  the  finest  in  Germany,  and  the  government 
annually  expends  very  large  sums  upon  it.  The  build- 
ing exclusively  devoted  to  the  herbarium  is  very  com- 
modious, though  Klotzsch  begins  to  complain  that  he 
has  not  sufficient  room.  It  is  so  far  from  town  that 
there  are  no  loungers  there,  and  one  may  study  per- 
fectly undisturbed.  I  brought  a  few  things  for  you 
from  Klotzsch  and  Link,  which  Pamphlin  is  to  send 

Having  lost  some  time  by  illness  I  did  not  go  to 
Rostock,  a  most  out-of-the-world  place,  although  I 
suppose  I  shall  hereafter  regret  that  I  did  not  see 
Lamarck's  herbarium. 

I  spent  several  days  at  Hamburg,  saw  Lehmann,  his 
herbarium,  and  the  botanic  garden ;  and  took  steam- 
boat for  London.  Since  my  return  I  have  been  busily 
occupied  in  the  city,  completing  some  purchases  for 

1  Karl  Sigismund  Kunth,  1788-1850.    Appointed  professor  of  bot- 
any at  Berlin,  1819.    Author  of  Enumeratio  Plantarum  and  other  well- 
known  descriptive  works. 

2  Christian  Gottfried  Ehrenberg,  1794-1876.     Berlin.     Student  of 
the  microscope,  and  author  of  works  on  the  lower  forms  of  plants  and 

3  Heinrich  Friedrich  Link,   1767-1851.     Professor  at  Breslau,  then 
at  Berlin.    Wrote  Anatomy  of  Plants  and  Elements  of  Botanical  Phil- 

270  FIRST  JOURNEY  IN  EUROPE.          [1839, 

the  Michigan  University,   and  shall  be   mostly  thus 
employed  during  the  remainder  of  niy  stay.  .  .  . 

19th  September.  —  I  saw  Dr.  Richardson  the  day 
before  yesterday,  who  informed  me  that  the  Erebus 
was  still  lying  at  Chatham,  and  (what  I  was  not 
aware  of)  that  I  could  reach  Chatham  in  three  or 
four  hours.  So  I  arranged  at  once  to  go  down  and 
see  Joseph  before  he  started,  but  the  next  day  I 
learned  that  the  vessels  had  dropped  down  from  that 

I  expect  to  sail  in  the  Toronto  from  Portsmouth  on 
the  1st  October.  ...  I  have  yet  very  much  to  do. 
Yesterday  I  dined  with  Dr.  Lindley  and  visited  the 
Garden.  One  wing  of  the  conservatory  is  erected 
and  nearly  covered  with  glass.  It  is  entirely  glass 
and  iron,  about  130  feet  long,  and  will  be  very  fine. 
.  .  .  Believe  me,  my  very  dear  friend,  most  truly 

A.  GRAY. 

NEW  YORK,  5th  November,  1839. 

MY  DEAR  FATHER,  —  Through  the  favors  of  a  kind 
Providence,  my  journey  is  safely  brought  to  a  close. 
I  am  happy  to  inform  you  that  I  reached  New  York 
last  evening  in  the  ship  Toronto,  after  a  passage  of 
thirty-five  days.  I  left  London  on  the  last  of  Sep- 
tember, and  Portsmouth  on  the  1st  ult.  The  steam- 
ship Great  Western,  which  left  on  the  19th  of  last 
month,  reached  New  York  two  days  before  us  !  Our 
voyage  was  a  rather  pleasant  one,  although  we  had 
nearly  forty  passengers.  It  was  rather  rough,  but  no 
very  hard  gales.  I  was  sea-sick  but  a  single  day,  and 
then  but  slightly.  I  have  brought  with  me  nearly  the 
full  amount  of  my  purchases  of  books  for  the  Michi- 

JET.  28.]  TO  HIS  FATHER.  271 

gan  library,  a  large  collection.  I  am  waiting  to  hear 
from  Detroit  to  know  whether  it  will  be  necessary  for 
me  to  go  up  there  this  fall.  I  hope  I  shall  not  be 
obliged  to  make  this  journey  until  spring.  I  shall 
not  come  up  to  see  you  until  I  hear  from  Michigan, 
when  I  can  take  Sauquoit  in  my  way  if  it  be  neces- 
sary to  go  to  Michigan.  I  am  now  busy  in  getting 
my  boxes  and  parcels  through  the  custom-house,  which 
is  a  tedious  business.  I  hope  I  shall  be  allowed  to 
remain  here  during  the  winter,  as  I  have  a  great  deal 
to  do  here. 

I  find  here  a  letter  from  my  friend  Dana,  of  the  Ex- 
ploring Expedition,  dated  Valparaiso.  He  seems  not 
very  well  satisfied  with  his  situation.  I  have  not 
heard  from  any  of  you  for  a  full  year.  Perhaps  one 
of  my  sisters  will  favor  me  with  a  letter  now  that  I 
am  so  near.  Love  to  all. 


A   DECADE    OF   WORK    AT   HOME. 


ON  Dr.  Gray's  return  from  Europe,  the  University 
of  Michigan  not  yet  needing  his  services,  he  settled 
in  New  York  to  work  on  the  "Flora  of  North 
America."  1 

In  1841  he  made  his  first  journey  to  the  mountains 
of  North  Carolina,  of  which  he  wrote  an  account  in  the 
"American  Journal  of  Science  "  in  the  form  of  a 
letter  to  Sir  William  Hooker. 

The  country  west  of  the  Mississippi  was  just  now 
opened  to  exploration,  and  for  some  years  continued 
to  afford  an  immense  amount  of  new  material  to  the 
botanist.  Dr.  Gray,  and  his  friends  Dr.  Torrey  and 
Dr.  Engelmann  especially,  interested  themselves  in 
sending  collectors  with  the  various  expeditions,  ex- 
plorations, boundary  surveys,  etc.,  and  were  kept  very 
hard  at  work  in  studying  and  distributing  the  several 
collections  as  they  came  in.  The  difficulties  of  com- 
munication were  great,  postage  was  very  dear,  and 
the  post-office  rule  that  sheets,  no  matter  of  what 
size,  could  be  sent  as  one  letter,  while  the  addition  of 

1  A  Flora  of  North  America ;  containing  abridged  descriptions  of 
all  the  known  indigenous  and  naturalized  plants  growing  north  of 
Mexico ;  arranged  according  to  the  natural  system.  By  John  Torrey 
and  Asa  Gray.  New  York.  8vo ;  vol.  i.,  1838-1840,  pp.  xvi,  711 ; 
vol.  ii.,  1841-1843,  pp.  504. 

JET.  29.]  TO    W.  J.  HOOKER.  273 

any  separate  inclosure  was  utterly  forbidden,  added 
difficulties  almost  insurmountable  to  the  transmission 
of  any  specimen.  Even  as  late  as  1850  the  large 
parcels  from  St.  Louis  were  sent  by  steamboat  to  New 
Orleans  and  then  by  sailing  vessel  to  New  York  or 

Foreign  communication  was  not  much  better,  as  Dr. 
Gray  writes  to  Sir  William  Hooker  in  March,  1840 : 
"  I  have  been  waiting  during  the  winter  to  write  by 
some  of  the  steamships,  but  they  have  disappointed 
us,  and,  though  long  expected,  none  reached  us  until 
the  arrival  of  the  Great  Western  a  week  or  more 
since,  which  brought  us  fifty-six  days'  later  intelli- 
gence from  Europe." 

TO   W.     J.     HOOKER. 

NEW  YORK,  May  30,  1840. 

I  have  been  tolerably  industrious  for  some  years, 
but  have  never  labored  as  I  have  done  this  winter 
and  spring.  But  I  look  now  for  a  little  respite,  which 
I  greatly  need.  I  have  this  afternoon  written  the  de- 
scription of  the  last  plant  we  have  to  give  in  the  1st 
volume  of  the  "  Flora  "  (a  new  cucurbitaceous  genus, 
of  which  more  anon)  ;  have  prepared  the  last  sheet 
for  the  press,  —  that  is,  of  the  work  proper,  which 
reaches  to  page  656  instead  of  550,  as  intended ;  and 
have  before  me  proofs  of  the  supplement  extending  to 
page  672 ;  what  is  yet  to  come  will  make  up  the 
volume  to  720  pages !  It  has  extended  beyond  all 
calculations  or  bounds,  but  we  could  not  stop  short.  I 
hope  to  have  done  with  the  proofs  early  next  week, 
when  I  expect  to  go  immediately  into  the  country  and 
recruit  for  three  or  four  weeks,  for  I  am  quite  fagged 
out.  Except,  however,  mere  fatigue  and  the  usual 

274  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1840, 

consequences  of  loss  of  rest,  I  was  never,  perhaps, 
more  perfectly  in  health,  and  a  fortnight  or  so  of 
botanizing  will  restore  my  strength.  You  kindly  in- 
quire about  my  plans  and  prospects.  These  are  so  far 
favorable  that  they  will  give  me  (D.  V.)  another  year 
of  nearly  undivided  attention  to  the  "  Flora."  Not  long 
since  I  was  officially  informed  that  the  opening  of  our 
university  would  be  postponed  another  year,  on  ac- 
count of  unfavorable  times,  and  the  preparations  not 
being  sufficiently  advanced.  So  I  am  told  that  I  can 
have  my  time  nearly  all  to  myself  until  next  spring 
(1841)  if  I  wish  (which  of  course  I  do),  but  without 
any  salary,  which,  indeed,  I  could  not  with  any  pro- 
priety take  while  I  perform  no  duty.  By  very  close 
economy  I  think  I  shall  get  on  for  the  year  to  come, 
and  be  able  to  accomplish  a  good  deal  of  botanical 
work.  I  am  going  to  pay  the  Michigan  people  a 
visit,  and  if  they  make  good  their  promises  made  to 
me  a  year  ago,  as  I  have  reason  to  think  they  will, 
their  course  towards  me  will  have  been  liberal  and 
honorable.  I  have  good  reason  to  hope  they  will 
eventually  succeed  in  their  plans. 

By  the  London  packet  of  the  15th  of  June  we  hope 
to  send  you  and  other  friends  some  copies  of  the 
"  Flora,"  parts  3  and  4.  There  are  so  many  errors,  so 
much  bad  printing,  and  so  many  things  that  we  could 
now  do  much  better,  that  I  regret  that  any  portion  was 
published  before  my  visit  to  Europe.  Many  of  the 
most  important  corrections  are  given  with  additions, 
etc.,  in  a  supplement,  but  I  hope  we  shall  continue  to 
improve  as  we  go  on.  We  can  work  to  much  greater 
advantage  than  before,  from  being  much  better  sup- 
plied with  books,  as  well  as  with  specimens  and  in- 
formation. Yet  often  do  I  wish  to  be  within  reach  of 

JET.  29.]  TO    W.  J.  HOOKER.  275 

your  herbarium  and  library.  Long  accustomed  to 
these  advantages,  you  can  scarcely  appreciate  the  diffi- 
culties we  often  find.  I  was  to-day  wishing  for  a 
look  at  your  Cucurbitaceae  ;  we  have,  as  you  know, 
but  few  of  the  order. 

I  shall  not  be  able  to  visit  Florida  or  any  part  of 
the  Southern  States  this  summer;  indeed,  I  fear  I 
shall  be  debarred  from  any  botanical  journeys  for  some 
years.  I  must  direct  all  my  time  and  strength  to  our 
"  Flora."  I  hope  we  may  complete  another  volume 
by  the  spring  of  next  year.  The  way  seems  to  be 
opening  for  increased  facilities  in  sending  a  botanical 
collector  to  the  Rocky  Mountains.  Our  government  is 
about  to  establish  a  line  of  military  outposts  quite  up 
to  the  source  of  the  Platte,  in  the  principal  pass  of 
the  mountains ;  and  in  a  few  years  I  doubt  not  we 
shall  have  small  colonies  in  Oregon  ;  but  I  know  not 
when  we  shall  be  able  to  send  a  collector.  I  would 
like  vastly  to  go  after  Grayia  myself,  but  that  cannot 
be  at  present.  Nuttall  has  been  giving  a  course  of 
botanical  lectures  in  Boston  ;  and  still  remains  there, 
I  believe.  My  attempts  to  find  Wilson's  poem  have 
not  yet  been  successful.  I  shall  esteem  it  a  piece  of 
good  fortune  if  I  succeed.  I  have  engaged  a  friend 
of  mine,  a  bookseller,  also  to  search  for  it ;  and  when 
I  visit  Philadelphia  I  shall  inquire  of  some  old  people 
who  knew  Wilson.  May  God  bless  you,  my  dear 
friend;  kindest  regards  and  affectionate  sympathies 
to  Lady  Hooker.  Faithfully  your  attached 

A.  GRAY. 

276  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1840, 


NEW  YORK,  September  15,  1840. 

MY  DEAR  FRIEND.  ...  I  had  not  forgotten  our 
conversation  on  the  subject  of  geographical  botany. 
On  my  return  I  found  I  had  a  copy,  a  mere  proof,  of 
the  little  article  I  spoke  of,  and  was  about  to  offer  it 
to  you,  but  on  examination  it  appeared  to  me  much 
less  important  than  I  had  supposed  and  perhaps  led 
you  to  expect.  But  as  it  may  be  of  some  little  use,  I 
now  beg  you  to  accept  it.  I  have  added,  here  and 
there,  the  scientific  names  when  the  popular  names 
only  were  mentioned. 

The  question  you  suggest  as  to  the  effect  of  the  de- 
struction of  the  forests  on  the  climate  is  very  inter- 
esting, and  I  think  still  unanswered.  I  fear  it  will  be 
next  to  impossible  to  obtain  data,  even  in  this  country, 
for  its  satisfactory  determination.  There  are  very 
few  thermometrical  observations  on  record  of  suffi- 
cient extent  or  exactness,  except  for  the  last  eight  or 
ten  years.  For  a  year  or  two  I  shall  not  be  able  to 
pay  any  attention  to  these  subjects  except  to  collect 
materials.  But  I  am  very  desirous  to  afford  you  any 
aid  in  my  power,  and  will  attend  to  any  suggestions 
you  make,  obtain  any  data  which  come  in  my  way,  or 
secure  the  services  of  our  botanical  correspondents 
scattered  throughout  our  extended  country.  Pray  tell 
me  how  I  can  aid  you.  The  annual  reports  of  the 
regents  of  the  University  of  the  State  of  New  York 
are  documents  submitted  annually  to  our  legislature, 
and  printed  at  their  expense  for  public  use.  They 
relate  chiefly  to  the  condition  of  our  colleges  and 
higher  schools,  but  for  six  or  perhaps  nine  years  past 
have  also  embodied  the  results  of  the  meteorological 
observations  made  throughout  the  State  under  their 

^.T.  29.]  TO   W.  J.  HOOKER.  277 

instructions.  The  "  Reports  "  are  not  on  sale,  and  the 
earlier  numbers  are  not  to  be  obtained  except  by  some 
lucky  chance.  .  .  . 

The  3d  and  4th  parts  of  our  "  Flora,"  of  which  you 
speak  so  favorably,  were  sent  to  you  through  Baron 
Delessert,  as  I  have  already  apprised  you.  By  the 
time  this  work  is  completed  we  shall  have  settled 
somewhat  accurately  the  geographical  range  of  our 
plants,  and  have  laid  a  good  foundation  for  the  com- 
parison of  our  flora  with  that  of  other  regions,  etc. 
We  shall  soon  begin  to  print  the  "  Compositse,"  and 
I  trust  in  early  spring  we  may  see  the  second  volume 
nearly  or  quite  completed.  Pray  send  me  sometimes 
loose  sheets  of  your  articles  or  notices  (those  of  your 
father  and  yourself)  in  the  "  Bibliotheque  Univer- 
selle."  I  will  sometimes  translate  them,  if  you  do  not 
object,  or  otherwise  notice  them,  for  the  "  American 
Journal  of  Science  and  Arts." 

TO   W.  J.    HOOKER. 

NEW  YORK,  15th  January,  1841. 

The  dedication  of  the  "  Flora  "  we  felt  to  be  both 
a  privilege  and  a  duty ;  its  favorable  reception  on  your 
part  gives  us  real  pleasure. 

I  hope  I  have  not  offended  Link  by  overstating  his 
age.  I  am  pretty  sure  I  was  so  informed  by  Klotzsch 
who  ought  to  know.  You  will  now  and  then  see  some 
little  articles  or  notices  of  mine  in  "  Silliman's  Jour- 
nal." I  prepare  these  notices  merely  to  awaken  and 
deepen  the  interest  of  our  scattered  botanists  and 
lovers  of  plants,  most  of  whom  see  that  journal,  and 
few  of  whom  have  any  other  means  of  knowing  what 
is  going  on  in  the  botanical  world.  We  have,  how- 
ever, a  few  promising  fellows  who  take  the  "  Journal 

278  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1841, 

of  Botany"  or  something  of  the  kind.  Should  I 
have  anything  to  communicate  of  interest  to  any  other 
than  our  local  botanists,  I  shall  publish  of  course  un- 
der my  own  name.  You  will  receive  with  this  a  little 
notice  of  some  European  herbaria,  which,  common- 
place as  it  must  be  on  your  side  of  the  water,  is  useful 
to  our  own  people.  I  have  been  as  brief  as  I  could, 
and  have  taken  the  pains  to  drop  the  first  person  sin- 
gular. I  am  not  sure  but  I  have  already  sent  you  a 
copy  through  Mr.  Pamphlin.  Poor  Rafinesque,1  you 
know,  perhaps,  is  dead;  and  I  have  attempted  the 
somewhat  ungracious  task  of  giving  some  account  of 
his  botanical  writings,  which  I  will  send  you  when 

I  find  that  Townsend,  Nuttall's  companion,  pub- 
lished, while  I  was  abroad,  an  account  of  their  jour- 
ney. I  have  never  seen  a  copy,  and  am  told  it  is  out 
of  print ;  but  I  must  try  to  find  a  copy  for  you. 
Townsend  being  poor,  Nuttall  waived  his  intention  of 
publishing  in  his  favor.  I  have  heard  that  Townsend 
wishes  to  make  a  journey  as  collector  of  birds,  plants, 
etc.  I  wish  he  would  go  to  the  southern  Rocky 
Mountains,  and  trace  them  into  New  Spain.  Nuttall 
has  brought  home  the  Grayia.  Have  you  ever  received 
any  more  of  Nuttall's  plants,  or  has  Boott  ?  He  is 
selling  them  to  different  persons  for  ten  dollars  per 
hundred  ;  just  such  specimens  as  you  received  through 
Boott,  or  sometimes  much  better  and  more  copious  ones. 
I  have  some  of  his  Compositae  in  my  hands,  which  Webb 
has  ordered.  He  has  a  considerable  number  of  Oregon 

1  S.  Constantine  Rafinesque-Schmaltz,  d.  1840.  A  Sicilian  by  birth. 
First  arrived  in  the  United  States,  1802,  for  three  years ;  returned 
in  1815,  and  explored  the  Alleghanies  and  Southern  States.  "  An 
eccentric  but  certainly  gifted  personage,  connected  with  the  natural 
history  of  this  country  for  the  last  thirty-five  years  "  [A.  G.]. 

MI    30.]  TO   W.  J.  HOOKER.  279 

and  Californian  Composite  which  Douglas  did  not  get 
(and  he  failed  to  meet  with  many  of  Douglas's),  and 
others  in  the  States ;  as  Pyrrocoma  with  rays.  Nuttall 
ought  to  send  all  these  to  you.  ...  I  know  with  con- 
siderable accuracy  what  plants  (Compositae)  are  de- 
siderata with  you;  and  I  will  take  the  liberty  of 
writing  at  once  to  Nuttall,  and  asking  for  such  in 
your  name.  I  shall  ask  for  about  one  hundred  Com* 
positse,  and  will  extend  the  order  to  other  plants  if 
you  desire  it.  He  has,  however,  distributed  nothing 
beyond  Compositae.  Pray  let  me  know  at  once  if  I 
have  done  rightly  in  this.  .  .  . 

Among  Drummond's  Louisiana  plants  is  the  rarest 
of  all  United  States  Compositae,  Stokesia  cyanea.  It 
was  pointed  out  to  me  by  Arnott  (January,  1839),  but 
I  have  just  examined  Greene's  specimens.  A.  G. 

NEW  YORK,  20th  May,  1841. 

I  have  diligently  labored  about  four  months  at  As- 
ter, in  which,  as  I  have  after  all  not  satisfied  myself, 
I  can  scarcely  hope  to  satisfy  others  ;  but  I  do  think 
I  have  laid  a  foundation  for  the  student  of  the  species 
in  their  wild  state.  We  had  very  copious  materials, 
but  could  have  done  little  in  comparison  without  the 
aid  of  your  collection,  for  which  we  cannot  be  too 
grateful.  I  am  now  occupied  with  Solidago,  which  is 
difficult  enough,  no  doubt,  but  not  to  be  compared 
with  Aster  in  this  respect,  partly  because  there  are 
fewer  species,  and  the  synonymy  much  less  involved, 
but  chiefly  because  there  are  few  in  cultivation. 

We  rejoice  to  hear  that  Joseph  and  the  Antarctic 
Expedition  are  getting  on  so  well.  .  .  . 

No  further  tidings  of  the  steamship  President !  We 
have  not  until  now  surrendered  all  hope.  One  of  the 

280  A   DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1841, 

passengers,  a  stranger  to  me,  but  an  acquaintance  of  a 
friend  of  mine,  had  charge  of  a  small  parcel  for  you, 
consisting  chiefly  of  proof  sheets. 

October  15,  1841. 

I  will  send  by  the  next  London  packet  (Que- 
bec) and  write  more  at  leisure.  I  have  to-day  sent 
on  board  that  ship  a  box  for  Parnphlin,  containing  a 
parcel  of  plants  for  you  (all  of  any  consequence  of 
my  small  Carolina  collection  with  some  others).  Few 
as  they  are,  I  trust  it  will  give  me  a  pleasure  I  seldom 
can  enjoy  —  that  of  adding  something  to  your  her- 
barium. Mr.  Brydges  takes  also  for  you  the  proofs  of 
a  gossiping  article  on  the  botany  of  the  southern 
Alleghanies,  etc.,  which  I  have  taken  the  liberty  to 
address  to  you,  and  hope  it  will  meet  your  approval. 
I  shall  send  you  clean  copies,  as  soon  as  they  are 
printed.  The  article  will  not  appear  here  until  the  1st 
of  January.  I  send  you  also  some  ripe  seeds  of 
Diphylleia  for  your  garden.  I  have  live  roots  in 
the  care  of  a  cultivator.  If  they  live  shall  send  you 
one  in  the  spring.  .  .  . 

I  must  not  forget  to  mention  that  my  package  also 
comprises  a  set  of  Ohio  Mosses  from  my  friend  Sulli- 
vant,  of  whom  I  have  often  spoken,  and  of  whom  as  a 
botanist  we  have  high  hopes,  as  he  has  an  independence 
(for  this  country),  talent,  and  much  zeal.  If  not  too. 
much  trouble,  I  join  with  him  in  requesting  you  to 
name  them  according  to  the  numbers,  by  which  you 
will  do  him  great  service,  as  he  designs  to  study  and 
collect  American  Musci  especially. 

^ET.  31.]  TO   GEORGE  ENGELMANN.  281 


NEW  YORK,  November  30,  1841. 

DEAR  DOCTOR,  —  Don't  hesitate  about  sending  me 
anything  for  fear  I  may  already  have  it.  Very  many 
plants  pass  through  my  hands  while  I  am  describing, 
but  my  own  herbarium  is  not  very  rich ;  and  dupli- 
cates will  not  oppress  me.  Mr.  Carey  does  not  keep 
European  plants  except  those  identical,  or  supposed 
identical,  with  North  American  species.  Browne, 
however,  does,  and  I  dare  say  would  be  glad  to  have 
any  you  can  give  him.  They  are  the  gentlemen  men- 
tioned in  the  "  Flora."  .  .  . 

Eupatorium  Engelmannianum,  sp.  nov.  Am.  Bor., 
semina  misit  Engelmann.  Can  this  be  it,  think 
you  ?  If  so  pray  help  me  to  it ;  and  to  anything  else 
you  can,  as  I  mean  to  give  addenda  et  corrigenda  to 
the  Compositae  at  the  end  of  the  order,  if  I  ever  get 
through  this  formidable  job.  No  wonder  seven  years' 
labor  at  them  ruined  De  Candolle's  health.  You  know 
he  is  dead  ?  He  died  the  9th  or  10th  of  September 
last.  .  .  . 

I  send  you  my  article  in  the  January  number  of 
"  Silliman's  Journal  "  with  a  little  one  by  Sullivant, 

—  by  mail.     I  am  extremely  busy  this  winter,  but  I 
hope  always  to  answer  your  letters  promptly,  and  to 
attend  to  your  desires  as  well  as  I  can,  whence  I  beg 
you  to  continue  your  useful  correspondence. 

March  30,  1842. 

It  is  not  a  great  while  since  I  got  all  the  copy 
ready  for  the  number  of  the  "  Flora  "  now  printing, 

—  during  which  I  could  do  little  else.     Immediately 
this  was  done   I  completed  an  arrangement  with  my 
publishers  for  preparing  a  handsomely  got  up  Intro- 

282  A  DECADE    OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1842, 

ductiou  or  Text-Book  of  Botany,  for  schools,  lectures, 
private  students  (medical,  etc.},  which  must  be  out 
on  the  1st  of  May  next.  Owing  to  illness  I  have  as 
yet  written  almost  nothing,  and  besides  have  to  super- 
intend all  the  drawings,  as  they  must  be  made  by 
a  person  unacquainted  with  botany ;  and  at  the  same 
time  I  have  to  correct  the  proofs  of  about  thirteen 
sheets  yet  of  the  "Flora,"  so  that  I  am  almost  dis- 
tracted when  I  think  how  I  am  to  accomplish  it  here, 
where  I  have  to  see  personally  to  almost  every  detail. 
But  I  must  do  it,  as  I  hope  to  lay  the  foundation  for 
a  popular  and  —  what  is  of  consequence  to  me  —  a 
profitable  work. 

TO     W.    J.    HOOKER. 

NEW  YORK,  30th  March,  1842. 

The  last  steamship  left  Boston  so  soon  after  I  re- 
ceieved  your  kind  letter  that  I  was  unable  to  answer 
it  by  that  conveyance.  I  intended  to  send  this  by  the 
Columbia  steamer  of  the  2d  prox. ;  but  I  learn  that 
having  broken  her  shaft  in  the  outward  voyage  she 
is  to  sail  back  to  England ;  when  it  comes  to  canvas 
I  have  more  confidence  in  our  old  liners,  and  there- 
fore send  by  New  York  packet. 

Have  you  not  seen  or  heard  of  Nuttall  yet  ?  •  He 
sailed  for  England  on  Christmas  last,  to  take  posses- 
sion of  property  left  him  by  some  deceased  relatives. 

I  should  not  feel  a  residence  in  Michigan  as  a  ban- 
ishment. I  am  fond  of  a  country  life.  But  at  pres- 
ent I  see  almost  no  hopes  of  usefulness  there.  Like 
all  our  new,  and  some  of  our  old  States,  they  have 
squandered  the  means  they  once  possessed  and  encum- 
bered themselves  almost  irretrievably  with  debt.  On 
my  return  from  Europe  in  the  autumn  of  1839,  I 

JET.  31.]  TO  W.  J.  HOOKER.  283 

received  a  letter  stating  that  they  had  nothing  yet  for 
me  to  do,  and  permitting  me  to  spend  the  winter  in 
New  York.  In  the  spring  of  1840,  a  committee  of  the 
regents  wrote  to  me,  to  relinquish  the  provisional 
salary  (of  fifteen  hundred  dollars,  on  which  I  had 
been  placed)  for  one  year  from  that  date,  they  relin- 
quishing my  services  for  that  period  and  allowing  me 
to  devote  my  time  to  the  "  Flora,"  etc.  I  at  once  ac- 
cepted their  proposal ;  but  although  another  year  has 
now  elapsed  since  the  expiration  of  the  period  to 
which  they  proposed  to  limit  this  agreement,  not  a 
word  have  I  heard  officially  or  unofficially  from  Michi- 
gan. I  have  quietly  awaited  the  result,  ready  at  any 
moment  to  obey  their  call ;  but  having  no  income  for 
the  last  two  years,  I  have  been  greatly  embarrassed, 
and  have  struggled  through  great  difficulties,  I 
scarcely  know  how.  Notwithstanding,  I  have  thought 
until  recently  that  I  ought  not  to  seek  any  other  situa- 
tion. I  shall  now  write  to  Michigan  immediately, 
inquiring  whether,  in  their  present  condition,  they  are 
ready  to  fulfill  their  engagements  with  me,  or  whether 
they  would  prefer  to  accept  my  resignation,  which  I 
shall  offer.  I  expect,  and  on  the  whole  hope,  they 
will  accept  it. 

In  December,  or  nearly  the  1st  of  January  last,  a 
friend  of  mine  here,  who  had  some  casual  conversa- 
tion with  the  President  of  Harvard  University,  wished 
me  to  let  my  name  be  known  as  a  candidate  for  the 
vacant  chair  of  natural  history  there.  After  reflecting 
for  a  week  or  two,  I  wrote  to  B.  D.  Greene  1  for  some 

1  Benjamin  D.  Greene,  1798-1862.  First  studied  law ;  then  medi- 
cine in  Scotland  and  Paris.  Devoted  himself  to  botany.  "  His  very 
valuable  herbarium  and  botanical  library  were  bequeathed  to  the 
Boston  Natural  History  Society.  He  was  always  a  most  liberal  and 
wise  patron  of  science  "  [A.  G.]. 

284  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1842, 

information  on  the  subject,  saying  that,  if  freed  from 
other  engagements,  I  would  like  the  botanical  part  of 
the  professorship,  but  not  the  zoology  :  and  that  the 
former,  with  the  charge  and  the  renovation  of  the 
Botanic  Garden,  would  be  quite  enough  for  one. 

In  January  I  made  a  flying  visit  to  Boston,  where  I 
had  never  been,  and  knew  no  one  personally  but 
Greene,  to  whom,  and  to  Professor  Bigelow,1  I  ex- 
pressed my  views ;  but  we  none  of  us  expected  that 
anything  would  be  done  at  present.  I  incidentally 
learned,  however,  not  long  since,  that  the  men  of  sci- 
ence would  generally  be  well  pleased  to  have  me  at 
Boston,  and  that  some  with  whom  I  had  almost  no 
acquaintance  were  using  their  influence  to  that  end. 
I  was  never  more  surprised,  however,  than  this  very 
evening,  when  I  received  from  President  Quincy  an 
official  letter,  offering  me  the  professorship  provi- 
sionally, with  a  small  salary,  to  be  sure,  for  the  present, 
but  with  only  the  duties  of  the  botanical  portion. 

The  president  states  that  the  endowment  is  §30,000, 
yielding  an  income  of  $1,500,  which,  however,  not 
being  adequate  to  constitute  a  full  professor's  salary 
on  a  permanent  foundation,  the  corporation  deem  it 
both  their  duty  and  the  interest  of  the  professorship 
to  continue  for  a  few  years,  in  a  modified  form,  the 
policy  they  have  hitherto  pursued,  and  by  applying 
one  third  of  the  income  annually  to  the  augmentation 
of  the  capital,  enable  themselves  to  place  the  profes- 
sor of  natural  history,  at  no  distant  period,  on  an 
equal  footing  with  the  other  professors  of  the  univer- 
sity. "  To  this  end  they  propose  to  limit  your  duties, 
in  case  you  are  willing  to  accept  the  professorship,  to 

1  Jacob  Bigelow,  M.  D.,  1787-1879;  an  eminent  Boston  physician; 
author  of  the  Florula  Bostoniensis,  1814. 

JET.  31.]  TO    W.  J.  HOOKER.  285 

instruction  and  lecturing  in  botany,  and  to  the  super- 
intendence generally  of  the  Botanic  Garden  (which 
they  wish  to  renovate) ;  limiting  for  the  present  your 
annual  salary  to  one  thousand  dollars  ;  "  thus  enabling 
me,  as  the  communication  proceeds  to  say,  to  devote 
all  my  time  at  present  to  my  favorite  pursuit,  and  to 
go  on  with  the  labors  I  have  in  hand.  I  have  reason 
to  hope,  also,  that  by  the  time  they  are  ready  to  give 
me  the  full  salary,  the  zoological  part  will  be  separated 
from  the  professorship,  with  a  distinct  endowment. 
The  Botanic  Garden  has  an  endowment  of  $20,000. 
If  I  should  take  this  place,  I  should  hope  to  see  it 
better  endowed  before  long,  and  should  immediately 
set  about  the  introduction  of  all  the  hardy  trees  and 
shrubs,  —  and  indeed  to  enrich  it  as  fast  as  possible 
with  all  the  American  and  other  plants  that  could  be 
procured.  In  that  case,  separated  from  yourself  by 
only  fourteen  to  eighteen  days'  navigation,  I  could 
hope  to  be  a  useful  correspondent  to  you  at  Kew, 
and  to  show  my  gratitude  for  your  continued  kindness 
to  me.  I  must  here  conclude,  by  stating  that  the 
president's  letter  to  me  is  to  be  deemed  confidential, 
in  case  I  do  not  accept  the  offer.  I  must  therefore 
beg  you  to  consider  this  letter  likewise  confidential, 
until  you  hear  further  from  me,  which  you  may  ex- 
pect to  do  as  soon  as  anything  is  settled  in  regard  to 
this  matter.  I  am  the  less  reluctant  to  leave  New 
York  since  our  good  friend  Dr.  Torrey  is  at  Prince- 
ton, New  Jersey  (only  four  hours  from  New  York), 
renting  his  house  in  town,  where  for  the  present 
he  will  only  remain  during  the  winter.  We  have 
worked  so  long  together  that  I  shall  feel  the  separa- 
tion greatly. 

286  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1842, 

NEW  YORK,  30th  May,  1842. 

I  have  the  pleasure  to  inform  you  that  having  ac- 
cepted the  offer  from  Harvard  University  of  which  I 
apprised  you  in  my  letter  of  April  1,  I  was  appointed 
to  the  professorship  on  the  30th  of  April  last.  The  in- 
cessant occupation  of  this  month  has  prevented  me 
from  writing  to  you  sooner,  and  still  prevents  me  send- 
ing anything  beyond  this  hasty  note.  I  hope  in  a  week 
or  so  to  have  my  new  text-book  finished,  when  I  shall 
visit  Cambridge  to  make  the  necessary  arrangements 
for  my  removal  thither.  I  hope  hereafter  to  be  a  use- 
ful correspondent  to  you,  in  the  way  of  supplying  you 
with  seeds  and  living  plants  of  our  own  country,  and 
when  I  see  what  can  be  done  with  our  Garden  I  shall 
probably  ask  you  to  aid  us.  I  wish  to  visit  the  moun- 
tains of  Carolina  again,  in  autumn,  to  procure  roots 
and  seeds.  .  .  . 

In  the  spring  of  1842,  as  his  last  letter  intimated, 
Dr.  Gray  was  appointed  to  the  Fisher  professorship 
of  natural  history  in  Harvard  College.  He  was  then 
thirty-one  years  old.  He  removed  to  Cambridge  in 
July,  taking  lodgings  near  the  colleges  at  Deacon 
Munroe's,  on  what  is  now  James  Street. 

Before  Dr.  Gray  came  to  Cambridge  he  had  been 
elected  into  the  American  Academy  (November  10, 
1841).  He  threw  himself  with  the  greatest  interest 
into  its  work.  Scarcely  any  winter  storm  kept  him 
from  its  meetings  ;  all  other  engagements  had  to  give 
way.  And  when  new  life  began  in  its  publications, 
many  of  his  most  important  papers  appeared  in  its 

He  was  also  influential  in  establishing  a  scientific 
club  consisting  of  members  of  the  college  faculty  and 


MT.  31.]  TO  JOHN   TORREY.  287 

other  friends  in  Cambridge.  Of  this,  too,  he  was  a  most 
faithful  member.  The  club  met  twice  a  month  at  the 
houses  of  the  different  members  in  turn,  and  the  one 
at  whose  house  it  met  was  expected  to  bring  forward 
some  subject,  generally  from  his  specialty,  which  later 
was  discussed  and  criticised.  Many  of  the  new  inter- 
ests in  science  were  here  first  presented  by  Dr.  Gray. 
Among  the  founders  and  early  members  were, 
Charles  Beck,  Francis  Bowen,  Admiral  Davis,  Epes 
S.  Dixwell,  Edward  Everett,  President  Felton,  Asa 
Gray,  Simon  Greenleaf,  Thaddeus  Mason  Harris, 
Joseph  Lovering,  Benjamin  Peirce,  Josiah  Quincy, 
Jared  Sparks,  Daniel  Treadwell,  James  Walker,  Jo- 
seph E.  Worcester,  the  lexicographer,  and  Morrill 
Wyman,  M.  D.  Later,  among  those  no  longer  living, 
were  added  at  different  times  Louis  Agassiz,  Thomas 
Hill,  Joel  Parker,  Emory  Washburn,  and  Joseph  Win- 
lock.  The  club  is  still  in  existence. 


BOSTON,  Monday,  25th  July,  1842. 

MY  DEAR  DOCTOE,  —  Having  time  before  the  mail 
closes  to  write  a  hurried  letter,  I  hasten  to  let  you 
know  that  I  have  this  morning  secured  lodgings  at 
Cambridge,  at  a  retired  house,  off  the  main  road, 
about  halfway  between  the  colleges  and  the  Garden. 
For  $3.00  per  week,  I  have  two  rooms,  one  pretty  large, 
one  moderate  (of  which  I  shall  make  a  bedroom),  a 
small  nearly  dark  bedroom  which  I  shall  shelve  and 
use  for  my  herbarium,  and  three  closets,  furnished 
decently  (but  not  extravagantly!  !),  in  a  house  where 
there  can  at  most  be  only  one  other  lodger,  and  he 
must  ascend  by  a  different  staircase  from  mine,  —  the 
rooms  and  bed  linen,  etc.,  to  be  kept  in  order. 

288  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  A  T  HOME.       [1842, 

I  am  to  board  at  an  adjacent  house,  to  which  I  have 
access  by  a  private  gate  through  the  garden.  The  latter 
house  belongs  to  Mrs.  Peck  (widow  of  my  predeces- 
sor), who  boards  there,  and  who  I  see  has  bestirred 
herself  to  contrive  and  effect  this  arrangement.  I  am 
to  take  possession  next  Monday.  Meanwhile  I  am 
Mr.  Greene's  guest  here,  where  I  have  the  house  for 
the  most  part  to  myself.  I  arrived  here  Friday  morn- 
ing, just  in  time  to  miss  the  president,  who  had  just 
started  for  Portland,  and  has  not  yet  returned.  I 
have  seen  Bigelow,  Emerson,1  etc.,  and  have  been  look- 
ing about  among  the  libraries  here,  and  endeavoring 
to  arrange  matters  so  as  to  procure  just,  and  only  such, 
books  for  the  college  as  are  wanting.  I  am  pleased 
to  find  a  complete  copy  of  "  Linnaea  "  at  the  library  of 
the  American  Academy. 

I  passed  last  Sunday  all  alone  in  Greene's  house. 
Mr.  Emerson  met  me  coming  from  Park  Street 
Church,  and  on  telling  him  that  I  was  of  Orthodox 
faith,  he  said  he  was  very  glad  of  it,  although  not 
altogether  of  that  way  himself. 

I  have  been  only  twice  to  Cambridge,  whence  I 
have  just  returned,  and  where  you  may  address  your 
letters.  But  I  can  do  little  there  until  the  president 
returns,  by  which  time,  however,  I  must  trust  to  have 
my  list  of  books  ready.  I  have  just  written  to  Mr. 
Wiley  to  send  on  my  boxes,  and  hope  next  week  to 
get  nearly  in  working  order.  I  now  think  of  remain- 
ing here  (studying  Compositse,  etc.")  through  the  month 
of  August,  and  then  visiting  Mt.  Washington,  if  I  can 
get  money  and  a  companion  (I  shall  ask  Oakes),  and 
in  September  going  (via  New  York  ?)  to  western  New 

1  George  B.  Emerson,  1797-1881 ;  an  eminent  teacher  in  Boston, 
Mass. ;  author  of  Trees  and  Shrubs  of  Massachusetts. 

MT.  31.]  TO   W.  J.  HOOKER.  289 

York,  where  I  wish  to  collect  roots  and  seeds  as  ex- 
tensively as  may  be.  I  will  soon  make  out  a  list  of 
some  things  I  would  like  Knieskern  to  get  for  me  in 
the  pine  barrens. 

Tell  E.,  also,  that  I  must  write  her  about  a  learned 
lady  in  these  parts,  who  assists  her  husband  in  his 
school,  and  who  hears  the  boys'  recitations  in  Greek 
and  geometry  at  the  ironing-board,  while  she  is 
smoothing  their  shirts  and  jackets !  reads  German 
authors  while  she  is  stirring  her  pudding,  and  has  a 
Hebrew  book  before  her,  when  knitting  [?  netting  — 
A.  G.].  There  's  nothing  like  down  East  for  learned 
women.  Why,  even  the  factory-girls  at  Lowell  edit 
entirely  a  magazine,  which  an  excellent  judge  told  me 
has  many  better-written  articles  than  the  "  North 
American  Review."  Some  of  them,  having  fitted  their 
brothers  for  college  at  home,  come  to  Lowell  to  earn 
money  enough  to  send  them  through ! !  Vivent  les 
femmes.  There  will  be  no  use  for  men  in  this  region, 
presently.  Even  my  own  occupation  may  soon  be  gone  ; 
for  I  am  told  that  Mrs.  Ripley  (the  learned  lady  afore- 
said) is  the  best  botanist  of  the  country  round.  But 
the  mail  is  about  to  close;  this  nasty  steel  pen  re- 
fuses to  write  ;  dinner  is  ready,  and  so  with  love  to 
all,  I  subscribe  myself, 

Yours  most  affectionately,  A.  GRAY. 

TO    W.    J.    HOOKER. 

CAMBRIDGE,  30th  July,  1842. 

MY  DEAR  SIR  WILLIAM,  —  It  is  indeed  a  long 
time  since  I  have  heard  from  you  ;  although,  indeed, 
I  can  well  suppose  that,  in  your  new  situation,1  you  are 
too  much  occupied  to  write  frequently  to  your  friends 

1  Director  of  Kew  Gardens. 


A   DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1842, 

on  this  side  of  the  ocean.  Having  finished  my  little 
"  Botanical  Text-Book  "  (a  copy  of  which  is  sent  you 
through  the  publishers,  Wiley  &  Putnam,  who  have 
an  office  in  Stationer's  Court,  Paternoster  Row),  and 
packed  up  my  things  at  New  York,  I  have  just  taken 
possession  of  my  situation  at  Cambridge.  The  Bo- 
tanic Garden,  which  has  a  good  location,  contains 
over  seven  acres  of  land,  and  the  trees  have  well 
grown  up.  It  already  contains  some  good  American 
plants,  and  I  shall  immediately  commence  a  plan  of 
operations  with  the  view  of  accumulating  here,  as  fast 
as  possible,  the  pljaenogamous  plants,  etc.,  of  the  United 
States  and  Canada ;  and  hope  to  supply  you  with  such 
of  our  indigenous  species  as  you  may  desire.  I  wish 
I  could  know  what  plants  are  likely  to  be  acceptable 
to  you,  that  I  may  not  send  you  what  you  already 
have.  I  must  postpone  to  next  year  my  contemplated 
visit  to  the  mountains  of  Carolina,  where  I  can  make 
a  fine  collection  of  interesting  plants  for  cultivation. 
Perhaps  I  can  also  visit  Labrador  next  year.  This 
autumn  I  must  confine  myself  to  an  excursion  to  the 
White  Mountains,  to  the  western  part  of  New  York, 
and  to  the  pine  barrens  of  New  Jersey.  I  shall  most 
gladly  share  the  seeds  and  roots  I  collect  with  you. 
My  good  friend  Mr.  Sullivant,  also,  promises  me  the 
living  Sullivantia  and  many  other  interesting  plants. 

Let  me  also  say,  my  dear  sir,  that  any  duplicates 
you  can  spare  us  from  your  noble  institutioil  will  be 
truly  acceptable  and  in  the  highest  degree  useful  to 
us,  as  we  have  very  few  exotics  and  hot-house  plants. 
We  have  a  good  gardener,  and  I  think  I  can  promise 
you  that  whatever  you  choose  to  give  us  shall  be 
sedulously  taken  care  of. 

Dr.  Torrey  is  now  at  Princeton.     I  had  the  pleas- 

^T.  31.]  TO    GEORGE   ENGELMANN.  291 

ure  of  spending  a  week  with  him  not  long  since,  and 
hope  to  visit  him  again  early  in  the  autumn.  I  shall 
miss  him  very  much.  I  am  here  more  favorably  situ- 
ated with  respect  to  books  than  at  New  York.  I  hope 
next  week  to  begin  again  with  the  "  Flora,"  and  per- 
haps to  finish  the  Monopetalae. 


CAMBRIDGE,  26th  July,  1842. 

MY  DEAR  DOCTOR,  —  I  hope  to  get  settled  here, 
and  in  working  order  in  a  week  or  so ;  to  work  at 
Compositae  all  next  month,  and  to  occupy  a  part  of 
September  and  October  in  collecting  the  roots  and 
seeds  of  plants,  of  the  White  Mountains,  of  western 
New  York,  etc.,  for  our  Botanic  Garden  here  ;  which 
I  wish  to  renovate,  to  make  creditable  to  the  country 
and  subservient  to  the  advancement  of  our  favorite 
science.  I  wish  to  see  growing  here  all  the  hardy 
and  half-hardy  plants  of  the  United  States  (as  well 
as  many  exotics,  etc.),  and  shall  exert  myself  stren- 
uously for  their  introduction.  The  Garden  contains 
seven  acres  ;  the  trees  and  shrubs  are  well  grown  up  ; 
we  are  free  from  debt,  and  have  a  small  fund.  The 
people  and  the  corporation  are  anxious  that  we  should 
do  something,  and  I  trust  will  second  our  efforts. 

Allow  me  therefore  to  say  that  yourself  and  your 
friend  Lindheimer1  in  Texas  would  render  me,  and 
also  the  cause  of  botany  in  this  country,  the  greatest 
aid  (which  I  will  take  every  opportunity  of  publicly 
acknowledging),  if  you  will  send  me  roots  or  seeds  of 

1  Ferdinand  Lindheimer,  1801-1879.  Died  at  New  Braunfels, 
Texas.  A  German.  "  An  assiduous  and  excellent  collector  and  a  keen 
observer ;  his  notes,  full  and  discriminating,  add  not  a  Httle  to  the 
value  of  the  collections  "  [A.  G.]. 

292  A   DECADE    OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1842, 

any  Western  plants,  especially  the  rarer,  and  those 
not  yet  figured  or  cultivated  abroad.  But  nothing 
peculiar  to  the  West  and  South  will  come  amiss.  I 
am  calling  on  all  my  correspondents  to  assist  me  in 
this  matter ;  which,  by  giving  me  the  opportunity  of 
examining  so  many  living  plants,  will  vastly  increase 
the  correctness  of  our  "  Flora."  I  shall  not  be  idle 
myself.  I  will  defray  all  expenses  of  collection  and 
transportation  (boxes  may  be  sent  via  New  Orleans, 
directly  to  me  at  Boston).  If  you  wish  to  cultivate 
anything  that  I  have  or  can  procure,  it  shall  be  forth- 
coming. Pray  let  me  hear  from  you  on  this  subject. 


CAMBRIDGE,  15th  September,  1842. 

MY  DEAR  FRIEND,  —  Your  letter  of  the  6th  inst. 
awaited  my  return  from  the  White  Mountains  last 
evening,  and  I  must  drop  you  a  hasty  reply  by  this 
day's  mail.  I  started  for  the  mountains  almost  at  a 
moment's  warning.  Emerson,  who  was  to  accompany 
me,  being  called  down  to  Maine,  wrote  me  unexpect- 
edly to  meet  him  on  Monday  or  Tuesday  of  last  week 
at  the  Notch.  I  had  just  time  to  look  up  Tucker- 
man,1  the  very  morning  of  his  arrival !  and  to  get 
his  consent  to  meet  me  on  Monday  morning  at  the 
cars  for  Dover.  Monday  evening  we  reached  Con- 
way,  New  Hampshire,  thirty  miles  from  the  White 
Mountains  (full  in  sight) ;  and  Tuesday,  in  a  one- 
horse  wagon,  we  reached  and  botanized  up  the  Notch 
to  Crawford's  at  its  head.  Emerson  had  been  there, 
and  returned  to  his  father's  in  Maine,  having  learned 
his  brother's  arrival  from  France  in  the  ship  that 

1  Edward  Tuckerman,  1817-1886 ;  professor  at  Amherst.  "  The 
most  profound  and  trustworthy  American  lichenologist  of  the  day  " 
[A.  G.]. 

A;T.  31.]  TO  JOHN   TORREY.  293 

brought  Tuckerman.  We  made  two  ascents  to  the 
higher  mountains ;  slept  out  one  night ;  cold  weather ; 
a  good  deal  of  rain,  but  had  some  very  fine  weather 
for  views.  We  saw  the  ocean  distinctly,  which  is 
only  possible  under  favorable  circumstances.  I  made 
a  fine  collection  of  living  plants,  which  was  the  chief 
object.  Although  too  late  for  botanizing,  yet  I  got 
many  good  alpines  in  fruit,  some  few  in  flower. 
When  I  see  you,  which  I  trust  will  be  soon,  I  will  tell 
you  particulars,  and  bring  specimens  of  the  few  plants 
collected  that  will  be  needed  in  your  herbarium. 

I  have  seen  the  president  this  morning,  and  find 
that  Mr.  Lowell  has  returned,  but  all  are  so  busy  that 
I  doubt  if  they  will  settle  anything  about  our  affairs 
until  the  last  of  next  week.  Consequently  I  shall  be 
kept  here  all  next  week.  I  shall  immediately,  at  Mr. 
Quincy's  desire,  or  rather  approval  of  my  intimation, 
draw  up  a  plan  of  my  wishes  for  the  management  of 
the  Garden,  and  shall  ask  for  a  specific  appropriation, 
of  small  amount,  for  obtaining  live  plants,  paying 
bills  of  transportation,  etc.  If  I  succeed,  I  may  then 
be  able  to  engage  Knieskern  to  procure  some  New 
Jersey  plants,  as  well  as  go  to  western  New  York 
myself ;  but  I  fear  this  delay,  with  the  advancing  sea- 
son, will  perhaps  prevent  the  latter. 

Saturday  afternoon,  5th  December,  1842. 

The  parcel  of  Composite,  etc.,  of  the  Far  West  has 
only  just  come  in.  I  have  looked  over  the  Composite 
with  some  excitement.  Some  few  new  and  the  old 
help  out  Nuttall's  scraps,  etc.,  very  well.  Tetradymias 
this  side  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  !  f  Some  new  Sene- 
cios,  especially,  from  the  mountains,  near  the  snow 
line.  How  I  would  like  to  botanize  up  there  !  .  .  . 

294  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1842, 

I  wish  we  had  a  collector  to  go  with  Fremont.  It 
is  a  great  chance.  If  none  are  to  be  had,  Lieutenant 
F.  must  be  indoctrinated,  and  taught  to  collect  both 
dried  specimens  and  seeds.  Tell  him  he  shall  be  im- 
mortalized by  having  the  999th  Senecio  called  S. 
Fremontii ;  that 's  poz.,  for  he  has  at  least  two  new 
ones.  .  .  . 

I  have  the  privilege  of  expending  one  hundred  dol- 
lars in  botanical  illustrations,  —  to  be  the  property  of 
the  college  and  to  be  increased  from  time  to  time. 
How  do  you  advise  me  to  proceed  in  the  matter  ? 

Though  greatly  behindhand,  I  must  get  Composite 
all  done  this  month.  Then  if  you  could  have  the  Lo- 
belias and  Campanulas  ready,  I  think  we  could  print 
the  latter  part  of  January,  and  I  get  everything  off 
my  mind  and  ready  for  teaching  1st  of  March.  .  .  . 

This  letter  you  see  has  no  beginning,  as  I  have 
scribbled  down  memoranda  for  a  day  or  two  past,  as 
they  occurred  to  me.  I  am  deep  among  Thistles,  which 
are  thorny  (though  I  see  that  they  are  satisf  actionable, 
all  but  one  little  group  of  two  or  three  species),  and 
have  been  considerably  interrupted,  or  I  should  have 
written  you  sooner. 

TO    MRS.    TORREY. 
CAMBRIDGE,  Wednesday  evening,  December  14,  1842. 

It  is  some  time  since  I  have  written  to  Princeton, 
and  longer  since  I  have  heard  from  any  of  you ;  for  I 
believe  you  are  everyone  in  my  debt.  This,  however, 
has  not  restrained  me  from  writing,  and  I  have  only 
waited  until  a  proposition  very  unexpectedly  made  me 
a  few  days  ago  snould  be  disposed  of.  I  have  been 
invited  to  lecture  before  the  Lowell  Institute  next 
year,  and  have  had  the  hardihood  to  accept !  A  cele- 

JET.  32.]  TO  MRS.   TORREY.  295 

brated  lawyer  here  says  that  he  never  hesitates  to  take 
any  case  that  offers,  to  be  argued  six  months  hence ! 
I  have  taken  this  in  much  the  same  way.  But  when 
the  time  draws  near  I  dare  say  I  shall  call  myself  a 
very  great  fool.  But  it  is  now  neck  or  nothing.  The 
money  will  be  really  very  useful  to  me ;  to  decline 
the  offer,  coming  from  one  of  the  most  influential  of 
the  corporation  of  the  college,  would  have  had  an 
unfavorable  effect  on  my  prospects,  which  moderate 
success  will  greatly  advance.  The  pay  is  $1,000  for 
twelve  lectures,  or  $1,200  if  they  are  repeated  in  the 
afternoons.  Instead  of  the  latter,  I  have  proposed  to 
give  a  collateral,  more  scientific  course  of  about  twenty 
lectures,  with  a  small  ticket-fee  to  render  the  audi- 
ence more  select,  and  for  which  I  should  get  about 
$500,  making  $1,500  in  all.  The  Institute  will  pay 
for  full  illustrations.  Mr.  Lowell  offered  at  oncejbo 
engage  me  for  two  or  three  years ;  but  I  told  him  he 
had  best  wait  to  see  how  I  succeeded.  Mr.  Lowell 
told  me  that  he  was  in  treaty  with  two  of  the  most 
distinguished  orthodox  divines  in  this  country  for 
courses  on  Natural  Theology  and  the  Evidences  of 
Christianity ;  the  one  to  commence  next  year,  the  other 
the  year  after.  I  do  not  doubt  one  is  President  Way- 
land.  Who  can  the  other  be  ?  Tell  Dr.  Torrey  he 
hopes  to  get  Faraday  next  year ;  and  Mr.  Owen  the 
year  after. 

I  shoidd  not  wonder  if  my  appointment  were  in 
some  degree  owing  to  a  little  piece  of  generosity  in  a 
small  way  that  I  played  off  not  long  since.  The  pres- 
ident has  once  or  twice  asked  me  to  hear  the  Freshmen 
next  term  in  a  course  of  recitations  from  a  text-book 
on  general  natural  history  as  a  matter  of  favor,  as  he 
did  not  wish  Mr.  Harris  or  any  one  else  to  perform  this 

296          A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1842, 

duty ;  and  offering  me,  of  course,  additional  compensa- 
tion, I  suppose  $200  or  so.  I  found,  however,  that  this 
pay  would  come  from  the  funds  of  the  Garden,  let 
who  would  perform  the  duty.  So  to  prevent  that,  I 
offered  to  perform  the  duty,  but  to  receive  no  pay  for 
it.  At  the  same  time,  however,  I  got  the  corporation 
to  appropriate  $100  for  illustrative  botanical  draw- 
ings, which  otherwise  would  have  come  out  of  my  own 
pocket.  So  you  see  I  have  work  enough  ahead,  if  I 
live,  to  give  me  both  occupation  and  anxiety.  I  have 
been  driving  away  at  the  "  Flora,"  of  late,  very  hard, 
hoping  to  come  to  New  York  to  print  next  month ; 
when  all  this  matter  must  be  laid  aside,  and  I  must 
prepare  for  my  lectures,  etc.,  for  next  term,  which  com- 
mences about  the  first  of  March. 

I  am  very  tired,  having  been  in  Boston  all  day,  — 
at  tea  at  Mr.  Albro's,  our  good  pastor,  where  I  met 
Mr.  Dana,  father  of  "  Two  Years  before  the  Mast " 
Dana,  and  passed  the  rest  of  the  evening  at  Professor 
Peirce's. 1  To-morrow  I  hope  to  have  for  study  ;  but 
the  next  day  I  shall  be  obliged  to  go  again  to  Boston, 
and  perhaps  stay  till  evening  for  a  soiree  at  Mr.  Tick- 

The  Latimer  case  has  greatly  increased  the  aboli- 
tion feeling  in  this  State,  besides  showing  that  the 
recent  decision  of  the  Supreme  Court  will  in  fact 
operate  in  favor  of  the  runaway  slave.  It  is  not  prob- 
able that  another  slave  will  ever  be  again  captured  in 
Massachusetts.  There  is  a  petition  to  Congress  in 
circulation,  designed  simply  to  express  the  feelings 
of  Massachusetts,  which  will  probably  be  signed  by 
almost  every  person  in  the  State. 

1  Benjamin  Peirce,  1809-1880 ;  professor  of  mathematics,  Harvard 

JET.  32.]  TO   GEORGE  ENGELMANN.  297 


CAMBRIDGE,  January  3,  1843. 

Your  letter,  truly  welcome  after  so  long  an  inter- 
val, reached  me  yesterday.  I  should  have  been  very 
glad  to  be  with  you  during  the  holidays,  but  cannot 
think  of  leaving  before  I  finish  these  interminable 
Composite.  I  hoped  to  have  accomplished  this  on 
Saturday  last ;  all  but  taking  up  some  dropped 
stitches ;  but  was  a  good  deal  interrupted  last  week. 
The  December  number  of  "  Annals  and  Magazine  of 
Natural  History  "  (of  which  Professor  Balfour  is  the 
botanical  editor)  contains  a  very  complimentary  no- 
tice of  the  "  Botanical  Text-Book,"  accompanied  with 
a  few  judicious  selections,  which  shows  that  the  writer 
has  looked  it  over  carefully ;  and  winds  up  by  term- 
ing it  the  best  elementary  treatise  (as  to  structural 
botany)  in  the  English  language.  So  easy  is  it  to  get 
praise  where  it  is  not  particularly  deserved !  .  .  . 

My  great  object  for  next  year  is  to  attempt  to  raise 
$10,000  from  some  of  our  rich  men,  to  rebuild  our 
greenhouse  on  a  larger  and  handsome  scale.  There 
are  a  few  men,  who  have  never  given  anything  to  the 
college,  who  may  perhaps  be  induced  to  give  for  this 


CAMBRIDGE,  MASS.,  February  13,  1843. 

I  note  with  interest  what  you  propose  in  regard  to 
Lindheimer's  collections  for  sale  in  Centuria3,  fall  into 
your  plans,  and  will  advertise  in  "  Silliman's  Journal " 
(and  in  "  London  Journal  of  Botany  ")  when  all  is 
arranged.  Pray  let  him  get  roots  and  seeds  for  me.  I 
will  do  all  I  can  for  him.  But  if  the  Oregon  bill 
passes,  a  party  under  Lieutenant  Fremont,  or  some 

298  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1843, 

one  else,  will  go  through  the  Rocky  Mountains  to 
Oregon  ;  and  parties  of  emigrants  or  explorers  will 
go  also.  Now  why  not  send  Lindheimer  in  some  of 
these  ?  Probably  the  government  party  would  afford 
him  protection,  and  probably  he  might  be  formally 
attached  to  the  party.  Fremont  will  not  take  Geyer ; 1 
but  I  believe  he  wants  some  one.  The  interesting 
region  (the  most  so  in  the  world)  is  the  high  Rocky 
Mountains  about  the  sources  of  the  Platte,  and  thence 
south.  I  will  warrant  ten  dollars  per  hundred  for 
every  decent  specimen.  If  he  collects  in  Texas,  eight 
dollars  per  hundred  is  enough.  I  write  in  haste,  hop- 
ing this  plan  may  strike  you  favorably  and  be  found 
practicable.  Let  me  know  at  once.  The  opportunity 
should  not  be  lost.  Do  send  Lindheimer  to  the  Rocky 
Mountains  if  possible. 

TO   W.    J.    HOOKER. 

CAMBRIDGE,  February  28,  1843. 

I  found  your  most  welcome  letter  on  my  return  from 
New  York  a  few  weeks  since,  and  have  since  sent  it  to 
Dr.  Torrey,  who  was  equally  delighted  with  myself  at 
the  opportunity  of  hearing  from  you. 

Our  term  opens  to-day,  and  I  am  just  on  the  point 
of  commencing  my  course  of  botanical  lectures,  which  is 
rather  formidable  to  a  beginner.  So  you  will  excuse 
my  hasty  letter.  I  would  not  miss  to-morrow's  steamer, 
as  I  wish  to  say  that  your  offer  to  furnish  our  Garden : — 
the  great  object  of  my  care  —  with  hardy  plants  from 
your  rich  stores  at  Kew  delights  me  much.  I  have 

1  Carl  Geyer,  1809-1853  ;  a  German  botanist  who  explored  the  basin 
of  the  upper  Mississippi  with  Nicollet  under  the  Bureau  of  Topo- 
graphical Engineers,  1836-1840.  Afterwards  crossed  the  Rocky 
Mountains  to  Oregon. 

^T.  32.]  TO   W.  J.  HOOKER.  299 

only  to  say  that  everything  you  can  send  will  be  truly 
welcome.  Our  stock  of  European  hardy  plants 
(whether  herbs  or  shrubs)  is  small,  and  consists  of  the 
commonest  and  oldest-fashioned  things  in  cultivation* 
These,  and  every  Californian,  Oregon,  and  Texan  plant 
of  which  you  have  duplicates  to  spare  us  (or  seeds), 
whether  hardy  or  not,  —  these  are  the  plants  I  am 
just  now  most  desirous  to  accumulate.  Greenhouse 
plants  are  scarcely  less  welcome,  but  of  those  I  will 
write  more  particularly  hereafter.  Can  you  send  us 
a  young  Araucaria  imbricata  and  Stuartia  penta- 

My  plans  for  accumulating  American  plants  were 
put  in  operation  too  late  last  autumn  to  give  us  much 
as  yet,  but  my  correspondents  throughout  the  country 
seem  interested  in  the  matter ;  some  will  reach  me  this 
spring,  and  still  more,  I  trust,  in  the  autumn.  With 
regard  to  all  these,  as  soon  as  I  .see  them  growing,  so 
that  I  can  send  them  with  authentic  names,  I  shall 
most  gladly  share  with  you.  ...  I  shall  continue  to 
direct  all  my  energies  to  the  advancement  of  our 
amiable  science  in  this  country,  not,  I  trust,  in  vain.  I 
have  a  plan  to  publish,  from  time  to  time,  figures 
of  rare  or  interesting  North  American  plants,  chiefly 
those  cultivated  in  our  Garden  and  those  upon  which 
I  may  throw  some  light.  I  think  there  are  persons 
enough  here  interested  in  the  matter,  including  gen- 
tlemen of  public  spirit  here  who  would  encourage  it 
for  the  Garden's  sake,  to  nearly  defray  the  expense, 
which  is  all  I  desire  or  expect.  .  .  . 

What  a  charming  place  you  must  be  making  of 
Kew !  What  a  field  for  the  botanist ! 

300  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1843, 

TO    MRS.    TOKREY. 

Thursday  evening,  2d  March,  1843. 

You  will  be  anxious  to  hear  how  my  first  lecture 
succeeded,  knowing  it  was  to  have  been  given  to-day.1 
But  you  must  wait  a  week  longer.  Since  my  last 
letter  was  dispatched  the  president,  finding  the  class 
would  hardly  be  ready,  desired  me  merely  to  meet 
them  to-day  for  the  purpose  of  pointing  out  the  sub- 
ject in  the  "  Text-Book,"  arranging  general  plan  and  all 
that,  postponing  my  lecture  to  Thursday  of  next  week. 
This  I  was  most  ready  to  do,  as  it  gave  me  the  oppor- 
tunity of  entering  by  degrees  upon  my  task,  feeling 
my  way  instead  of  making  a  plunge  in  regular  desper- 
ation. The  great  thing  is  self-possession.  The  mo- 
ment I  get  that  I  shall  feel  tolerably  safe.  So  I  met 
my  class  to-day,  arranged  matters,  and  made  a  few  re- 
marks without  stammering  a  bit,  so  far  as  I  recollect, 
or  speaking  much  too  fast.  My  class  consists  of 
about  two  dozen  students  (undergraduates),  mostly 
Seniors,  besides  which  any  law  or  divinity  students 
and  resident  graduates  who  choose  can  attend,  and 
several  probably  will.  For  my  recitations  in  natural 
history  generally,  I  have  divided  the  Freshmen  into 
four  sections,  about  sixteen  in  each,  two  of  which  I 
meet  on  Fridays,  and  two  on  Tuesdays  ;  have  given 
them  their  lessons,  and  to-morrow,  consequently,  I 
commence  these  recitations.  I  must  not  forget  to  tell 
you  that  since  my  return  the  Sunday-school  class  left 
by  one  of  our  people  who  has  removed  to  Boston  has 
been  given  me,  a  class  of  eight  or  nine  very  intelligent 
misses,  varying  from  sixteen  years  old  to  twelve,  all  of 
one  family,  though  originally  of  three,  some  being 
sister's  children  (orphans,  etc.).  I  am  greatly  pleased 

1  Lecture  to  his  class  in  college. 

JET.  32.]  TO  MRS.  TORREY.  301 

with  them,  delighted  with  their  docility  and  intelli- 
gence, and  anticipate  a  very  happy  time.  So  you  see 
I  have  three  sets  of  scholars,  on  different  subjects.  I 
ought  to  be  "  apt  to  teach." 

Saturday  morning.  —  I  must  dispatch  my  letter  by 
to-day's  mail,  and  as  I  am  going  to  Boston,  where  I 
have  not  been  for  a  week,  I  will  drop  it  in  the  post 
office  there,  to  insure  its  transmission  by  this  after- 
noon's mail.  Yesterday  afternoon  I  met  the  first  two 
sections  of  my  class  of  Freshmen  for  recitation.  It 
went  off  very  well.  I  am  pretty  good  at  asking  ques- 
tions. The  lads  were  well  prepared.  Next  Tuesday 
I  meet  the  third  and  fourth  sections ;  and  on  Thurs- 
day, the  ides  of  March,  I  give  my  first  lecture  on 
Botany.  If  I  succeed  well,  I  am  sure  no  one  will  be 
more  pleased  and  gratified  than  yourself,  and  that  of 
itself  is  enough  to  incite  me  to  effort.  If  I  don't  alto- 
gether succeed,  neither  satisfying  myself  nor  othefs,  I 
shall  not  be  discouraged,  but  try  again,  as  I  am  deter- 
mined to  succeed  in  the  long  run.  Nil  desperandum. 
I  shall  have  the  president  to  hear  me  ;  but  he  is  said 
always  to  fall  asleep  on  such  occasions,  and  to  be  very 
commendatory  when  he  awakes. 

I  now  board  with  the  sister  of  my  landlord,  Deacon 
Munroe,  a  table  of  only  five,  one  professor,  one  tutor, 
and  two  advanced  law  students.  We  yesterday  com- 
menced the  experiment  of  dining  at  five  o'clock,  much 
to  my  gratification,  and  if  the  other  gentlemen  like  it 
as  well  as  I  do,  we  shall  continue  to  dine  at  that  hour, 
until  summer  at  least.  It  is  very  cold  here  ;  though 
the  sun  shines  brightly  all  day,  it  scarcely  thaws  at 

302  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1843, 

CAMBRIDGE,  March  18,  1843. 

Your  most  welcome  and  long-expected  letter  of  the 
14th  reached  me  only  this  noon.  This  first  day  of 
leisure  of  this  week  has  been  a  very  busy  one.  I  have 
been  to  town,  and  just  got  back.  I  have  had  to  work 
very  hard  this  week.  I  have  got  my  course  of  recita- 
tions for  the  Freshmen  on  Smellie  well  in  progress, 
and  am  quite  interested  in  it,  though  at  first  I  thought 
it  would  have  been  a  great  bore.  The  class  are  gen- 
erally very  much  interested,  and  give  promise  that  I 
shall  reap  the  fruits  of  my  labor  when  they  become 
Sophomores  or  Seniors  and  attend  the  botanical  lec- 
tures, for  which  I  think  I  am  laying  a  foundation.  I 
am  now  perfectly  at  ease  in  my  mode  of  teaching 
them ;  I  am  pretty  good  at  questioning,  and  I  give 
them  plenty  of  illustration,  explanation,  and  ideas  not 
in  the  book,  which  pleases  arid  interests  them.  In  one 
of  the  divisions  last  week,  while  giving  them  a  sort 
of  lecture,  two  hours  long!  (to  which  they  listened 
well ;  for  I  gave  them,  or  those  who  chose,  the  oppor- 
tunity of  going  at  the  expiration  of  the  regular  hour, 
but  not  one  of  them  budged),  turning  my  head  at  a 
fortunate  moment,  I  caught  one  of  the  fellows  (rather 
a  stupid  fellow,  a  boarder  with  me  last  term)  throw- 
ing his  cap  to  his  companion  or  playing  some  trick. 
You  know  I  can  scold.  So  I  gave  him  about  half  a 
dozen  words  that  made  him  open  his  eyes  wide  ;  and 
I  do  not  think  that  he,  nor  any  of  that  division, 
will  venture  upon  anything  of  the  kind  again  very 

As  to  the  botanical  class,  which  now  numbers 
thirty  -  seven,  I  have  given  two  more  lectures,  for  I 
lectured  both  Thursday  and  Friday,  on  the  last  occa- 
sion, which  was  a  sort  of  recapitulation  quite  without 

^T.  32.]  TO  JOHN   TORRE  Y.  303 

notes,  as  a  trial.  I  am  convinced  that  for  lectures 
with  much  illustration  I  must  have  only  heads  and 
leading  ideas  written ;  for  others,  I  will  write  nearly  in 
full.  I  saw  Miss  Lowell  .  .  .  the  day  before  my  first 
lecture,  and  promised  to  call  upon  her  very  soon  if  I 
succeeded  well.  Meeting  her  the  other  evening  at 
Professor  Sparks's,  she  reproved  me  for  not  keeping 
my  word.  I  very  honestly  and  sincerely  replied  that 
I  had  not  succeeded  well,  and  was  waiting  until  I  was 
better  satisfied.  Quite  to  my  surprise,  I  found  that 
the  class,  at  least  those  she  had  seen,  her  great-nephew 
and  others,  were  well  pleased  with  it.  I  will  not  re- 
peat their  expressions,  as  retailed  to  me  by  Miss 
Lowell,  because  I  cannot  but  suspect  that  young 
Lowell  may  have  been  trying  to  humbug  her.  I  feel 
I  have  so  far  acquitted  myself  very  poorly  as  a  lec- 
turer ;  but  I  am  sustained  by  the  firm  conviction  that 
I  shall  in  the  end  do  very  well,  for  a  common  college 


May,  1843. 

I  have  been  speaking  about  the  bones  of  the  Zygo- 
don,  and  there  is  a  disposition  to  get  up  a  subscription 
in  the  Natural  History  Society  and  buy  them,  if  still 
for  sale,  the  price  not  too  great,  and  if  Dr.  Wyman, 
on  seeing  them,  recommends  the  purchase.  Do  you 
know  the  price  ?  And  whether  they  can  still  be  seen 
in  New  York,  at  Carey's  storehouse  ?  The  Boston 
zoologists  are  far  from  praising  De  Kay's  Report.  I 
heard  Silliman  on  electro-magnetism  the  other  even- 
ing (which  hardly  belongs  to  chemistry)  :  great  show 
of  experiments  ;  lauded  Henry  finely.  He  is  finish- 
ing off  with  galvanic  deflagration.  Will  Fremont  go 

304  A  DECADE    OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1843, 

west  this  year?  So  Mr.  Carey  is  going  to  Buffalo. 
Occupation  will  be  the  best  thing  for  him ;  but  we 
shall  miss  him  in  New  York.  .  .  . 

Monday  afternoon,  9th  May. 

I  have  a  few  of  Fremont's  plants  up  from  seeds. 
The  two  pine-trees  and  the  Pyxidanthera  were  re- 
ceived in  good  condition,  to  my  great  wonderment. 
Pyxidanthera  is  in  full  bloom,  and  a  drawing  of  it 
nearly  finished  (as  well  as  of  Oakesia,  about  which  I 
have  some  new  matters  that  are  curious)  by  the 
eldest  Miss  Quincy,  whom  I  have  pressed  into  the 
service.  .  .  . 

Rhododendron  Lapponicum,  from  the  White  Moun- 
tains, is  just  bursting  into  flower.  I  am  building  rock- 
work,  but  we  get  on  slowly.  All  the  work  of  the 
Garden  comes  together  this  spring,  and  all  in  a  heap. 

TO   W.    J.    HOOKER. 

CAMBRIDGE,  30th  May,  1843. 

.  .  .  The  community  here  are  very  liberal  and  pub- 
lic-spirited. They  have  just  given  by  subscription 
$25,000  for  a  telescope,  etc.,  for  our  observatory. 
The  college  have  given  me  the  use  of  seven  or  eight 
acres  of  land  lying  around  the  observatory,  finely  situ- 
ated and  diagonally  opposite  the  Botanic  Garden,  as 
an  addition.1 

As  soon  as  our  garden  begins  to  increase  and  pros- 
per, I  hope  in  a  year  from  this  we  shall  attempt  (and 
doubtless  succeed)  in  raising  the  funds  for  a  new  con- 
servatory, hot-house,  etc. 

1  Dr.  Gray  imported  a  quantity  of  small  evergreens  from  England 
and  planted  the  ground  extensively,  adding-  also  many  other  kinds. 

MT.32.]  TO   MRS.   TORREY.  305 


CAMBRIDGE,  22d  June,  1843. 

When  you  get  sufficient  collections  from  any  of 
these  botanists  for  distribution,  you  will  please  forward 
me  a  set,  with  your  own  critical  remarks.  Although 
I  excessively  dislike  to  study  special  collections  far 
ahead  of  my  work,  yet  in  these  cases  it  will  be  impor- 
tant, and  I  will  consent  to  do  it.  If  I  thus  join  in 
the  responsibility  and  labor,  which  will  be  great  to  a 
person  with  his  hands  so  full  as  mine,  the  articles 
written  on  the  subject  and  the  new  species  must  bear 
our  joint  names. 

You  cannot  have  failed  to  perceive  that  the  genus 
Astragalus  is  not  well  done  in  the  "  Flora."  .  .  . 

I  agree  with  you  generally  in  the  impropriety  of 
too  much  multiplying  names  of  species  after  the  col- 
lectors, etc.,  yet  I  think  these  are  good  names,  easily 
remembered,  and  particularly  advisable  in  very  large 
genera.  My  practical  rule  is  to  name  such  species 
after  the  discoverer,  etc.,  if  I  cannot  find  any  really 
pertinent  characteristic  name  unoccupied.  .  .  . 

There  is  much  to  be  done,  and  so  little  time  that  I 
often  wish  I  could  divide  myself  into  a  dozen  men, 
and  thus  get  on  faster.  Let  us,  however,  take  partic- 
ular pains  to  do  everything  thoroughly  as  far  as  we  go. 


CAMBRIDGE,  July  22,  1843. 

I  find  Cambridge,  in  vacation,  as  quiet  as  possible, 
—  most  people  away.  The  president's  family  were 
at  home,  and  unaffectedly  glad  to  see  me  ;  but  several 
of  them,  including  Miss  Susan,  who  makes  drawings 
for  me,  are  about  to  set  out  on  Monday  for  Lake 
Champlain,  Montreal,  and  Quebec ;  to  be  absent 

306  A  DECADE    OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1843, 

nearly  to  the  time  that  I  hope  to  leave  here  again  ; 
for  I  find,  from  the  way  the  president  takes  it  up, 
that  I  shall  have  no  difficulty  in  obtaining  the  sanc- 
tion of  the  corporation  to  my  proposed  mountain  tour. 
But  of  that  I  shall  know  certainly  in  a  day  or  two. 
In  that  case  I  shall  hope  to  see  you  again  in  the  latter 
part  of  August,  perhaps  as  soon  as  the  middle.  .  .  . 

Dr. came  here  the  day  I  returned.  He  still 

garnishes,  as  ever,  his  lack  of  ideas  with  a  deliber- 
ate profundity  of  words. 

I  found  on  my  return  a  letter  from  my  brother, 
announcing  the  approaching  marriage  of  my  youngest 
sister ;  which  event  took  place,  I  suppose,  on  the  20th 
inst.,  the  day  I  left  New  York.  Had  I  received  the 
letter  in  New  York,  I  should  have  arranged  to  be 
present  on  the  occasion.  I  wonder  if  my  turn  will 
ever  come  ! 

TO   W.    J.     HOOKER. 

CAMBRIDGE,  llth  August,  1843. 

I  leave  home  this  afternoon  for  New  York,  on  my 
way  to  the  Alleghany  Mountains  in  the  north  of 
Virginia,  where  I  expect  to  meet  my  excellent  friend 
Mr.  Sullivant,  of  Ohio.  We  hope  to  trace  the  more 
westerly  ranges  of  the  mountains  down  to  North 
Carolina  and  Tennessee,  to  revisit  my  old  ground  in 
Ashe  County,  etc.,  and  to  continue  our  journey  farther 
south  into  Georgia,  coming  out  at  Augusta  on  the 
Savannah  River ;  thence  I  may  go  to  Charleston  and 
return  by  water.  But  if  time  allows  I  shall  perhaps 
run  through  upper  Georgia  and  Alabama,  to  the 
Tennessee  River,  down  that  to  the  Ohio,  and  thence 
home.  My  chief  object  is  to  obtain  live  plants  and 
seeds  ;  we  shall  be  too  late  in  the  season  for  the  best 

JET.  32.]  TO  JOHN  TOPREY.  307 

botanizing,  yet  I  think  we  shall  be  in  the  best  time 
for  Composite.  Mr.  Sullivant  will  turn  his  attention 
primarily  to  the  Musci ;  but  we  shall  let  nothing 
escape.  Thus  at  last  I  may  hope  to  be  somewhat  use- 
ful to  you  as  a  correspondent  for  your  Garden. 

I  learn  within  a  few  days  that  Ross's  expedition  has 
been  heard  of  from  Rio.  Doubtless  Joseph  will  have 
reached  home  before  this  letter  arrives,  and  I  may 
congratulate  him — and  yourself  —  upon  his  most 
gratifying  success,  which  has  laid  a  broad  and  sure 
foundation  for  his  scientific  eminence.  His  Flora 
Antarctica  must  be  of  the  very  highest  interest  and 

ASHEVILLE,  Saturday,  September  30th,  1843. 

MY  DEAR  FRIEND,  —  Your  two  letters  which 
awaited  my  arrival  —  the  one  at  Jefferson,  the  other  at 
Asheville  —  were  indeed  refreshing.  Our  long  jour- 
ney through  Virginia  brought  us  behind  our  estimated 
time,  and  hurried  the  later  and  more  interesting  part 
of  our  operations  ;  for  Sullivant  was  getting  very  im- 
patient, as  I  wrote  in  my  last,  just  as  we  were  hurry- 
ing away  from  Jefferson. 

I  doubt  if  I  got  anything  of  much  interest  in 
Virginia,  except  Buckley's  (and  NuttalTs)  Andro- 
meda, Rhamnus  parvifolius  on  the  waters  of  Green- 
brier,  (where  did  Pursh  get  it  ?),  Heuchera  pubes- 
cens  in  fruit  and  Heuchera  hispida  Pursh !  !  out  of 
flower  and  fruit,  so  that  I  detected  it  by  the  leaves 
only  (and  got  good  roots),  not  far  from  where  Pursh 
discovered  it,  but  more  west,  on  the  frontiers  of  a 
range  of  mountains  where  this  very  local  species 
doubtless  abounds. 

308  A   DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1843, 

From  Jefferson  went  to  Grandfather ;  had  a  fine 
time  and  good  weather ;  explored  the  old  fellow 
thoroughly,  but  found  no  new  Phaenogams.  Sullivant 
made  a  great  haul  of  Mosses  and  JungermanniaB. 
Found  the  Moodys  heartily  glad  to  see  us.  The  elder 
brother  is  married  since  our  former  visit.  Miss 
Nancy  delighted  with  the  calico  dress  I  brought  her, 
and  made  me  promise  to  ask  some  of  my  lady  friends 
at  home  to  cut  out  a  pattern  for  her  in  newspaper  and 
send  by  mail,  —  to  be  in  tiptop  style,  —  in  the  very 
height  of  the  fashion !  Poor  Miss  Nancy  !  How  she 
would  look !  The  "  old  gentleman  "  (Mr.  Carey)  was 
most  affectionately  inquired  after.  Indeed  Miss 
Nancy  is  perfectly  in  love  with  him,  and  sacredly 
keeps  the  sperm-candle-end  he  gave  her  as  a  relic. 
She  gave  me  a  most  amusing  account  of  the  wonder- 
ment which  our  visit  caused.  To  it  she  attributes  the 
advantages  they  now  enjoy  both  for  religious  and  sec- 
ular instruction.  For  we  found  a  young  Episcopal 
clergyman,  sent  by  the  bishop,  resident  in  the  neigh- 
borhood, where  he  has  spent  already  almost  a  year,  — 
a  perfect  hermit,  so  far  as  civilized  society  goes.  Yet 
he  is  busily  occupied,  and  nearly  contented,  has  built 
a  little  cabin  in  full  view  of  the  Gothic  Grandfather, 
and  I  hope  is  doing  much  good.  He  accompanied  us 
to  the  mountain,  but  did  not  remain  over  night  in  our 
encampment,  having  a  distant  service  on  Saturday. 
His  name  is  Prout.  Mrs.  Torrey  will  remember 
something  about  his  history,  which  will  in  part  ac- 
count for  his  willingness  to  spend  a  few  years  in  this 
solitary  region.  I  had  hoped  to  hear  him  preach  on 
the  Sunday  we  passed  at  the  Moodys'  on  our  return 
from  the  mountain  ;  but  he  preached  at  a  station  ten 
miles  off.  A.  GRAY. 

,ET.  32.]  JOURNAL.  309 

In  one  of  his  later  mountain  journeys  Dr.  Gray 
passed  again  through  Val  Crucis  in  June,  1879  ;  and 
the  following  extract  from  Mrs.  Gray's  journal  gives 
the  sad  fate  of  the  little  mission  colony. 

"  In  the  afternoon  we  came  upon  Yal  Crucis.  .  .  . 
It  seems,  years  ago  (in  1841)  when  Dr.  Gray,  Mr. 
John  Carey,  and  others  came  exploring  in  the  moun- 
tains, Mr.  Carey  was  laid  up  for  a  while  in  a  farm- 
house, and  talking  with  the  good  people  found  them 
woefully  ignorant,  especially  of  everything  relating  to 
Christianity.  So  when  he  went  back  to  New  York 
he  corresponded  with  the  Southern  bishop,  who  be- 
stirred himself,  and  a  mission  was  sent  into  the  moun- 
tains. They  settled  at  Val  Crucis,  and  so  named  it. 
It  was  in  the  early  days  of  Ritualism,  and  the  young- 
men  thought  to  found  something  like  the  early  monas- 
tic settlements  in  England,  and,  as  it  seemed  to  the 
ignorant  people,  played  strange  pranks  and  preached 
wonderful  and  incomprehensible  doctrines  which  puz- 
zled and  bewildered  them;  then  Bishop  Ives  went 
over  to  the  Catholic  Church,  and  it  all  died  out ;  and 
here  is  the  church  (the  rude  timber  church),  with 
still  a  few  members,  but  all  the  farms  and  settlements 
passed  into  other  hands  —  as  far  as  I  could  make 
out  into  the  hands  of  a  rich  old  man,  who  lives  any- 
thing but  a  holy  life,  and  whose  boarding-house  for 
the  saw-mill  hands  in  Val  Crucis  is  an  awful  degrada- 
tion! I  saw  at  the  Duggers  a  large  old  Bible,  and 
on  it  printed  '  Society  of  the  Holy  Cro'ss,  Val  Crucis,' 
which  the  children  were  using  to  paste  stories  and 
pictures  in  !  " 

The  journal  continues  :  — 

Monday  and  Tuesday.  —  Crossed  the  Blue  Ridge, 

310  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.       [1843, 

descended  John's  River,  and  went  to  near  the  base  of 
Table  Mountain.  Wednesday,  ascended  it.  Was 
fortunate  enough  to  get  Hudsonia  montana,  specimens 
and  roots  ;  also  a  few  roots  of  Thermopsis  f raxinifolia. 
While  digging  one  of  these  near  the  base  of  the 
mountain,  struck  upon  a  little  clump  of  Schweinitzia, 
half  buried  in  the  leaves,  five  or  six  specimens ;  but  a 
long  hunt  furnished  no  more. 

Thursday,  crossed  Linville  River  in  sight  of  the 
North  Cove  (Michaux's  old  residence)  and  went  to 
Carson's  on  the  Catawba.  We  lost  a  shoe  from  our 
black  horse  while  descending  the  Blue  Ridge,  and  he 
wore  his  hoof  so  as  to  lame  him  severely.  Obliged  to 
leave  him  at  Carson's  (as  we  could  not  exchange  him 
to  advantage)  and  hire  another  horse  to  take  his  place 
for  a  week.  Crossed  the  Swananoa  gap;  got  fine 
near  view  of  Black  Mountain ;  passed  the  night 
not  far  from  its  base  (twelve  miles  from  Asheville). 
Should  have  ascended,  but  could  not  do  it  so  as  to  get 
back  Saturday  night  to  any  place  to  stay,  and  longed 
to  spend  one  Sunday  in  a  civilized  place  where  we 
could  attend  public  worship.  So  went  on  to  Ashe- 
ville to  dinner ;  passed  Saturday  afternoon  in  taking 
care  of  our  plants.  Heard  very  good  preaching  at  the 
Methodist  church  on  Sunday.  Monday  set  out  down 
the  French  Broad.  Tuesday  reached  the  Warm 
Springs ;  got  a  luxurious  bath.  Rode  the  afternoon 
through  the  rain  to  Paint  Rock,  etc. ;  stayed  the  night 
in  Tennessee  below.  Got  Buckleya  in  fruit,  and  other 
things  I  can't  now  specify.  Wednesday,  dug  up 
Buckleyas,  etc.  Left  Mr.  Sullivant  at  Warm  Springs, 
who,  not  being  able  to  bear  the  absence  from  his  wife 
and  children  longer,  has  left  me  alone  with  the  team, 
and  is  by  this  time  more  than  halfway  to  Columbus. 

.ET.  32.]  JOURNAL.  311 

Thursday,  returned  to  Asheville.  Friday,  packed  a 
fine  box  of  roots,  with  which  my  wagon  was  loaded. 
Sent  for  my  black  horse.  Saturday,  bad  weather ; 
but  made  a  little  excursion  on  horseback,  got  roots  of 
Arum  quinatum,  which,  by  the  way,  often  has  the  lat- 
eral leaflets  not  at  all  incised,  and  then  (in  fruit)  looks 
just  like  A.  Virginicum.  Buckley  is  often  inquired 
after  here,  and  seems  to  have  been  quite  a  favorite. 
He  might  have  enlivened  his  journal  had  he  informed 
us  therein  that  he  visited  both  Black  and  Bald  Moun- 
tains with  a  merry  company  of  ladies,  and  camped  out 
on  the  summit !  But  the  sly  fellow  kept  all  this  to 

I  begin  to  be  in  ajmrry ;  but  have  yet  much  to  do, 
and  find  it  rather  lonely.  Monday  and  Tuesday  I  in- 
tend to  devote  to  Hickory-Nut  Gap,  twenty-eight  miles 
and  back.  Then  visit  Black,  if  I  meddle  with  this 
mountain  at  all.  Then,  taking  final  leave  of  Asheville, 
go  into  the  mountains  near  the  head  of  French  Broad, 
take  up  my  quarters  with  a  well-known  hunter,  try  to 
reach  Pilot  and  other  high  mountains  which  Buckley 
failed  in  reaching,  and  which  have  never  been  visited 
by  a  botanist,  unless  by  Rugel ; J  thence  to  Table  Rock, 
South  Carolina,  and  by  a  roundabout  way  to  Franklin, 
Macon  County,  Tolula  Falls,  and  Clarksville,  Georgia, 
where  I  shall  try  to  sell  out  my  horses  and  wagon, 
and  take  stage  for  Athens,  where  I  am  in  the  way  to 
come  by  steam  all  the  way  to  Princeton,  via  Augusta 
and  Charleston,  which  bid  fair  to  be  healthy  enough 
to  warrant  my  passing  through  them  without  rashness. 

It  will  be  the  20th  October  ere  I  can  hope  to  take 
you  by  the  hand.  Truly  welcome  are  the  newspapers 

1  Dr.  Rugel  came  to  America,  1842 ;  settled  in  eastern  Tennessee 
and  collected  in  the  southeastern  States. 

312  A   DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.       [1843, 

you  have  kindly  sent ;  but  I  hope  for  more  by  the 
next  mail,  for  I  have  none  later  than  the  middle  of 

I  never  have  been  so  hurried,  and  had  so  little  time 
to  write,  but  shall  have  the  more  to  tell  when  I  reach 
you,  if  it  please  Providence.  Excuse  chirography  also, 
for  pen  and  ink  are  wretched  and  my  hands  sore. 

Aster  Curtisii  abounds  and  is  very  showy.  A.  El- 
liottii  takes  here  the  place  of  A.  puniceus.  I  have 
found  A.  mirabilis. 

Love  to  all,  most  warmly.  Don't  fail  to  mention 
me  to  dear  Herbert. 

Monday  morning.  —  Off  for  Hickory-Nut  Gap, 
where  the  scenery  is  said  to  be  very  grand,  and  the 
botanizing  good.  I  am  to  get  there  Asplenium  pin- 
natifidum,  Stuartia  pentagyna,  and  Parnassia  asarifo- 
lia.  Hard  work,  yet  pleasant  with  a  companion.  I 
wish  you  could  be  with  me. 

Very  pleasant  Sunday  service  in  the  Presbyterian 
church  here. 


CAMBRIDGE,  November  4,  1843. 

I  have  been  absent  in  the  mountains  of  Virginia  and 
Carolina  —  after  live  plants  —  from  llth  August  to 
yesterday ;  which  will  be  my  excuse  for  not  replying 
to  your  letter  of  September  15th.  I  hope  in  the  mean 
time  you  have  found  some  way  to  send  the  roots  you 
proposed.  There  are  now  connected  express  lines  all 
the  way  through.  L.  &  P.  Franciscus  &  Company,  No. 
90  North  Main  St.,  St.  Louis,  are  the  agents  of  Brown 
&  Company  Express,  Philadelphia;  this  connects 
with  Harnden's  Express  to  Boston,  the  speediest  and 
cheapest  method  of  sending  when  the  package  or  box 
is  not  large,  and  speed  is  desirable.  .  .  . 

JET."  33.]  TO  HIS  FATHER.  313 

Gaura  Lindheimeri  is  a  very  fine  plant,  and  flow- 
ered fully  three  months  in  our  Garden.  I  am  hav- 
ing a  drawing  —  hoping  to  publish  it  sometime.  I 
want  more  seeds  of  CEnothera  rhombipetala.  Ours 
flowered  while  I  was  away,  and  was  killed  by  the  frost, 
so  that  I  secured  no  drawing.  Send  me  all  the  seeds 
you  can. 

Inquire  about  the  express  to  the  East.  We  must 
somehow  have  the  means  of  a  more  speedy  and  regular 
communication  of  parcels. 

I  found  what  I  believe  is  your  Lepidanche  adpressa 
at  Harper's  Ferry,  Virginia.  Also  some  others  in 
the  mountains,  which,  with  a  few  other  plants,  I 
will  send  to  you  by  express  soon.  .  .  . 

You  know  I  am  obliged  now  to  prepare  for  a  ter- 
rible course  of  public  lectures,  to  commence  in  Feb- 
ruary, so  that  I  cannot  work  at  the  "  Flora "  until 
spring.  But  I  will  find  time  to  study  and  revise  any 
sets  of  Lindheimer's,  Geyer's,  and  Liider's  plants  you 
send.  .  .  . 

As  to  my  paper  on  Ceratophyllaceae,  I  have  long 
since  wished  it  unpublished,  as  it  contains  mistaken 
views.  So  I  do  not  care  to  distribute  it. 

February  2,  1844. 

I  have  saved  Gaura  Lindheimeri  by  cuttings  put  in 
pots  last  autumn.  We  shall  have  it  in  flower  early 
in  the  spring,  and  then  shall  exhibit  it  at  the  Horti- 
cultural Society's  rooms  in  Boston. 


CAMBRIDGE,  November  18,  1843. 

MY  DEAR  FATHER, — The  return  of  my  birthday 
brings  to  mind,  among  other  shortcomings,  that  I  have 

314  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1844, 

neglected  to  write  home  since  my  return.  I  have 
been  very  busy,  of  course,  since  the  3d  of  the 
month,  when  I  reached  Cambridge,  in  answering  the 
heap  of  letters  that  had  accumulated,  and  in  other 
business.  And  I  have  but  just  found  time  to  com- 
mence the  preparation  of  my  course  of  lectures  before 
the  Lowell  Institute,  which  is  to  commence  on  the 
27th  of  February,  and  which  will  give  me  plenty  of 
labor  and  anxiety  until  they  are  over.  .  .  . 

I  have  laid  in  a  good  stock  of  health  and  strength 
for  the  labors  of  the  winter  —  which  I  am  like  to  need, 
for  I  have  a  great  deal  to  do.  Another  year,  if  our 
lives  are  spared,  I  trust  you  will  make  me  a  visit  here. 
I  have  just  given  notice  that  I  shall  wish  to  take  pos- 
session of  the  Botanic  Garden  house  (now  rented  to 
one  of  the  professors)  next  autumn,  where,  if  I  can 
get  a  room  or  two  furnished,  I  shall  have  a  place  to 
entertain  you.  Affectionate  regards  to  mother  and 
all  the  family. 


CAMBRIDGE,  February  17. 

My  time  of  trial  draws  near.  A  week  from  Tues- 
day I  begin.  There  has  been  a  pretty  brisk  applica- 
tion for  tickets.  But  I  have  yet  very  much  to  do. 
My  two  last  lectures  are  not  even  blocked  out  upon 
paper.  Many  pictures  are  yet  to  be  made,  and  I  shall 
have  a  busy  time  indeed  until  they  are  all  delivered. 
The  end  will  be  deliverance  indeed.  Yet  strange  as 
it  may  seem,  my  spirits  are  rather  on  the  rise  ;  though 
I  will  not  answer  for  them  for  ten  days  longer. 

I  have  written  an  introductory  which,  with  a  few 
more  touches,  I  shall  be  satisfied  with.  And  some  of 
my  lectures  which  have  least  illustrations  —  such 

.ET.  33.]  TO  JOHN   TORREY.  315 

as  that  on  food  and  nutrition  —  are  pretty  carefully 
written  out.  I  have  contrived  a  diagram  illustrating 
the  cycle  of  relations  of  three  kingdoms,  which  I  think 
is  capital  (as  it  is  quite  original),  and  which  I  long  to 
show  you.  If  I  had  three  months  more,  I  am  con- 
vinced I  could  put  my  materials  into  the  form  of  a 
capital  course  of  lectures. 

Zuccarini  wrote  me  a  year  ago  —  when  he  sent  the 
Japanese  plants  that  we  looked  over  together  —  that 
the  Japanese  species  utterly  confounded  the  difference 
between  Rhododendron  and  Azalea ;  decandrous  species 
having  deciduous  leaves,  etc.  If  they  must  come  to- 
gether (and  De  Candolle  seems  doubtful)  it  would  be 
a  pity  you  did  not  follow  that  plan,  as  you  early 
adopted  it. 

Then  after  all,  in  such  case,  are  the  Azaleas,  as  they 
will  ever  be  called  in  cultivation,  to  make  the  section 
Azalea,  or  is  A.  procumbens  to  take  that  name  ?  .  .  . 

I  wish  you  could  see  my  Lowell  anatomical  illustra- 
tions. The  pity  is,  that  I  shall  hardly  use  them  in  this 
course,  now  that  my  introductory  lecture  only  brings 
me  down  to  them  (but  I  shall  have  them  spread  to 
look  at),  and  I  can  only  give  to  the  subject  about 
twenty  minutes  of  my  second  lecture. 

But  it  is  very  late  indeed.     Adieu. 

Yours  cordially,  A.  GRAY. 

March  1,  1844. 

Well,  you  have  heard  what  I  had  to  say  about  my 
introductory  lecture.  I  was  satisfied.  I  said  plainly 
what  I  intended  to  say  and  delivered  it  not  very  well 
indeed,  but  well  enough  to  satisfy  me  that  I  could  do 
well  with  practice.  This  evening  I  have  made  a  second 
trial,  and  a  more  trying  one  by  far.  I  have  a  cold 

316  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1844, 

and  am  a  little  hoarse,  which  was  a  good  thing,  for  as 
to  voice  I  filled  the  house.  As  I  was  full  of  illustra- 
tions, quite  as  much  as  would  cover  the  whole  side  of 
a  barn,  I  determined  to  try  the  experiment  of  lectur- 
ing by  the  general  guidance  of  my  notes  only  (which 
indeed  were  but  partly  written  out).  So  with  the 
long  pole  in  hand  to  point  at  the  pictures  I  set  at 
work,  and  talked  away  for  an  hour  and  ten  minutes. 

I  felt  like  a  person  who  can  hardly  swim,  thrown 
into  the  river,  fairly  in  for  it,  and  had  to  kick  and 
strike  to  keep  my  head  above  water.  The  results  are 
these.  I  was  by  no  means  satisfied,  and  thought  I 
had  made  almost  a  failure.  I  left  out  many  important 
points,  I  repeated  myself  a  little  now  and  then,  and, 
—  the  usual  result  of  extemporizing,  —  I  did  not  get 
through,  but  was  obliged  to  break  off  in  the  midst  of 
the  best  of  it.  But,  in  spite  of  some  difficulties  of  ex- 
pression, and  bad  sentences,  the  whole  was  probably 
more  spirited  in  appearance  than  if  I  had  followed 
my  notes.  And  the  audience  generally  seemed  more 
moved  by  it  than  by  the  first. 

I  consider  it  thus  far  successful ;  that  under  unfa- 
vorable circumstances,  for  I  had  no  time  to  look  over 
my  notes  beforehand,  I  made  a  desperate  lunge,  and 
yet  avoided  a  real  failure.  It  will  place  me  so  much 
at  ease  that  I  can  hereafter,  with  or  without  notes, 
look  fairly  at  my  audience  without  wincing.  So  I 
shall  do  better  hereafter.  .  .  . 

I  send  you  my  notes  (on  Vacciniums)  as  far  as 
written  before  I  left  for  the  South  last  summer  ;  and 
with  all  Boott's  memoranda  as  material.  It  would  be 
crazy  for  me  now  to  attempt  to  make  any  memoranda, 
or  even  to  make  the  corrections  that  the  new  data 
require.  Conclusions  formed  in  hurly-burly  are  good 

JET.  33.]  TO  J.  D.  HOOKER.  317 

for  nothing  ;  and  I  cannot,  and  must  not,  think  of 
anything  but  my  task.  The  two  last  of  my  lectures 
are  not  even  arranged  yet. 

TO   J.    D.    HOOKER. 

CAMBRIDGE,  1st  March,  1844. 

MY  DEAR  FRIEND,  —  I  was  very  much  gratified  at 
receiving  your  kind  letter  of  January  16 ;  and  I  was 
quite  startled  at  the  lapse  of  time,  I  assure  you,  when 
you  reminded  me  that  five  years  had  elapsed  since  we 
were  running  about  the  streets  of  London  together. 
Since  that  time  you  have  seen  the  world,  indeed,  'or 
some  very  out-of-the-way  parts  of  it;  and  you  now 
stand  in  a  perfectly  unrivaled  position  as  a  botanist, 
as  to  advantages,  etc.,  with  the  finest  collections  and 
libraries  of  the  world  within  your  reach ;  and  if  you 
do  not  accomplish  something  worth  the  while,  you 
ought  not  to  bear  the  name  of  Hooker. 

I  thank  you  most  cordially  for  all  the  news  you 
kindly  give  me  respecting  the  family,  and  wish  to 
return  my  best  thanks  for  being  remembered  to  one 
and  all.  Your  good  old  grandfather  holds  out  so 
well  that  really  I  sometimes  think  I  may  yet  take  him 
again  by  the  hand  ;  for  I  long  to  make  another  visit 
to  England.  Perhaps  I  may  in  two  or  three  years. 
But  I  hope  ere  that  to  see  you  here,  where  you  may 
depend  upon  a  most  hearty  reception ;  and  the 
Greenes  (who  send  remembrances)  join  me  strenu- 
ously in  begging  you  will  make  us  a  visit.  After  Sir 
William  and  Lady  Hooker  (seniores  priores),  whom 
we  cannot  expect  to  see  under  present  circumstances, 
there  is  nobody  in  England  I  could  so  much  wish  to 
see  as  yourself. 

Had  I  time,  I  should  fill   this   sheet  with  gossip 

318  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1844, 

about  my  occupations,  plans,  and  prospects.  Of  these 
hereafter,  for  I  hope  our  correspondence  will  not  end 
here.  But  I  am  now  exceedingly  pressed  for  time, 
having  just  commenced  my  course  of  public  lectures 
in  Boston  on  physiological  botany.  Indeed  I  have 
the  second  lecture  to  give  this  evening,  and  much 
preparation  yet  to  make  for  it.  But  I  must  tell  you 
that  in  August  next  I  am  to  take  possession  of  the 
house  which  belongs  to  our  little  Botanic  Garden,  — 
a  quiet  pleasant  place,  where  I  am  to  set  up  a  bachelor 
establishment,  have  room  enough  for  my  herbarium, 
wnich  I  shall  arrange  a  la  Hooker,  and  a  bed  and 
a  plate  for  a  friend.  So,  if  you  wish  to  take  an  au- 
tumnal excursion,  step  on  board  the  steamer  and  so 
drop  in  upon  me  some  morning,  where  you  may  de- 
pend upon  —  in  a  humble  way  —  as  cordial  a  recep- 
tion as  I  once  received  in  Scotland. 

Sullivant,  who  is  a  good,  spirited  fellow,  is  delighted 
at  the  thought  of  receiving  a  set  of  your  cryptogamic 
collections.  As  to  your  generous  proposal  to  send 
another  to  some  public  collection  in  this  country,  we 
will  see.  I  will  write  something  about  it  in  due  time. 


CAMBRIDGE,  25th  March,  [1844]. 

I  think  I  should  be  an  unhappy,  discontented,  un- 
thankful person  not  to  be  gratified  with  the  success  of 
my  lectures.  But  it  is  not  likely  to  turn  my  head. 
Everything  proceeds  quietly  and  soberly.  I  pur- 
posely directed  no  tickets  to  be  sent  to  a  paper  that 
often  reports  lectures,  as  I  did  not  wish  it  done.  There 
has  not  been  a  line  in  the  papers  about  the  matter, 
except  the  very  considerate  notice  about  the  beginning, 
which  I  sent  you.  My  last  week's  lectures  are  called 

^T.  33.]  TO  JOHN   TORREY.  319 

much  the  best.  The  first,  on  the  anatomy  and  physi- 
ology of  leaves,  and  exhalation  and  its  consequences, 
occupied  an  hour  and  twenty  minutes.  My  last,  on 
food  of  plants,  vegetable  digestion,  and  the  relations 
of  plants  to  mineral  and  animal  kingdoms,  —  in  which 
I  did  my  very  best,  and  which  required  and  secured 
the  most  intense  attention  on  the  part  of  the  audi- 
ence for  a  hundred  minutes,  —  was  received  with  an 
intelligent  enthusiasm  which  did  the  audience  credit. 
For  it  would  be  mere  affectation  for  me  to  pretend 
not  to  know  —  as  I  well  do  —  that  it  is  one  of  the  best 
scientific  lectures  that  have  ever  been  delivered  in 
Boston.  I  have  none  left  to  compare  with  it.  I  have 
only  four  more  to  give,  during  which  I  dare  say  the 
interest  will  fall  off;  which  will  not  disappoint  or 
mortify  me.  From  your  truly  kind  remarks  and  warn- 
ings I  suppose  you  look  upon  my  success  in  this  un- 
dertaking as  extremely  hazardous  to  my  best  interests. 
Now  this  duty  came  to  me  unsolicited  and  unexpected. 
I  accepted  it  because  I  thought  it  was  my  duty  to  do 
so.  Then  I  was  of  course  bound  to  make  every  con- 
sistent effort  to  insure  success.  While  viewing  it  at 
a  distance,  I  felt  much  anxiety.  But  before  I  com- 
menced, this  entirely  disappeared,  and  I  have  gone  on 
just  as  coolly  as  you  might  do  with  your  chemical 
course.  I  am  thankful  that  (owing  chiefly  to  the 
nature  and  novelty  of  the  subject)  I  have  done  my 
work  creditably.  The  little  eclat  which  attends  it, 
I  am  not  so  foolish  as  to  care  anything  for,  pro  or 
con.  It  is  entirely  ephemeral.  It  may  gratify  my 
friends  ;  but  it  does  me  no  good,  and  I  trust  no  harm. 
The  general  result  may  benefit  the  science  of  this  part 
of  the  country.  It  will  probably  tend  to  advance 
my  interests,  as  I  certainly  wish  it  may,  the  object 

320  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1844, 

of  my  ambition  being  high  and  honorable,  as  well  as 
moderate.  .  .  . 

Though  I  feel  that  I  often  —  always  —  fail  to  do 
my  whole  duty,  yet  I  do  not  feel,  nor  believe,  that  a 
perfectly  consistent  Christian  course  would  expose  me 
to  persecution  ;  nor  that  obloquy  is  a  test  of  Christian 
character.  These  are  to  be  borne  like  other  evils, 
when  they  are  incurred  in  the  course  of  one's  duty  ; 
but  surely  they  are  not  to  be  sought,  nor  viewed  as  a 
test.  Under  the  circumstances  under  which  we  are 
placed,  would  our  unexpectedly  meeting  with  obloquy 
be  any  test  to  us  that  we  were  doing  right  ?  Would 
it  not  lead  us  to  suspect  we  had  been  at  least  unwise  ? 
Such  men  as  Payson  or  Edwards,  though  they  may 
often  have  been  pitied,  I  suspect,  were  never  perse- 
cuted. But,  while  I  think  you  take  a  one-sided  view 
and  assume  an  unscriptural  test,  in  your  own  case,  I 
thank  you  most  sincerely  for  your  kind  admonition  to 
me,  and  will  try  to  profit  by  it.  My  sheet  is  fairly 

I  need  not  say  how  delighted  I  should  be  to  see  you 
here  ;  but  you  must  not  come  till  the  spring  has  fairly 
commenced,  at  least.  The  weather  is  excessively  un- 
pleasant, the  roads  almost  impassable  ;  it  snows  every 
three  or  four  days,  and  not  a  speck  of  green  is  yet  to 
be  seen.  A  month  later  it  will  be  comfortable  here. 
I  fear  I  shall  not  have  a  place  to  receive  you  before 
autumn,  as  a  hoiise  is  yet  to  be  built  for  Dr.  Walker. 
But  I  should  still  like  to  have  a  visit  from  you  in  the 
course  of  the  summer. 

Dr.  Gray  was  always  deeply  interested  in  the  reli- 
gious thought  of  the  day  ;  reticent  in  regard  to  his  own 
religious  feelings  and  sensitive  about  any  exhibition 

^T.  33.]      A    DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        321 

of  them,  he  was  ready  at  any  time  to  discuss  problems  of 
theology  and  ecclesiaticism.  His  temper  was  naturally 
conservative,  and  he  held  by  the  habits  of  thought  which 
had  been  early  formed ;  but  he  was  open  to  conviction, 
and  by  the  process  of  his  own  thought  broke  through 
narrow  bounds  and  rejoiced  in  all  true  progress  in  re- 
ligion, both  for  himself  and  others.  In  the  matter  of 
scriptural  authority,  for  example,  he  was  in  accord 
with  Soame  Jenyns,  taking  the  ground  quoted  here  : 

"  The  Scriptures,"  says  that  writer,  in  his  "  Internal 
Evidences  of  Christianity,"  "  are  not  revelations  from 
God,  but  the  history  of  them.  The  revelations  them- 
selves are  derived  from  God,  but  the  history  of  them  is 
the  production  of  man.  If  the  records  of  this  revela- 
tion are  supposed  to  be  the  revelation  itself,  the  least 
defect  discovered  in  them  must  be  fatal  to  the  whole. 
What  has  led  many  to  overlook  this  distinction  is  that 
common  phrase  that  the  Scriptures  are  the  Word  of 
God ;  and  in  one  sense  they  certainly  are ;  that  isr 
they  are  the  sacred  repository  of  all  the  revelations, 
dispensations,  promises,  and  precepts  which  God  has 
vouchsafed  to  communicate  to  mankind ;  but  by  this 
expression  we  are  not  to  understand  that  every  part  of 
this  voluminous  collection  of  historical,  poetical,  pro- 
phetical, theological,  and  moral  writing  which  we  call 
the  Bible  was  dictated  by  the  immediate  influence  of 
Divine  inspiration." 

He  held  this  ground  strongly  when  the  general  view 
of  the  Bible  was  narrower  than  of  late  years.  As  the 
years  went  on  he  grew  broader  and  sweeter,  feeling 
wider  sympathy  with  all  true,  devout  religious  belief. 

He  was  a  constant  church-goer,  everywhere.  When 
traveling  he  always  made  Sunday  a  resting-day  if 
possible,  and  would  go  quietly  off  in  the  morning  to 

322  A  DECADE    OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1844, 

find  some  place  of  service,  in  English  if  he  could.  He 
enjoyed  the  Episcopal  service,  though  early  habit  and 
training  had  made  him  a  Presbyterian  ;  but,  as  he 
wrote  in  an  early  letter,  "  In  fact  I  have  no  more 
fondness  for  high  Calvinistic  theology  than  for  Ger- 
man neology.  .  .  .  But  I  have  no  penchant  for  mel- 
ancholy, sober  as  I  sometimes  look,  but  turn  always, 
like  the  leaves,  my  face  to  the  sun." 

He  was  a  teacher  in  Sunday-schools  in  New  York 
(the  lady  with  whom  he  boarded  has  still  a  lively  re- 
membrance of  his  enthusiastic  study  of  German  that 
he  might  teach  his  class  of  German  boys  better),  and 
also  in  his  early  years  of  Cambridge  life,  until  the 
heavy  load  of  work  he  was  carrying  made  the  Sunday 
more  imperative  as  a  day  of  rest.  It  was  his  rule  to 
rest  on  Sunday.  Rest  for  him  was  change  of  intellec- 
tual occupation,  and  he  read  all  of  the  day  he  was  not 
out  at  church ;  more  especially  on  the  philosophical 
questions,  whether  general  or  scientific,  which  next  to 
botany  were  his  chief  interest.  Books  on  these  sub- 
jects were  the  few  he  bought  outside  of  works  on  bot- 
any ;  as  he  said,  he  could  only  afford  botanical  books 
and  had  no  money  or  room  for  general  literature.  He 
read  the  leading  magazines,  and  occasionally  biogra- 
phies and  travels,  and  if  he  had  friends  staying  with 
him,  Sunday  was  the  day  for  talk  and  discussion. 
A  friend  writes  such  a  lively  reminiscence  of  one  of 
these  Sunday  discussions,  on  a  stormy  winter  day 
which  shut  all  in  the  house,  that  it  seems  worth  giving 
as  a  vivid  description  of  him. 

"  Dr.  Gray  is  more  associated  with  the  study  and 
the  room  next  it,  but  I  recall  him  there  (in  the  par- 
lor) also,  especially  in  the  visit  of  which  you  wrote, 
made  when  Mr.  John  Carey  was  with  you.  He  and 

JET.  33.]      A   DECADE   OF   WORK  AT  HOME.        323 

the  doctor  held  one  Sunday  a  long  discussion  on  the 
Ten  Commandments  as  binding  upon  Christians.  Mr. 
Carey  argued  that  their  only  claim  upon  our  obedience 
consisted  in  their  having  been  re-ordained  (indorsed 
as  it  were)  by  the  church,  —  whether  that  meant  the 
Holy  Catholic  or  simply  the  Anglican  Church  was 
not  decided,  as  I  remember.  Dr.  Gray  combated  this 
extreme  church  view  warmly  and  cleverly.  Both  were 
pugnacious  amiably,  as  in  their  botanical  fights.  Both 
were  excited,  and  the  doctor  showed  his  excitement 
in  his  characteristically  self-forgetful  way,  by  moving 
or  jumping  nervously  about  the  room,  sitting  on 
the  floor,  lying  down  flat,  but  laughing  and  sending 
sparks  out  of  his  eyes,  and  plying  his  arguments  and 
making  his  witty  thrusts  all  the  while.  I  enjoyed  it 
very  much,  scarcely  observing  the  odd  positions  any 
more  than  the  doctor  did.  I  had  seen  him  so  conduct 
himself  before." 

It  may  be  added  to  this  that  Dr.  Gray  was  notice- 
able throughout  his  life  for  his  alertness.  In  the  street 
he  was  usually  on  a  half  run,  for  he  never  allowed 
himself  quite  time  enough  to  reach  his  destination 
leisurely.  When  traveling  by  coach  and  climbing  a 
hill  he  would  sometimes  alarm  his  fellow-travellers  by 
suddenly  disappearing  through  a  window  in  his  eager- 
ness to  secure  some  plant  he  had  spied ;  his  haste  would 
not  suffer  him  to  open  a  door.  As  his  motions  were 
quick,  so  that  he  seemed  always  ready  for  a  spring, 
so  he  found  instant  relaxation  by  throwing  himself 
flat  on  the  floor  when  tired,  to  rest,  like  a  child. 

His  physical  characteristics  expressed  something  of 
his  mental  qualities.  He  was  quick  and  impetuous  in 
temper,  but  his  excitement  was  short-lived,  and  his 
prevailing  spirit  was  one  of  apparently  inexhaustible 

324          A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1844, 

good-nature.  He  was  the  cheeriest  of  household  com- 
panions ;  rarely  was  he  depressed,  only  indeed  when 
greatly  fagged  with  some  tremendous  pressure  of  work 
or  some  worrying  trouble  difficult  to  settle;  he  was 
exceedingly  hopeful,  and  always  carried  with  him  a 
happy  assurance  that  everything  was  going  on  well  in 
his  absence  ;  withal,  he  was  fearless  in  all  adventure, 
never  willing  to  allow  there  had  been  any  danger 
when  it  had  passed !  He  was  fond  of  arguing,  but 
no  partisan,  so  that  however  earnest  and  dogmatic 
he  might  seem,  the  moment  the  discussion  was  over 
there  was  no  trace  of  bitterness  or  vexation  left.  He 
was  a  clear  and  close  reasoiier  himself,  and  thus  im- 
patient of  defective  reasoning  or  a  confused  statement 
in  others.  He  was  quick,  too,  in  turning  his  opponents' 
weapons  against  them ;  sometimes  he  would  escape 
from  a  dilemma  in  a  merry,  plausible  form,  but  in 
serious  argument  he  always  insisted  upon  downright 

TO   W.    J.    HOOKER. 

April  1,  1844. 

I  finish  my  course  of  Lowell  lectures  this  week, 
which  have  succeeded  beyond  my  most  sanguine  ex- 
pectations. I  have  restricted  myself  to  physiological 
botany  only,  —  taken  up  only  great  leading  views,  - 
used  very  large  paintings  for  illustrations,  six  to  eight 
feet  high,  which  the  great  size  of  the  room  required, 
and  then  have  given  to  sound  scientific  views  a  gen- 
eral popular  interest. 


CAMBRIDGE,  May  24,  1844. 

I   have  been  using  Dr.    Wyman's  microscope   of 
late,  and  it  works  well.     By  the  way,  I  have  been 

*:T.  33.]  TO  JOHN   TORREY.  325 

studying  fertilization  a  little,  and  have  got  out  pollen- 
tubes  of  great  length ;  have  followed  them  down  the 
style,  have  seen  them  in  the  cavity  of  the  ovary,  and 
close  to  the  orifice  of  the  ovule. 

My  first  views  were  in  Asarum  Canadense  and  A. 
arifolium,  where  I  can  very  well  see  the  pollen-tubes 
with  even  my  three-line  doublet !  I  have  seen  them 
finely  in  Menyanthes ;  and  in  the  ovary  in  Chelidonium ! 

I  am  lecturing l  in  a  popular  and  general  way  en- 
tirely on  physiological  botany,  and  offering  no  encour- 
agement to  any  to  pursue  systematic  botany  this  year. 
My  great  point  is  to  make  physiological  botany  ap- 
pear as  it  should  be,  —  the  principal  branch  in  general 
education.  Next  year  I  hope  to  take  up  the  other 

I  am  using  the  Lowell  illustrations  (though  too 
large  for  my  room),  and  am  having  no  additional  ones 
made  for  the  college.  For  simple  things  I  depend 
much  upon  the  blackboard.  I  have  given  two  lectures 
on  the  longevity  of  trees,  and  have  a  third  yet  to  give, 
or  at  least  half  of  another.  .  .  . 

The  plants  from  the  mountains  have  some  done  well, 
others  poorly.  Buckleyas  had  a  hard  time,  of  it. 
Many  are  dead  ;  none  I  think  will  flower  this  season, 
as  they  only  put  out  from  the  root.  Diphylleia,  Saxi- 
fraga  Careyana,  a  new  one  like  it,  also  S.  erosa,  etc., 
are  now  in  flower.  Astilbe  is  in  bud,  also  Vaccinium 
ursimim.  One  Carex  Fraseri  flowered.  Hamiltonia 
only  starts  from  the  root. 

In  1844,  finding  he  needed  more  room  for  his  rap- 
idly increasing  herbarium,  Dr.  Gray  applied  for  the 
use  of  the  Botanic  Garden  house,  which  since  the  death 

1  To  his  college  class. 

326  A   DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1844, 

of  Dr.  Peck  had  been  occupied  for  a  while  as  a  board- 
ing-house, and  later  by  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Walker.  He 
moved  into  it  in  September,  and  there  remained  until 
the  end  of  his  life.  He  had  a  great  attachment  for 
the  house,  as  the  only  one  in  which  he  had  resided  for 
any  length  of  time  ;  and  it  saw  the  gradual  growth  of 
his  herbarium,  needing  before  many  years  the  addition 
of  a  wing  to  give  more  room,  until,  having  overrun 
all  possible  places  for  its  accommodation,  it  was  re- 
moved in  1864  into  the  fireproof  building  which  now 
holds  it. 

The  garden  was  laid  out  by  Dr.  Peck  in  1808,  and 
the  house  built  for  him  was  finished  in  1810.  Mr. 
Nuttall,  the  botanist  and  ornithologist,  who  boarded 
in  it  while  giving  instruction  in  botany,  left  some  curi- 
ous traces  behind  him.  He  was  very  shy  of  intercourse 
with  his  fellows,  and  having  for  his  study  the  south- 
east room,  and  the  one  above  for  his  bedroom,  put  in 
a  trap-door  in  the  floor  of  an  upper  connecting  closet, 
and  so  by  a  ladder  could  pass  between  his  rooms  with- 
out the  chance  of  being  met  in  the  passage  or  on  the 
stairs.  A  flap  hinged  and  buttoned  in  the  door  be- 
tween the  lower  closet  and  the  kitchen  allowed  his 
meals  to  be  set  in  on  a  tray  without  the  chance  of  his 
being  seen.  A  window  he  cut  down  into  an  outer 
door,  and  with  a  small  gate  in  the  board  fence  sur- 
rounding the  garden,  of  which  he  alone  had  the  key, 
he  could  pass  in  and  out  safe  from  encountering  any 
human  being. 

The  garden,  though  small,  was  planned  with  much 
skill,  and  when  Dr.  Gray  first  lived  on  the  place  was 
much  more  filled  up  in  the  centre  with  trees  and 
shrubs,  so  that  since  one  was  unable  to  see  from  one 
path  to  another,  it  seemed  much  larger  than  when 

JET.  33.]  TO  JOHN    TORREY.  327 

more  open.  Dr.  Peck,  who  had  visited  Europe  and 
learned  much  of  botanical  gardens  there,  when  com- 
plimented on  his  success  in  laying  it  out,  said  that  "  he 
felt  he  had  been  at  work  on  a  pocket-handkerchief  !  " 
Dr.  Gray,  as  his  letters  show,  fell  earnestly  at  work  to 
restock  the  garden,  and  from  his  various  journeys,  his 
correspondents,  and  the  many  seeds  and  roots  which 
were  coming  in  from  the  Western  explorations  soon 
made  it  a  valuable  spot  for  exchange.  It  is  interesting 
to  note  how  many  plants,  now  the  common  stock  of  all 
gardens,  were  first  grown  and  flowered  here.  One 
bed  for  many  years  always  went  by  the  familiar  name 
of  "  Texas,"  as  being  the  place  where  the  new  Texan 
seeds  were  grown.  The  fund  for  endowment  was  very 
small,  and  added  greatly  to  the  care  of  its  oversight, 
because  of  the  effort  to  keep  within  the  income.  For 
two  years  after  Dr.  Gray  was  living  in  the  Garden 
house,  he  gave  up  two  bed-rooms  to  the  greenhouse 
plants,  and  so  saved  the  Garden  the  expense  of  fuel  for 
that  period!  One  of  his  first  deeds  was  to  abolish  the 
fee  and  make  admission  to  the  Garden  free.  It  was 
the  first  —  and  remained  for  more  than  sixty  years 
the  only  —  public  botanic  garden  in  the  country. 


Tuesday  evening,  October  1,  1844. 

I  am  about  half  fixed  at  the  Garden,  and  shall  prob- 
ably sleep  there  to-morrow  night.  Were  it  not  that 
my  woman-kind  has  disappointed  me,  we  should  dine 
there  to-morrow.  .  .  . 

Dr.  Wyman  l  wishes  much  to  accompany  Fremont  if 
he  goes  on  another  journey,  entirely  at  his  own  expense, 
if  need  be.  As  his  object  is  entirely  zoology,  he  will 

1  Dr.  Jeffries  Wyman. 

328  A   DECADE   OF   WORK  AT  HOME.        [1845, 

not  interfere  with  Fremont's  botanical  plans,  while  the 
results  would  redound  to  Fremont's  advantage.  He  is 
a  most  amiable,  quiet,  and  truly  gentlemanly  fellow, 
retiring  to  a  fault,  but  full  of  nerve,  and  surely  is  to 
be  the  great  man  of  this  country  in  the  highest 
branches  of  zoology  and  comparative  anatomy.  I 
therefore  very  strenuously  solicit  your  influence  at 
court  in  his  behalf. 

I  am  glad  that  Fremont  takes  so  much  personal  in- 
terest in  his  botanical  collections.  He  will  do  all  the 
more.  I  should  like  to  see  his  plants,  especially  the 
Composite  and  Rosacese.  As  to  Conifera3  he  should 
have  the  Taxodium  sempervirens,  so  imperfectly 
known,  and  probably  a  new  genus.  Look  quick  at  it, 
for  it  is  probably  in  Coulter's  collection  which  Harvey 
is  working  at.  ...  Cordially  yours, 

A.  GRAY. 

February  12,  1845. 

My  first  lecture  is  to-day  finished,  and  has  this 
evening  been  read  to  Mr.  Albro.1  Half  of  it  is  de- 
voted to  a  serving  up  of  "  Vestiges  of  Creation  "  (which 
Boott  says  is  written  by  Sir  Richard  Vivian),  show- 
ing that  the  objectionable  conclusions  rest  upon 
gratuitous  and  unwarranted  inferences  from  estab- 
lished or  probable  facts.  Peirce  is  examining  Mul- 
der,2 that  we  may  fairly  get  at  his  point  of  view.  His 
conclusions  as  to  equivocal  generation  are  non-constat 
from  his  own  premises.  On  the  whole  series  of  sub- 
jects Peirce  —  who  is  much  pleased  with  the  way  I 

1  This  was  Dr.  Gray's  second  course  of  Lowell  lectures.  Dr.  John 
A.  Albro,  the  Congregationalist  minister  of  Cambridge,  was  his  pas- 

'2  G.  J.  Mulder,  1802-1880;  professor  of  chemistry  in  the  University 
of  Utrecht.  Wrote  on  Animal  and  Vegetable  Physiology. 

^T.  34.]  TO  JOHN   TORREY.  329 

have  put  the  case  in  my  introductory  —  and  myself 
think  of  concocting  a  joint  article,  though  my  time 
will  prevent  me  from  working  out  some  of  the  subsidi- 
ary points  just  now. 

I  assure  you  I  am  quite  well  and  hearty,  just  in 
capital  working  mood.  As  to  the  lectures,  I  must 
work  hard  all  the  way  through,  but  do  not  feel  any 
misgivings.  My  house  is  hot  enough,  I  assure  you ; 
no  trouble  on  that  score.  As  to  spontaneous  genera- 
tion, the  experiment  of  Schultz  l  is  nearly  or  quite  a 
test,  and  goes  against  it.  Love  to  all. 

Ever  yours,  A.  GRAY. 

The  next  letter  contains  the  first  allusion  to  Isaac 
Sprague,  so  long  associated  with  Dr.  Gray  as  illustra- 
tor of  his  works.  Isaac  Sprague  was  born  in  Hing- 
ham  in  1811.  He  early  showed  a  faculty  for  observa- 
tion, and  a  gift  for  painting  birds  and  flowers  from 
nature.  His  talent  was  discovered,  and  he  was  invited 
by  Audubon  in  1843  to  join  his  expedition  to  Mis- 
souri, and  to  assist  in  making  drawings  and  sketches. 
President,  then  Professor,  Felton,  having  met  him  in 
Hingham,  and  knowing  Dr.  Gray  was  looking  for 
some  one  for  his  scientific  drawings,  recommended 
Mr.  Sprague,  and  he  began  with  the  illustrations  for 
the  Lowell  lectures  and  the  new  edition  of  the  "  Bo- 
tanical Text-Book."  Dr.  Gray  was  delighted  with  his 
gift  for  beauty,  his  accuracy,  his  quick  appreciation 
of  structure  and  his  skill  in  making  dissections.  Mr. 
Sprague  was  from  that  time  the  chief,  and  mostly 
only,  illustrator  for  his  books,  both  educational  and 
purely  scientific. 

1  Carl  H.  Schultz-Schultzenstein,  1798-1871 ;  professor  of  physi- 
ology in  the  University  of  Berlin.  Wrote  voluminously  upon  Cyclosis 
and  the  Vessels  of  the  Latex,  etc. 

330  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.       [1845, 

Dr.  Gray  is  said  to  have  stated  that  Mr.  Sprague 
had  but  one  rival,  —  Riocreux ;  and  he  considered 
that  draughtsman's  classical  drawings  inferior  to  Mr. 


CAMBRIDGE,  March  8,  [1845  ?] 

...  I  finish  Lichens  this  afternoon ;  and  have 
next  two  lectures  on  Fungi  and  spontaneous  genera- 
tion to  give.  I  interweave  a  good  deal  of  matter, 
such  as,  on  Ferns,  the  part  they  played  in  the  early 
times  of  the  world,  a  la  Brongniart.  Mosses,  filling 
up  lakes  and  pools  ;  Sphagnum,  Peat.  Lichens,  first 
agents  in  clothing  rocks  with  soil.  I  have  noble  illus- 
trations of  rust  in  wheat,  ergot,  etc.,  and  Sprague  is 
now  hard  at  work  on  smut,  a  la  Bauer. 

You  remember  the  letter  I  sent  you  from  Prestele  of 
"  Ebenezer,  near  Buffalo,"  and  which  you  still  hold. 
Well,  he  has  sent  me  for  inspection  a  most  superb  set 
of  drawings,  both  of  cultivated  and  of  some  native 
plants,  exceedingly  well  done.  Also  specimens  of  his 
work  in  cutting  on  stone,  which  he  does  admirably. 
He  did  the  work  in  BischofFs  "  Terminology,"  which 
perhaps  you  remember,  two  quarto  volumes.  What  a 
pity  he  did  not  have  the  State-Flora  plates  to  execute ! 

If  Dr.  Beck  and  yourself  go  on  with  your  plan,  he 
is  your  man  to  engrave  the  plates  on  stone.  Our  Illi- 
cium  is  now  in  full  flower  ;  but  I  cannot  spare  Sprague 
a  moment  to  draw  it  yet ;  unless,  indeed,  it  is  quite 
certain  you  will  want  it  this  year,  when  I  would  try. 
He  must  work  hard  for  me  two  weeks  longer.  .  .  . 

My  cutting  up  of  "  Vestiges  of  Creation "  was  a 
fine  blow,  and  told.  Peirce,  who  you  know  was  rather 
inclined  to  favor  Rogers  a  while  ago,  is  now  sound 

arc.  34.]  TO  JOHN   TORRE  Y.  331 

and  strong.  We  think  of  sending  a  critical  analysis 
of  the  first  part  of  Mulder,  as  our  joint  work  (if  he 
finds  time  to  put  in  form  the  physiological  deductions 
I  give  him),  to  the  meeting  of  geologists  and  natural- 
ists at  New  Haven  next  month. 

Mulder  is  very  ingenious  ;  but  we  can  blow  up  the 
whole  line  of  his  arguments,  and  show  that  it  all 
amounts  to  nothing ;  that  he  has  not  in  this  advanced 
our  knowledge  a  particle ;  and  that  his  generalizations 
are  unsound.  Why  did  you  not  have  a  part  of  my 
article  reprinted  in  New  York  ?  That  would  be  the 
best  reply  to  all  his  stuff. 

The  printing  of  my  book  will  be  through  next  week. 

March  30. 

I  am  now  half  through,  and  have  got  almost  done 
with  Fungi.  The  audience  take  so  much  to  the 
"  Cryptogamic  matters,"  especially  the  afternoon  audi- 
ence, which  is  as  a  whole  the  most  intelligent  and  re- 
fined, that  I  let  them  run  on,  and  they  will  occupy  the 
whole  course,  except  three  lectures.  I  gave  one  lec- 
ture, generally  thought  nearly  the  best,  on  the  large 
Fungi,  mushrooms,  truffles,  morels,  puff-balls,  with 
some  good  general  matters.  To-day  I  have  taken  the 
small  ones,  moulds,  mildews,  rust,  and  smut  in  wheat, 
with  superb  illustrations.  Ergot  is  still  left  over, 
along  with  the  diseases  in  potatoes,  the  plant  of 
fermentation,  the  Botrytis  that  kills  silk-worms,  with 
some  recapitulatory  matters  on  spontaneous  generation, 
which  must  be  cooked  up  for  Friday.  Then  comes 
Alga3 ;  the  large  proper  ones  (Lecture  8),  of  which  a 
fine  series  of  illustrations  is  now  nearly  done. 

Lecture  9.  Then  the  low,  minute  forms  and  Con- 
fervae  come,  and  gory  dew,  red  snow,  superbly  illus- 

332          A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.         [1845, 

trated,  ending  with  diatoms,  transitions  to  corallines 
through  sponge,  etc.,  and  the  locomotive  spores  of 
Confervse,  Zoosporeae. 

Lecture  10.  Whole  subject  of  spontaneous  move- 
ments and  sensibility  in  flowering  plants,  the  life  of 
plants,  etc.  (treated  in  a  somewhat  original  way),  and 
the  real  differences  between  plants  and  animals. 

Lecture  11.  The  principles  of  classification.  Indi- 
viduals, species,  their  permanence,  genera,  orders,  etc. 

Lecture  12.  Historical  development.  The  Linnsean 
system,  the  natural.  This  ends  so  as  to  give  me  a 
fine  place  to  begin  at  next  year.  .  .  . 

I  shall  soon  be  able  to  spare  Sprague  to  draw  the 
Illicium,  if  it  still  holds  on.  But  I  cannot  spare  him 
just  yet.  He  has  still  to  copy  the  red-snow  bank 
from  Ross,  eighteen  feet  long  !  —  finish  two  pieces  of 
etc.,  etc. 

TO    A.    DE    CANDOLLE. 

April  5,  1845. 

I  anxiously  wait  for  the  notices  of  the  life  and 
writings  of  your  lamented  father,  which  you  so  kindly 
offer.  I  agree  with  you  that  that  of  Daubeny  l  gives 
the  best  view  of  the  philosophy  of  his  science  ;  and 
yet  there  are  points  of  view  that  he  has  not  touched 
upon.  You,  of  course,  know  better  than  any  one  else 
what  were  your  father's  philosophical  views  in 
natural  history,  his  modes  of  thinking  and  working  ; 
and  if,  when  you  send  me  the  above-mentioned  docu- 
ments, you  would  also  feel  at  liberty  to  place  such 
confidence  in  me  as  to  give  me  your  own  views  and 
suggestions  upon  the  subject,  and  especially  upon  the 

1  Dr.  Charles  Daubeny,  G.  B.,  1795-1867  ;  professor  of  botany  and 
rural  economy  at  Oxford  ;  chemist  and  geologist. 

*rr.  34.]  TO  JOHN   TORRE  Y.  333 

points  that  other  writers  appear  to  have  overlooked, 
I  should  be  able  to  produce,  in  the  "  North  American 
Review,"  a  much  more  important  article  and  a 
worthier  tribute  to  the  memory  of  one  so  revered  on 
this  side  of  the  Atlantic  as  well  as  in  Europe.  May 
I  hope  you  will  favor  me  in  this  respect  ? 

Many  thanks  for  the  botanical  news.  I  long  to  be 
delivered  from  the  pressure  of  the  engagements  that 
have  consumed  so  much  of  my  time  for  the  last  year 
or  two,  and  finish  the  "  Flora  of  North  America." 

I  remain,  ever,  my  dear  friend,  faithfully  yours, 

A.  GRAY. 


August,  1845. 

The  new  post-office  law  is  an  excellent  thing,  as  it 
enables  us  to  exchange  our  missives  frequently,  to 
send  little  pieces  of  news,  and  ask  and  answer  ques- 
tions without  waiting  for  time  and  matter  to  fill  up  a 
formal  letter. 

I  must  tell  you  a  little  change  made  in  my  sanctum 
here.  You  are  to  imagine  me  writing  at  a  sort  of 
bureau-escritoire  (standing  under  Robert  Brown's  pic- 
ture), which  I  fortunately  picked  up  the  other  day  for 
$10.  It  is  of  old  dark  *wood  a  century  old,  and  con- 
tains below  four  drawers,  while  the  upper  part,  which 
opens  into  a  fine  writing-table,  has  eight  pigeon-holes, 
six  drawers,  and  a  little  special  lock-up  with  several 
drawers  and  pigeon-holes  more.  You  know  I  like 
any  quantity  of  these  stowaway  places.  I  have  sent 
upstairs  the  table  which  stood  in  its  place,  and  brought 
down  the  round  one,  so  that  I  have  more  room  than 

334  A  DECADE    OF  WORK  A  T  HOME.        [1845, 

TO   W.    J.    HOOKER. 

October  14,  1845. 

Your  excellent  father  lived  to  a  truly  patriar- 
chal age.  Mine,  who  has  been  in  failing  health  for 
some  time,  I  learn  to-day  is  suddenly  and  extremely 
sick,  and  I  set  out  for  my  birthplace  immediately,  in 
hopes  yet  to  see  him  once  more. 

His  father  died  October  13,  before  he  reached 
Sauquoit.  He  had  made  his  son  a  visit  in  Cambridge 
after  he  was  established  at  the  Garden  house,  more 
especially  to  consult  a  physician  for  his  failing  health. 

TO    JOHN    TORRE  Y. 

CAMBRIDGE,  November  15,  1845. 

My  visit  to  Oakes  1  was  chiefly  to  this  intent.  You 
know,  that  I  have  been  waiting  and  waiting  for  Oakes 
to  give,  not  his  New  England  "  Flora  "  (which  I  fear 
he  will  always  leave  unfinished),  but  a  prodromus  of 
it,  for  my  use  and  for  New  England.  The  conse- 
quence of  waiting  is  that  Wood 2  is  just  taking  the 
market,  against  my  "  Botanical  Text-Book,"  mostly  by 
means  of  his  "  Flora."  Letters  from  Hitchcock  — 
and  elsewhere  —  all  point  to  the  probability  that  they 
will  have  to  use  his  book  (of  which,  by  the  way,  he 
is  preparing  a  second  edition,  which  he  cannot  but 
improve),  and  ask  me  to  prevent  it,  by  appending  a 
brief  description  of  New  England  or  Northern  plants 
to  my  "  Botanical  Text-Book."  A  plan  has  occurred  to 
me  by  which  this  might  be  done,  were  it  not  that  I 
will  not  tread  on  the  heels  of  anything  that  Oakes 

1  William  Oakes,  1799-1848.     "  The  most  thorough  and  complete 
collector  and  investigator  of  New  England  plants  "  [A.  G.]. 

2  Alphonso  Wood,  1810-1881 ;  author  of  popular  botanical  text- 

MT.  35.]  TO  JOHN   TORREY.  335 

(who  has  devoted  a  life  of  labor  to  this  end)  will 
actually  do. 

As  something  must  be  done  at  once,  I  have  pro- 
posed to  Oakes  to  make  myself  the  necessary  con- 
spectuses of  orders,  analyses,  etc. ;  to  join  the  pro- 
posed thing  on,  or  to  dove-tail  it  into,  the  "  Text- 
Book  ; "  and  also  to  furnish  the  generic  characters, 
and  he  is  to  write  the  specific  characters  and  all  that 
for  New  England  plants.  I  give  him  as  limit  250 
pages  brevier  type,  12mo  (say  300),  and  insist  upon 
having  the  greater  part  of  the  copy  on  the  1st  March, 
and  that  it  shall  be  published  on  the  1st  April.  That 
I  may  cover  the  ground  of  Wood,  and  introduce  it 
into  New  York,  I  propose,  if  you  think  it  right  and 
proper,  to  add  the  characters  of  the  (about  150)  New 
York  plants  not  found  in  New  England,  distinguish- 
ing that  by  a  f. 

Oakes  promises  to  do  it.  But  our  understanding  is 
explicit  that  if  he  cannot  get  through  with  it  in  time, 
he  is  soon  to  let  me  know,  and  to  furnish  me  with 
New  England  matters,  when  I  am  to  do,  not  exactly 
this,  but  a  more  compendious  manual  of  the  botany 
of  New  England,  New  York,  New  Jersey,  and  Penn- 
sylvania, that  is,  the  Northern  States  proper.  It  will 
be  imperfect  and  hasty,  but  it  will  prevent  Wood 
from  fixing  himself  so  that  he  cannot  be  driven  out. 

I  propose  to  have  a  sufficient  number  of  copies  of 
this  (in  whatever  form  it  may  appear)  bound  up  with 
the  "  Botanical  Text-Book  "  to  meet  the  demands  of 
the  one-book  system  in  New  England  and  New  York, 
and  to  afford  it  at  a  price  reduced  to  a  minimum,  so 
that  nothing  is  to  be  made  out  of  it,  at  least  out  of 
the  first  edition. 

How  does  this  all  strike  you  ?    I  am  convinced  that 

336  A  DECADE    OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1845, 

something  must  be  done,  and  I  will  see  if  we  can't 
have  a  very  popular,  and  at  the  same  time  a  pretty 
good  book. 

George  1  sends  his  warm  regards. 

21st  November,  1845. 

I  have  driven  Cakes  so  absolutely  into  a  corner 
that  I  think  he  will  work  for  once.  The  man's  prepa- 
rations and  materials  are  enormous !  and  for  his  sake 
I  hope  he  will.  If  he  does  not,  I  shall  know  in  time, 
—  that  is,  as  soon  as  I  can  use  the  knowledge,  —  and 
then  the  plan  may  take  such  form  as  may  be  deemed 
best.  I  should  then  wish  to  make  it  more  absolutely  a 
supplement  of  "  Botanical  Text-Book ;  "  but  only  for 
the  proper  North.  In  the  way  in  which  it  would  then 
be  done,  with  Persoonish  2  compactness  and  brevity, 
I  doubt  if  you  would  care  to  engage  in  it.  As  soon 
as  we  can  get  out  the  proper  Botany  of  the  United 
States,  I  should  wish  it  to  supersede  this  to  a  great 
extent.  In  my  hands,  I  would  sell  it  so  cheaply  as  to 
make  very  little,  except  as  it  promotes  the  sale  of  the 
"  Botanical  Text-Book."  I  would  sell  the  "  Text-Book  " 
with  it  for  $2,  or  legs  even.  The  great  object  is  to 
keep  the  ground  clear  by  running  an  uncompromising 
opposition  against  the  threatening  interlopers. 

My  lectures  are  to  commence  January  13th. 

TO   J.    D.    HOOKER. 

CAMBRIDGE,  31st  December,  1845. 

I  was  much  pleased  to  receive  your  pleasant  letter 
of  the  29th  October  last,  and  I  read  with  interest  the 
account  of  the  debate  on  the  occasion  of  the  election 

1  His  brother,  then  living-  with  him  in  Cambridge  to  enter  Harvard. 

2  Christian  Hendrik  Persoon,   1755-1838 ;  a  botanist  at  the  Cape 
of  Good  Hope.     Died  in  Paris  at  a  very  advanced  age.     Fungologist. 

JET.  35.]  TO  J.  D.  HOOKER.  337 

by  the  Edinburgh  Town  Council.  Such  defeats  can 
do  you  no  harm.  I  suppose  you  are  now  going  on 
with  the  "  Flora  Antarctica."  I  need  not  say  that  I 
should  be  very  glad  to  see  the  Antarctic  plants  of  the 
Wilkes  Expedition  in  your  hands.  The  botanist  who 
accompanied  the  expedition  is  no  doubt  perfectly  in- 
competent to  the  task,  so  greatly  so  that  probably  he 
has  but  a  remote  idea  how  incompetent  he  is.  I  have 
not  seen  him  nor  the  plants.  Certainly  I  would  not 
touch  them  (any  but  the  Oregon  and  Californian)  if 
they  were  offered  to  me,  which  they  are  not  likely  to 
be.  I  consider  myself  totally  incompetent  to  do  such 
a  work  without  making  it  a  special  study  for  some 
years,  and  going  abroad  to  study  the  collections  ac- 
cumulated in  Europe.  Of  course  if  they  are  worked 
up  at  all  in  this  country,  they  will  be  done  disgrace- 
fully. I  publicly  expressed  my  opinion  on  the  sub- 
ject in  "  Silliman's  Journal."  But  I  have  long  been 
convinced  that  nothing  can  be  done.  The  whole  busi- 
ness has  been  in  the  hands  till  now  of  Senator , 

the  most  obstinate,  wrong-headed,  narrow-minded,  im- 
practicable ignoramus  that  could  well  be  found.  .  .  . 
If  to  this  you  add  an  utter  ignorance  of  those  prin- 
ciples of  comity  and  the  spirit  of  interchange  that 
prevail  among  naturalists,  and  a  total  want  of  com- 
prehension of  what  is  to  be  done  in  the  scientific 
works  in  question,  and  you  will  see  that  nothing  is  to 
be  expected  from  such  sources.  They  have  thrown 
every  obstacle  they  could  in  the  way  of  their  natu- 
ralists,— Dana  and  Pickering,  for  instance,  —  so  much 
so  that  Pickering,  though  a  patient  man,  once  threw 
up  his  position  in  disgust,  I  have  heard,  but,  by  some 
concessions  made  to  him,  was  finally  persuaded  to 
retain  it. 

338  A  DECADE    OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1845, 

Some  of  the  scientific  reports  will  soon  be  published, 
Dana  on  the  Corals,  etc.,  which  will,  I  suppose,  be  very 
creditable  to  him.  When  any  of  the  volumes  appear 
I  am  somewhat  inclined  to  call  public  attention  to 
some  of  this  gross  mismanagement  and  incompetency 
in  these  wrong-headed  managers,  in  a  review.  I 
thank  you  very  much  for  all  the  botanical  news  you 
give,  and  hope  you  will  still  favor  me  now  and  then 
with  other  such  epistles. 

I  have  never  worked  so  hard  as  for  the  last  four 
years,  nor  accomplished  so  much.  Still  it  will  not 
show  for  much  in  your  eyes,  and  I  receive  many  an 
exhortation  like  yours  to  go  on  with  the  "  Flora." 
But  a  world  of  work  that  could  only  be  done  by  my- 
self, the  pressure  of  the  duties  of  my  new  position,  and 
the  necessity  of  taking,  indeed  of  creating,  and  main- 
taining a  stand  that  should  make  my  department  felt 
and  appreciated,  has  indeed  sadly  interrupted  the 
work  which  I  am  of  all  others  most  desirous  to  com- 
plete. I  have  already  a  great  deal  of  matter  in  a  state 
of  forwardness,  and  another  year  (Deo  favente)  will, 
I  trust,  give  you  a  better  account  of  me.  My  last 
course  of  public  lectures  in  Boston  commences  in  a 
fortnight,  and  will  be  over  towards  the  close  of  Feb- 
ruary. You  will  admit  that  there  is  some  temptation 
to  a  person  who  has  so  many  uses  for  money,  when  I 
tell  you  that  I  received  twelve  hundred  dollars  for  the 
delivery  of  twelve  lectures,  and  that  there  are  strong 
reasons  beyond  what  the  institution  that  employs  me 
may  justly  demand,  that  I  should  do  my  best.  This, 
however,  will  soon  be  over,  and  the  "  Flora  "  shall  be 
pushed  with  vigor.  ...  I  greatly  long  to  revisit  Eng- 
land and  to  see  you  all  once  more.  Nothing  would 
delight  me  more ;  and  there  is  a  world  of  work  I  want 

MT.35.]  TO  JOHN   TORRE Y.  339 

to  do  in  the  collections  of  England  and  the  Continent. 
Indeed  you  may  look  to  see  me  one  of  these  days,  for 
I  cannot  long  be  satisfied  or  quiet  without  such  a 
visit ;  though  I  shall  hardly  dare  to  show  my  face  till 
the  "  Flora  "  is  finished.  How  glad  I  shall  be  to  see 
you  in  your  quarters  at  Kew,  and  renew  my  acquaint- 
ance with  all  the  family,  of  whom  I  retain  so  many 
pleasant  memories.  With  kind  regards  to  all,  believe 
me,  Ever  your  affectionate  friend, 

A.  GRAY. 


CAMBRIDGE,  January  26,  1846. 

Your  favor  of  the  22d  I  found  this  evening  on  my 
return  from  my  afternoon's  lecture.  I  am  very  tired 
and  cannot  write  much  this  evening.  Four  of  my 
lectures  l  are  off.  You  will  be  glad  to  know  that  they 
have  gone  off  very  well  —  the  three  first  admirably ; 
indeed  I  was  surprised  myself  at  the  fluency,  ease,  and 
"  enlargement "  which  was  given  me.  The  fourth,  both 
last  evening  and  this  afternoon,  was  poorer  —  inter- 
esting details,  but  scrappy,  and  less  comfort  in  speak- 
ing. Splendid  illustrations  up  though.  .  .  .  The  pic- 
tures were  worth  something,  if  the  lecture  was  not. 
I  shall  spur  myself  up  hard  for  those  four  to  come, 
which  are  fully  illustrated,  in  fact  a  complete  embar- 
ras  de  richesses.  Then  come  the  four  geographical 
lectures,  which  if  Sprague  gets  the  illustrations  ready 
will  be  very  interesting,  I  think.  I  must  work  them 
off  well,  for  at  least  two  of  our  seven  members  of 
corporation  are  constant  hearers. 

.  .  .  There  is  a  formidable  amount  of  work  of  vari- 
ous sorts  that  should  be  accomplished  (Deo  favente) 

1  The  third  course  of  Lowell  lectures. 

340  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1846, 

before  the  July  vacation.  .  .  .  The  contemplated  expe- 
dition is  a  land  one,  from  Lake  Superior  by  North  Pass 
to  upper  Oregon,  down  to  Lewis  River ;  up  that,  and 
then  over  to  the  Gila  River  in  California.  I  know  of  no 
botanist  to  go.  Can  you  find  one  ?  Sprague  cannot 
be  spared,  and  will  not  leave  his  wife  and  family  for 
so  long. 

.  .  .  Some  of  our  Congressmen  must  feel  a  little 
ashamed  that  England  is  so  cool  and  quiet  in  spite  of 
all  their  bluster.  Capital  for  peace  that  the  Peel  min- 
istry is  still  in.  We  owe  much  gratitude  to  the  new 
Lord  Grey.  .  .  . 


CAMBRIDGE,  April  8,  1846. 

What  is  Lindheimer  about  ?  Why  is  not  his  last 
year's  collection  yet  with  you?  We  have  just  got 
things  going,  and  we  can  sell  fifty  sets  right  off  of  his 
further  collections,  and  he  can  go  on  and  realize  a 
handsome  sum  of  money,  if  he  will  only  work  now ! 
And  he  will  connect  his  name  forever  with  the  Texan 
Flora ! 

I  am  at  the  "  Flora  "  again  and  hope  to  do  great 
things  this  year,  —  shall  work  hard  and  constantly. 

Besides,  by  the  aid  of  my  young  and  excellent 
artist  Sprague's  drawings,  and  Prestele  to  engrave 
cheaply  and  neatly  on  stone,  I  am  going  to  commence 
a  Genera  Illustrata  of  the  United  States,  like  T. 
Nees  von  Esenbeck's  "  Genera  Germanica  Iconibus 
Illustrata,"  —  the  plates  to  be  equally  good,  and 
quite  cheap  too.  The  first  volume,  one  hundred 
plates,  going  on  regularly  from  RanunculaceaB,  will 
be  preparing  this  summer,  and  will  be  out  in  the 

VET.  35.]  TO   GEORGE  ENGELMANN.  341 

May  30. 

Have  done  something  at  the  "  Flora ; "  shall  do  much 
work  this  season  after  July  4th,  when  college  duties 
are  over.  Drawings  for  "  Genera"  are  getting  on  well. 

One  word  now  on  another  point.  We  must  have  a 
collector  for  plants  living  and  dry  to  go  to  Santa  F£, 
with  the  Government  Expedition.  If  I  were  not  so 
tied  up,  I  would  go  myself.  Have  you  not  some  good 
fellow  you  can  send  ?  We  could  probably  get  him 
attached  somehow  so  as  to  have  the  protection  of  the 
army,  and  if  need  be  I  could  raise  here  two  hundred 
dollars  as  an  outfit.  He  could  make  it  worth  the 
while.  He  could  collect  sixty  sets  of  five  hundred 
plants  (besides  seeds  and  Cacti)  very  soon,  which, 
named  by  us,  would  go  off  at  once  at  ten  dollars  per 
hundred.  Somebody  must  go  into  this  unexplored 
field !  Let  me  know  if  you  think  anything  can  be 
done,  and  I  will  set  to  work.  The  great  thing  is  a 
proper  man. 

July  15. 

I  duly  received  your  favor  of  June  25th ;  am  de- 
lighted that  you  found  a  man  to  send  to  Santa  Fe.  I 
approve  your  mode  of  carrying  out  the  plan,  and  will 
not  be  slow  to  aid  in  it.  I  wrote  at  once  to  Sullivant, 
telling  him  to  forward  fifty  dollars  for  Fendler, l  —  to 
take  his  pay  in  Mosses  and  Hepaticse,  and  to  give  in- 
structions about  collecting  these,  his  great  favorites. 
Before  this  reaches  you,  I  am  sure  you  will  hear  from 
him.  He  is  a  capital  fellow,  and  Fendler  must  be 
taught  to  collect  Mosses  for  him. 

1  Augustus  Fendler,  1813-1883.  Came  from  Prussia  to  America 
in  1840.  Collected  in  New  Mexico,  and  on  the  Andes  about  Tovar  in 
Venezuela,  and  in  Trinidad.  "  A  close,  accurate  observer,  a  capital  col- 
lector and  specimen-maker  ;  his  distributed  specimens  are  classical.  Of 
a  scientific  turn  of  mind  in  other  lines  than  botany  "  [A.  G.]. 

342  A  DECADE    OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1846, 

Then  came  your  letter  of  July  3d.  All  right.  I 
immediately  wrote  to  Marcy,  the  Secretary  of  War, 
and  to  Colonel  Abert,  the  head  of  the  Topographical 
Engineer  Corps  ;  asked  for  protection  and  transpor- 
tation ;  told  the  secretary  to  send  anything  he  might 
be  disposed  to  do  to  you  at  St.  Louis.  I  then  inclosed 
your  letter  to  Mr.  Lowell,  and  have  just  received  it 
back  again,  with  his  letter,  which  I  inclose  to  you ! 
Is  it  not  handsome?  .  .  .  Now  Fendler  has  money 
enough  to  begin  with.  As  soon  as  he  is  in  the  field, 
and  shown  by  his  first  collections  that  he  is  deserving, 
I  can  get  as  much  more  money  advanced  for  him, 
from  other  parties.  If  he  only  makes  as  good  and 
handsome  specimens  as  Lindheimer,  all  will  be  well. 
His  collections  should  commence  when  he  crosses  the 
Arkansas  ;  his  first  envoi  should  be  the  plants  between 
that  and  Santa  Fe,  and  be  sent  this  fall,  with  seeds, 
cacti,  and  bulbs,  the  former  of  every  kind  he  can  get. 
These  must  be  confined  to  yourself,  Mr.  Lowell,  and 
me,  till  we  see  what  we  get  by  raising  them.  Other 
live  plants  he  had  better  not  attempt  now. 

His  next  collection  must  be  at  and  around  Santa 
Fe.  But  instruct  him  to  get  into  high  mountains,  or 
as  high  as  he  can  find,  whenever  he  can.  The  moun- 
tains to  the  north  of  Santa  Fe  often  rise  to  the  snow- 
line,  and  are  perfectly  full  of  new  things.  But  you 
can  best  judge  what  instructions  to  give  him.  We 
can  sell  just  as  many  sets  of  plants  as  he  will  make 
good  specimens  of.  But  forty  sets  is  about  as  many 
as  he  ought  to  make.  .  .  . 

It  is  said  that  a  corps  of  troops  is  to  be  sent  up 
through  Texas  towards  New  Spain.  Lindheimer 
ought  to  go  along,  and  so  get  high  up  into  the  country, 
where  so  much  is  new,  and  the  plants  have  really  "  no 
Latin  names." 

^T.  35.]  TO  JOHN   TORREY.  343 

October  8th. 

By  the  way,  meeting  Agassiz  last  evening,  I  was 
pleased  to  learn  that  he  claimed  you  as  a  schoolmate, 
and  spoke  of  you  with  lively  pleasure.  He  is  a  fine, 
pleasant  fellow.  We  shall  take  good  care  of  him  here. 

January  5,  1847. 

I  am  glad  so  fine  a  collection  is  on  the  way  from 
Lindheimer,  and  greatly  approve  his  going  to  the 
mountains  on  the  Guadaloupe.  How  high  are  the 
mountains  ?  If  good,  real  mountains,  and  he  can  get 
on  to  them,  and  into  secluded  valleys,  he  will  do  great 
things.  .  .  . 

We  will  keep  ahead  of  the  Bonn  people.  By  the 
close  of  next  summer  (Deo  favente)  we  may  hope  to 
have  the  botany  of  Texas  pretty  well  in  our  hands. 

Do  you  hear  from  Fendler?  Hooker  says  that  re- 
gion, the  mountains  especially,  is  the  best  ground  to 
explore  in  North  America !  There  is  a  high  moun- 
tain right  back  of  Santa  Fe.  Fendler  must  ravish  it. 


Wednesday,  [October,  1846]. 

A  Mr.  Baird,1  of  Carlisle,  Pa.,  called  on  me  yester- 
day, evidently  a  most  keen  naturalist  (ornithology 
principally),  but  a  man  of  more  than  common  grasp. 
He  talked  about  an  evergreen-leaved  Vaccinium,  which 
I  have  no  doubt  is  V.  brachycerum,  MX.,  that  I  have 
so  long  sought  in  vain  !  .  .  . 

13th  October,  1846. 

I  leave  Agassiz  in  New  York.  He  will  leave  New 
York  Wednesday  morning ;  join  me  at  Princeton, 

1  Spencer  F.  Baird,  afterward  widely  known  as  secretary  of  the 
Smithsonian  Institution. 

344  A   DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1846, 

and  go  on  with  us  to  Philadelphia  that  evening.  We 
shall  probably  go  together  to  Carlisle,  where  he  has 
something  to  do  with  that  capital  naturalist,  Professor 
Baird,  and"  I  have  to  get  live  Vaccinium  brachycerum. 
He  will  soon  return  to  make  ready  his  lectures  here. 

Agassiz  is  an  excellent  fellow,  and  I  know  you  will 
be  glad  to  make  his  personal  acquaintance.  I  must 
make  my  stay,  such  as  it  can  be,  at  Princeton,  on 
my  return.  .  .  . 

9th  December,  1846. 

Agassiz  lectured  first  last  evening ;  fine  audience  ; 
he  had  a  cold;  was  very  hoarse,  so  that  he  spoke 
with  discomfort  to  himself,  but  it  went  off  very  well. 
Though  he  by  no  means  did  himself  justice,  the  audi- 
ence seemed  well  pleased,  and  the  persons  I  spoke 
with  at  the  time,  the  most  intelligent  people,  were 
quite  delighted  and  impressed.  He  has  repeated  to- 
day. I  expect  to  hear  him  again  on  Friday.  .  .  . 

I  have  sixteen  proofs  of  "  Genera  Illustrata."  The 
engraving  is  clean  and  neat,  but  except  a  few  of  the 
last,  they  are  not  done  so  well  as  we  expect,  and  do 
not  do  justice  to  the  drawings,  which,  indeed,  are 
almost  matchless.  Prestele  has,  in  some,  altered  the 
arrangement  of  the  analyses  on  the  plate ;  conse- 
quently they  must  be  done  over  again. 

I  am  clear  that  Prestele  can  do  what  I  want,  so  I 
liave  given  him  further  instructions,  and  have  raised 
his  pay  to  $2.50  each ;  increasing  my  own  risk  thereby. 
Sprague  has  discovered  some  new  quiddities  about  the 
position  of  the  ovule  in  Rammculacese.  The  raphe  is 
dorsal  in  all  of  them,  with  pendulous  ovules ;  also  in 

He  will  go  on  very  slowly  ;  I  can't  hurry  him.  He 
has  not  yet  taken  up  Croomia. 

JKT.  36.]  TO  JOHN   TORREY.  345 

You  have  not  told  me  about  Chapman's  queer  plant 
yet!  ... 

Unless  Nuttall  has  arrived,  which  I  do  not  hear  of, 
it  is  too  late  for  him  till  next  fall ;  for  his  object  was 
to  secure  three  months'  absence  out  of  the  present 
year,  and  three  out  of  next.1 

January  24,  1847. 

Agassiz  has  finished  his  lectures  with  great  eclat  — 
most  admirable  course  —  and  on  Thursday  evening 
last  he  volunteered  an  additional  one  in  French,  which 
was  fine. 

I  gave  you  the  explanation  you  asked  for  in  my 
last  letter,  which  I  still  hope  you  will  find.  What  I 
then  said  about  the  excellent  tone  of  his  lectures  gen- 
erally was  fully  sustained  to  the  last ;  they  have  been 
good  lectures  on  natural  theology.  The  whole  spirit 
was  vastly  above  that  of  any  geological  course  I  ever 
heard,  his  refutation  of  Lamarckian  or  "  Vestiges  " 
views  most  pointed  and  repeated.  The  whole  course 
was  planned  on  a  very  high  ground,  and  his  references 
to  the  Creator  were  so  natural  and  unconstrained  as  to 
show  that  they  were  never  brought  in  for  effect. 

The  points  that  I.  A.  Smith  has  got  hold  of  were  a 
few  words  at  the  close  of  his  lecture  on  the  geographi- 
cal distribution  of  animals,  in  which  he  applied  the 
views  he  maintains  (which  are  those  of  Schouw  still 
further  extended)  to  man. 

He  thinks  that  animals  and  plants  were  originally 
created  in  numbers,  occupying  considerable  area,  per- 
haps almost  as  large  as  they  now  occupy.  I  should 

1  A  relative  left  Nuttall  a  comfortable  little  estate  and  property  on 
condition  that  he  should  not  be  away  from  it  more  than  three  months 
in  the  year.  He  managed  to  come  to  America  again  by  taking  the 
three  last  months  of  one  year  and  the  three  first  of  the  next. 

346  A  DECADE    OF  WORK  A  T  HOME.         [1847, 

mention  that  he  opposes  Lyell  and  others  who  main- 
tain that  very  many  of  the  Tertiary  species  are  the 
same  as  those  now  existing.  He  believes  there  is  not 
one  such,  but  that  there  was  an  entirely  new  creation 
at  the  commencement  of  the  historic  era,  which  is  all 
we  want  to  harmonize  geology  with  Genesis.  Now, 
as  to  man  he  maintains  distinctly  that  they  are  all  one 
species.  But  he  does  not  believe  that  the  Negro  and 
Malay  races  descended  from  the  sons  of  Noah,  but 
had  a  distinct  origin.  This,  you  will  see,  is  merely  an 
extension  of  his  general  view.  We  should  not  re- 
ceive it,  rejecting  it  on  other  than  scientific  grounds, 
of  which  he  does  not  feel  the  force  as  we  do. 

But  so  far  from  bringing  this  against  the  Bible,  he 
brings  the  Bible  to  sustain  his  views,  thus  appealing 
to  its  authority  instead  of  endeavoring  to  overthrow  it. 
He  shows  from  it  (conclusively)  that  all  the  sons  of 
Noah  (Ham  with  the  rest)  were  the  fathers  of  the  ex- 
tant Caucasian  races,  —  races  which  have  remained 
nearly  unaltered  from  the  first,  and  that  if  any  negroes 
proceeded  from  Ham's  descendants,  it  must  have  been 
by  a  miracle.  That  is  the  upshot  of  the  matter.  We 
may  reject  his  conclusions,  but  we  cannot  find  fault 
with  his  spirit,  and  I  shall  be  glad  to  know  that  Dr.  I. 
A.  Smith,  in  the  whole  course  of  his  public  teaching, 
has  displayed  a  reverence  for  the  Bible  equal  to  that 
of  Agassiz.  I  have  been  on  the  most  intimate  terms 
with  him  :  I  never  heard  him  express  an  opinion  or  a 
word  adverse  to  the  claims  of  revealed  religion.  His 
admirable  lectures  on  embryology  contain  the  most 
original  and  fundamental  confutation  of  materialism  I 
ever  heard. 

I  make  the  "  Manual "  keep  clear  of  slavery,  —  New 
Jersey,  Pennsylvania  (if  little  Delaware  manumits 

.ET.36.]  TO  JOHN   TORRE Y.  347 

perhaps  I  can  find  a  corner  for  it),  Ohio,  Indiana  or 
not  as  the  case  may  be,  leave  out  Illinois,  which  has 
too  many  Mississippi  plants,  take  in  Michigan  and 
Wisconsin,  at  least  Lapham's  *  plants  near  the  Lakes. 
That  makes  a  very  homogeneous  florula. 

I  have  made  as  usual  much  less  progress  than  I 
supposed;  so  now,  pressed  at  the  same  time  with  col- 
lege duties,  I  have  to  work  very  hard  indeed.  Carey 
is  coming  on  to  help  me.  .  .  .  Sheet  full. 

July  20, 1847. 

Did  you  not  know  that  an  application  has  come 
from  Wilkes  through  Pickering  2  to  Sprague  to  make 
some  botanical  drawings  for  the  Exploring  Expedi- 
tion, which,  as  I  supposed  they  were  to  be  for  your 
use,  I  persuaded  Sprague  to  promise  to  undertake,  at 
ten  dollars  for  each  folio  drawing  with  the  dissections 
full.  .  .  .  The  price  we  fixed  is  as  low  as  Sprague 
can  do  them  for,  to  any  advantage,  even  if  he  had 
nothing  else  to  do.  The  price  I  fixed  for  the  draw- 
ings of  u  Genera,"  and  which  I  thought  very  large, 
(|6  per  plate)  does  not  thus  far  pay  Sprague  day 
wages,  he  takes  so  much  time  and  care  with  them.  I 
can  only  hope  that  the  experience  and  facility  he  is 
getting  will  enable  him  to  knock  them  off  faster  here- 
after. You  see  therefore  that  Sprague  cannot  afford 
to  make  the  drawings  for  Emory  at  the  price  he  made 
those  for  Fremont  —  two  dollars  apiece.  He  will  do 
them  better  ;  having  now  such  skill  in  dissections  he 

1  Increase  Allen  Laphara,  1811-1875  ;   author  of  a  Catalogue  of 
Plants  in  the  Vicinity  of  Milwaukee. 

2  Charles  Pickering-,  1805-1878.    "  Author  of  Geographical  Distri- 
bution of  Plants  and  Animals  and  Man's  Record  of  his  own  Existence, 
largely  a  record  of  changes  in  the  habitat  of  plants.     A  monument  of 
wonderful  industry  "  [A.  G.j. 

348  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1847, 

will  display  structure  finely,  but  he  must  not  under- 
take them  under  six  dollars  apiece,  since  they  will 
cost  him  as  much  time  as  do  my  octavo  "  Genera  " 
drawings.  He  might  make  what  you  want  along  this 
summer  and  autumn  ;  I  am  not  crowding  him. 

September  28,  1847. 

I  had  a  pleasant  visit  to  Litchfield  of  three  days,  in- 
cluding the  Sabbath.  On  the  banks  of  a  lake  in  the 
neighborhood  I  stumbled  on  a  species  of  Cyperus 
dentatus,  which  in  the  "  Flora  of  the  Northern  States  " 
you  credit  to  Litchfield,  Brace.1  This  Mr.  Brace,  who 
is  an  uncle  of  J.'s,  I  met  for  a  moment  at  New  Mil- 
ford,  where  he  now  lives.  There  are  three  great  aunts, 
most  excellent  old  ladies,  who  live  in  a  simple  and 
most  delightful  manner  at  Litchfield.  The  youngest, 
who  has  been  J.'s  guardian  almost  from  infancy,  re- 
turned with  us  to  Boston  for  a  week  or  two.  Their 
brother,  Mr.  Pierce,  who  died  only  last  year,  was,  it 
seems,  an  old  friend  of  yours,  through  whom  they  feel 
almost  acquainted  with  you.  He  passed  a  part  of  his 
life  in  New  York,  was  a  mineralogist,  and  I  think  I 
have  seen  his  name  as  a  member  of  the  Lyceum.  Pray 
tell  me  about  him. 

I  found  it  not  easy  to  make  an  arrangement  in 
New  York  for  the  publication  of  the  "  Illustrated  Gen- 
era," by  which  I  could  get  back  directly  the  money 
I  have  expended  in  it.  I  think,  therefore,  I  shall  go 
on  to  defray  the  expenses  of  the  first  volume  myself, 
which  I  think  I  shall  be  able  to  do,  and  thus  manage 
to  get  the  immediate  proceeds  myself.  As  to  the 
"Manual,"  I  have  unwittingly  made  it  so  large,  in 

1  John  P.   Brace,  Litchfield,  Conn. ;  an  early  botanist  and  miner- 
alogist.    His  herbarium  went  to  Williams  College. 

,KT.  36.]  TO  J.  L.  L.  349 

spite  of  all  my  endeavors  at  compression,  that  I  can 
make  nothing  to  speak  of  from  the  first  edition,  even 
if  it  sells  right  off. 

TO    J.    L.    L. 

Monday  evening,  9  o'clock,  1847. 

When  I  reached  home  Henry  and  Agassiz  were  here. 
No  one  else  came  (as  I  expected),  and  Agassiz  in- 
sisted on  returning  in  the  nine  o'clock  omnibus. 
Agassiz  and  Henry  enjoy  and  admire  each  other  so 
richly,  and  talk  science  so  glowingly  and  admiringly, 
that  I  think  I  should  not  have  been  at  all  surprised  to 
see  them  exchange  kisses  before  they  were  done.  And 
Agassiz  told  him  he  meant  to  come  to  Cambridge,  and 
they  began  to  talk  of  their  children,  and  Agassiz  read 
extracts  from  letters  just  received  from  his  wife  and 
his  son,  who  —  to  Agassiz's  great  pride  and  satisfaction 
—  had  just  climbed  the  Fellenberg  in  the  Breisgau, 
slept  on  the  summit  in  the  open  air  to  see  the  sun  rise 
in  the  morning,  then  descended  and  walked,  I  forget 
how  many  miles.  Pretty  well  for  a  lad  of  eleven. 

It  is  not  a  year  since  I  told  Henry  that  he  should 
have  either  Agassiz  or  Wyman  at  Washington,  but 
that  we  must  have  one  of  them  at  Cambridge. 
Beyond  all  expectation  we  have  them  both ! 

Henry  gave  me  —  I  know  not  what  led  to  it  —  a  full 
detailed  account  of  his  life  from  early  boyhood,  which 
was  full  of  curious  interest  and  suggested  much  matter 
for  reflection.  In  the  evening  we  fell  to  discoursing 
on  philosophical  topics,  and  Henry  threw  out  great 
and  noble  thoughts,  and  as  we  both  fell  to  conversing 
with  much  animation  my  headache  disappeared  en- 
tirely. There  is  no  man  from  whom  I  learn  so  much 
as  Henry.  He  calls  out  your  own  .powers,  too,  sur- 
prisingly. .  .  . 

350  A  DECADE    OF  WORK  AT  HOME.         [1847, 

I  have  been  addling  my  brain  and  straining  my 
eyes  over  a  set  of  ignoble  Pond-weeds  (alias  Potamo- 
geton)  trying  to  find  the 

"  difference  there  should  be 
Twixt  tweedle-dum  and  tweedle-dee," 

and  wasting  about  as  much  brain  in  the  operation  as 
your  dear  paternal  would  expend  in  an  intricate  law 
case,  for  all  of  which  I  suppose  nobody  will  thank  me 
and  I  shall  get  no  fee.  Indeed,  few  would  see  the 
least  sense  in  devoting  so  much  time  to  a  set  of  vile 
little  weeds.  But  I  could  not  slight  them.  The 
Creator  seems  to  have  bestowed  as  much  pains  on 
them,  if  we  may  use  such  a  word,  as  upon  more  con- 
spicuous things,  so  I  do  not  see  why  I  should  not  try 
to  study  them  out.  But  I  shall  be  glad  when  they 
are  done,  which  I  promise  they  shall  be  before  I  sleep. 
10.45  P.  M. — There,  the  pond-weeds  are  done  fairly. 

TO    W.    J.    HOOKER. 

CAMBRIDGE,  December  1st,  1847. 

I  reply  early  to  your  kind  letter  of  October  30th  to 
assure  you  that  I  shall  with  much  pleasure  contribute 
so  far  as  I  have  opportunity  to  the  new  Botanical 
Museum,  which,  under  your  charge,  and  with  your 
great  opportunities  for  obtaining  things  from  every 
part  of  the  world,  will  soon  become  a  magnificent 
collection.  I  have  already  several  things  to  send  you, 
such  as  two  very  large  entwined  stems  of  Aristo- 
lochia  Sipho,  which  I  brought  from  the  mountains  of 
Carolina ;  a  Dasylirion  from  Texas,  etc.  I  have  some 
time  ago  made  arrangements  for  getting  curious  stems 
from  Para,  through  a  friend  in  Salem,  who  will  also 
incite  the  masters  and  supercargoes  of  ships  from  that 
port  which  trade  with  various  out-of-the-way  parts  of 

^T.  37.]  TO   GEORGE   ENGELMANN.  351 

the  world.  The  first  things  sent  from  Para  were 
slabs  rather  than  truncheons  of  wood  (all  ordinary 
exogenes),  but  I  am  promised  palm  stems  and 
woody  climbers,  of  which  I  shall  take  a  portion  to 
build  up  our  general  Natural  History  Museum  at 
Cambridge,  which  with  the  zeal  of  Agassiz  and  Wy- 
man  is  now  likely  to  grow ;  the  rest  I  will  send  to 
you.  If  you  will  send  me  a  few  duplicates  of  your 
circular,  I  will  have  them  placed  in  proper  hands 
where  they  may  turn  to  good  account.  I  am  de- 
lighted to  hear  such  pleasant  things  of  Dr.  Hooker, 
which  I  had  also  heard  last  summer  from  Mrs.  Mc- 
Gilvray.  I  owe  him  a  letter,  but  it  is  too  late  to  send 
my  congratulations,  now  that  he  is  probably  far  on 
the  way  to  India.  I  admire  his  zeal  and  energy,  and 
wish  him  an  excellent  time  and  a  prosperous  return. 
The  government  has  behaved  most  handsomely  in 
affording  him  such  important  aid  in  his  undertaking. 

Proper  specimens  of  maple  sugar  will  keep  per- 
fectly well  if  placed  in  a  glass  jar  with  a  closed  cover. 
I  will  surely  send  some  in  the  spring. 


CAMBRIDGE,  December  20,  1847. 

I  got  a  parcel  from  New  York  on  Saturday  even- 
ing, containing  a  few  welcome  plants  of  Wislizenus' 1 
collection,  and  a  set  of  Fendler's  from  Santa  FC*,  up 
to  Rosaceae.  The  specimens  are  perfectly  charming  ! 
so  well  made,  so  full  and  perfect.  Better  never  were 
made.  In  a  week  I  shall  take  them  right  up  to  study, 
and  they  are  Rocky  Mountain  forms  of  vegetation  en- 
tirely, so  I  can  do  it  with  ease  and  comfort.  It  is  a 

1  A.  Wislizenus,  M.  D.,  b.  1810.  Explored  New  Mexico  and  Mexico  ; 
was  arrested  as  a  spy.  On  returning  to  the  United  States  published  a 
memoir  of  the  tour,  1846-1847. 

352  A  DECADE    OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1848, 

cool  region  that,  and  dry.  If  these  come  from  the 
plains,  what  will  the  mountains  yield  ?  Fendler  must 
go  back,  or  a  new  collector,  now  that  order  is  restored 

All  Fendler's  collection  will  sell  at  once,  no  fear, 
such  fine  specimens  and  so  many  good  plants.  Pity 
that  F.  did  not  know  enough  to  leave  out  some  of  the 
common  plants,  except  two  or  three  specimens  for  us, 
and  bestow  the  same  labor  on  the  new  plants  around 

Send  on  the  rest  soon. 

Yours  cordially,  A.  GRAY. 


CAMBRIDGE,  January  17,  1848. 

DEAR  FRIEND,  —  That  I  ought  to  have  replied  to 
your  letter  of  the  19th  November,  to  say  nothing  of 
that  of  September  21  and  June  18,  there  is  no  doubt. 
The  letter  I  have  carried  in  my  pocket  a  good  while, 
hoping  to  catch  a  moment  somewhere  and  some  time 
to  write  to  you,  especially  as  the  time  approaches  in 
which  I  may  be  sending  a  parcel  to  New  Orleans  for 
you.  But  I  have  not  had  an  hour's  leisure  not  de- 
manded by  letters  of  immediate  pressing  consequence, 
or  in  which  I  was  not  too  tired  to  write. 

There  are  many  correspondents  whom  I  have 
neglected  almost  as  much  as  I  have  you.  I  have 
worked  like  a  dog,  but  my  work  laid  out  to  be  finished 
last  July  is  not  done  yet. 

But  from  about  the  time  of  your  last  letter  a  provi- 
dential dispensation  has  prevented  me  from  doing 
what  I  would,  namely,  the  sickness,  by  typhoid  fever, 
of  a  beloved  brother  (a  Junior  in  college  here),  who 
required  every  leisure  moment  from  the  time  he  be- 

JET.  37.]  TO   CHARLES   WRIGHT.  353 

came  seriously  sick  up  to  the  9th  inst.  —  a  week  ago 
—  when  it  pleased  the  Sovereign  Disposer  of  events, 
to  whom  I  bow,  to  remove  him  to  a  better  world  ;  and 
I  am  but  recently  returned  from  the  mournful  journey 
to  convey  to  the  paternal  home  (in  western  New 
York)  his  mortal  remains.  This  has  somewhat  inter- 
rupted the  printing  of  the  last  sheets  of  my  "  Manual 
of  North  American  Botany ; "  which,  with  all  my  efforts 
at  condensation,  has  extended  to  almost  eight  hun- 
dred pages!  !  (12mo),  including  the  introduction.  It 
will  be  difficult  to  get  the  volume  within  covers.  A 
year's  hard  labor  is  bestowed  upon  it ;  I  hope  it  will 
be  useful  and  supply  a  desideratum.  As  a  consola- 
tion for  my  honest  faithfulness  in  making  it  tolerably 
thorough,  and  so  much  larger  than  I  expected  it 
would  prove,  it  is  now  clear  that  I  shall  get  nothing  or 
next  to  it  for  my  year's  labor.  At  the  price  to  which 
it  must  be  kept  to  get  it  into  our  schools,  etc.,  there 
is  so  little  to  be  made  by  it,  that  I  cannot  induce  a 
publisher  to  pay  the  heavy  bills,  except  upon  terms 
which  swallow  up  all  the  proceeds ;  or  at  the  very 
least  I  may  get  $200,  if  it  all  sells,  a  year  or  two  hence. 

Meanwhile,  I  have  paid  the  expenses  principally 
incurred  on  the  first  volume  of  "  Illustrated  Genera," 
which  I  can't  print  and  finish  till  the  "  Manual "  is 
out ;  have  run  heavily  into  debt  in  respect  to  these 
works,  which  were  merely  a  labor  of  love  for  the  good 
of  the  science  and  an  honorable  ambition ;  and  how 
I  am  going  to  get  through  I  cannot  well  see.  .  .  . 

I  should  despond  greatly  if  I  were  not  of  a  cheerful 
temperament.  .  .  . 

I  wish  I  could  write  to  you  as  you  wish,  all  about 
botany,  etc.  I  wish  I  could  aid  you  as  I  desire,  but 
I  fear  it  is  impossible.  I  must  have  rest  and  less 

354  A   DECADE    OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1848, 

anxiety.  Two  more  years  like  the  last  would  probably 
destroy  me.  If  I  had  an  assistant  or  two,  to  take  de- 
tails off  my  hands,  I  might  stand  it ;  as  it  is  I  cannot. 
Carey  spent  three  months  with  me  last  season,  and 
was  to  study  and  ticket  your  Texan  collection  in  my 
hands,  take  a  set  for  his  trouble,  and  Mr.  Lowell 
and  Mr.  S.  T.  Carey  would  take  what  they  needed 
and  pay  for  them,  so  that  I  could  pay  your  book-bill 
at  Fowle's.  The  utmost  Carey  found  time  to  do  was 
to  throw  the  collection  into  orders ;  there  they  still  lie, 
in  the  corner  !  There  perhaps  they  had  best  lie,  now, 
till  the  collection  of  the  past  season  reaches  me,  when 
I  will  try  to  study  them  all  together,  along  with  Lind- 
heimer's  collections,  a  set  of  which  still  waits  for  me 
to  study  them.  Will  you  wonder  that  I  am  a  little 
disheartened  when,  in  spite  of  every  effort,  I  make  so 
little  progress  ?  And  in  six  weeks  I  begin  to  lecture 
in  college  again ;  and  in  April  the  Garden  will  require 
more  time  than  I  can  give  it.  Such  are  merely  some 
of  the  things  on  my  hands,  some  of  my  cares  !  Still 
I  am  interested  in  you,  and  in  your  collections,  and 
will  do  what  I  can.  .  .  . 

Then  if  you  will  continue  to  send  seeds  (pretty 
largely),  also  bulbs,  cacti,  tubers,  etc.,  now  in  early 
spring  (and  root-cuttings  of  some  vines),  taking  pains 
that  they  are  sent  in  a  direct  way,  so  as  to  come 
alive  in  May,  etc.,  I  will  get  an  appropriation  allowed 
from  the  Garden  for  you.  Don't  try  other  live  plants 
till  we  have  better  communication  with  Texas.  We 
have  sunk  money  in  this  already  and  had  to  give  it 
up.  . 

Forgive  my  long  neglect ;  accept  my  apologies.  I  '11 
see  if  I  can  do  any  better  hereafter,  when  I  have  a 
wife  to  write  letters  for  me. 

^T.  37.]  TO   GEORGE  ENGELMANN.  355 

March  10th. 

Besides  all  the  rest,  the  Academy's  correspondence 
presses  hard  on  me.  I  have  written  twenty-four  letters 
for  the  steamer  to-morrow.  Fairly  to  keep  up  my 
correspondence  and  answer  all  my  letters  would  take 
full  two  hours  every  day  of  the  week  except  the  Sab- 
bath. So  have  mercy,  and  long  patience.  .  .  . 

Meanwhile  my  "  Manual  "  is  out ;  but  not  published 
till  the  10th  February.  What  can  you  expect  from  a 
man  who  takes  up  a  job  in  February,  1847,  to  finish 
in  May  or  June  certain ;  but  who,  though  he  works 
like  a  dog,  and  throws  by  everything  else,  does  not 
get  it  done  till  February  comes  round  again.  So  it  is 
only  now  that  I  have  anything  to  send  you.  I  am 
now  printing  off  my  "  Genera  Illustrata  "  —  the  text 
for  one  hundred  plates  ;  mean  to  have  it  out  in  a 
month ;  but  I  will  not  wait  any  longer.  .  .  . 


CAMBRIDGE,  Fehruary  29,  1848. 

.  .  .  Now  for  Fendler  himself.  He  ought  to  go 
back,  and  without  delay.  He  has  gained  much  expe- 
rience, and  will  now  work  to  greater  advantage.  He 
makes  unrivaled  specimens,  and  with  your  farther  in- 
structions will  collect  so  as  to  make  more  equable  sets. 
If  he  will  stay  and  bide  his  time  he  can  get  on  to  the 
mountains,  and  must  try  the  higher  ones,  especially 
those  near  Taos. 

Let  him  stay  two  years,  and  if  he  is  energetic  he 
will  reap  a  fine  harvest  for  botany,  and  accumulate  a 
pretty  little  sum  for  himself,  and  have  learned  a  pro- 
fession, for  such  that  of  a  collector  now  is.  Drum- 
mond  made  money  quite  largely. 

I  had  rather  Fendler  would  go   north   and  west 

356  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1848, 

than  south  of  Santa  Fe.  New  Spain  and  Rocky 
Mountain  botany  is  far  more  interesting  to  us  than 


March  29,  1848. 

Your  parcel  came  to-day ;  many  thanks.  After 
dinner  I  have  just  looked  over  the  Mexican  Com- 
positae  of  Gregg,1  which  are  numerous,  and  quite  a 
bonne  bouche.  My  old  love  of  the  dear  pappose  crea- 
tures revived  at  the  sight,  and  I  longed  to  take  them 
by  the  beard.  If  at  liberty  to  do  so  (am  I  ?)  I  think 
I  will,  at  the  same  time  I  do  the  Santa-Feans ;  and  at 
the  same  time  I  will  study  any  of  Abert's  or  Emory's 
Mexican  or  North  Spain  Compositae  you  have  not 
already  disposed  of.  As  to  the  parcel  to  be  divided, 
of  which  there  are  no  duplicates,  whoever  packed  your 
parcel  has  taken  care  that  there  shall  be  pieces  enough, 
if  no  specimens !  They  were  in  longer  paper  than  the 
other  bundles ;  not  protected  by  binder's  board,  and 
therefore  both  ends,  for  two  or  three  inches,  were  nicely 
bent  up  against  the  ends  of  the  shorter  bundle  next 
them  ;  which  was  very  pretty  for  the  shape  of  the 
parcel,  but  death  to  many  of  the  plants  ;  for  the  fold 
came  just  below  the  heads  in  most  cases,  too  many  of 
which  were  decapitated  like  the  victims  of  the  (last 
but  two)  French  revolution. 

I  have  been  going  on  with  recitations  for  some 
time,  twice  a  week  (two  hours),  and  to-day  I  began 
my  lectures  to  the  whole  Junior  class,  on  Geographi- 
cal Botany  for  the  present. 

1  Josiah  Gregg,  died  in  California,  1850 ;  made  excellent  collec- 
tions in  Chihuahua  and  in  the  Valley  of  the  Rio  Grande.  Author  of 
the  Commerce  of  the  Prairies. 

^T.  37.]  TO   W.  J.  HOOKER.  357 

What  with  these  duties,  superintending  gardener, 
and  painting  and  papering  in  the  house,  and  Sprague 
drawing  for  the  second  volume  of  "Genera,"  and  I 
printing  the  first,  with  the  printer  ever  on  my  heels 
for  copy,  and  at  the  same  time  printing  Memoirs  and 
Proceedings  of  the  Academy,  and  managing  large 
correspondence,  you  may  conceive  that  my  hands  are 
full.  Yours  most  cordially, 

A.  GRAY. 

TO   W.    J.    HOOKER. 

CAMBRIDGE,  2d  May,  1848. 

I  send  ...  a  copy  (roughly  put  into  paper  covers) 
of  the  first  volume  of  "  Genera  Illustrata,"  regretting 
there  is  not  time  to  send  you  a  bound  copy.  I  hope 
you  will  like  it.  Sprague  is  improving  fast,  reads 
Brown's  papers,  etc.,  and  is  getting  a  good  insight 
into  structural  botany,  even  the  nicest  points.  We 
mean  to  carry  on  the  work,  and  I  hope  for  considera- 
ble London  sale  of  it.  The  price  is  $6,  or  in  London, 
<£!  10s.,  which  I  trust  will  be  thought  low.  Please 
notice  it  in  the  "  Journal."  The  proceeds  go  princi- 
pally to  support  Sprague  in  carrying  on  the  work.  I 
put  his  name  on  the  title-page  without  his  knowledge 
and  at  the  expense  of  his  great  modesty. 

I  want  to  introduce  the  tussock  grass  on  our  east- 
ern coast,  where  it  will  thrive  well.  Is  it  too  late  to 
send  this  spring  ?  Or  will  you  send  in  autumn  ? 

P.  S.  —  The  last  steamer  brought  good  news  of 
peace  and  strength  in  England,  dissipating  the  alarm 
of  many,  but  I  felt  none  myself,  having  a  strong  confi- 
dence in  the  soundness  of  Old  England  and  the  dura- 
bility of  her  institutions,  of  which  I  am  here  esteemed 
an  over  admirer. 

358  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1848, 

Dr.  Gray  was  married,  May  4,  1848,  to  Jane 
L.,  daughter  of  Charles  Greely  Loring,  a  lawyer  in 
Boston.  In  June  they  made  a  short  journey  to 
Washington,  that  Dr.  Gray  might,  on  undertaking  to 
describe  the  plants  of  the  United  States  Exploring 
Expedition,  see  Commodore  Wilkes. 


CAMBRIDGE,  8th  May,  1848. 

Yesterday  I  sent  to  Grant  at  Wiley's  for  you  a 
parcel  containing  some  "  Linnseas,"  etc.,  received  from 
Hamburg,  your  copy  of  Seubert  on  Elatine,  and  a 
bound  copy  of  the  "  Genera  Flora3  Americae  Boreali- 
Orientalis  Illustrata,"  which  I  ask  you  to  accept,  and 
which  I  trust  you  will  like.  There  is  also  a  specimen 
inclosed  of  some  vegetable  product  that  has  lately  be- 
come somewhat  common  here,  and  which  I  thought  you 
might  like  to  examine.  It  is  apparently  of  a  rather 
complicated  structure,  in  fruit  evidently,  but  syncar- 
pous  ;  the  heterogenous  and  baccate  or  fleshy  ovaries 
being  immersed  without  apparent  order  in  a  farina- 
ceous receptacle.  If  you  should  be  at  all  puzzled 
with  it,  and  can't  find  out  to  what  particular  family 
it  belongs,  you  might  call  in  the  aid  of  Mrs.  Torrey 
and  the  girls,  to  aid  in  the  investigation.  I  dare  say 
you  will  make  it  out. 

June,  1848. 

I  am  just  home  this  morning,  and  as  I  had  no  time 
yesterday  to  reply  to  your  kind  letter  of  Saturday,  I 
write  at  once  now.  .  .  . 

Friday  evening  we  were  at  the  White  House,  to  see 
Madame  Polk.  We  have  accomplished  a  great  deal 
of  sight-seeing  and  all  in  our  week  and  a  day,  and  J. 

^T.  37.]  TO  JOHN   TORREY.  359 

has  enjoyed  it  much,  except  the  drawback  of  not  see- 
ing Mrs.  T.  and  the  girls  and  yourself  at  home,  which 
she  greatly  wished.  .  .  . 

Now  as  to  Exploring  Expedition.  We  will  talk  it 
over  in  full  when  you  come  on  here  toward  the  end  of 
this  month. 

Suffice  it  to  say  (as  I  am  pressed  for  time)  that  I 
had  made  up  my  mind  what  I  would  do  it  for  before 
I  left  home  ;  that  on  looking  over  the  collection,  as  to 
various  parts  of  it,  as  far  as  time  allowed,  I  found  it 
less  ample  than  I  supposed,  but  with  many  difficulties 
owing  to  specimens  in  fruit  only,  or  flower  only.  I 
think  it  no  very  awful  job,  if  done  in  the  way  I  pro- 
pose, which  is,  not  by  monographs  by  people  abroad, 
which  the  committee  will  not  agree  to,  but  by  work- 
ing up  a  part  abroad  in  Hooker's,  or  Bentham's,  or 
Garden  of  Plants  herbarium. 

The  chairman  of  the  committee  and  Wilkes  be- 
haved very  well,  and  told  me  they  were  very  desirous 
I  should  take  it  up. 

On  Friday  evening  Wilkes  came  in,  before  we  went 
to  the  President's  ;  asked  me  to  say  what  I  would  do. 
I  told  him  at  once  what  I  would  do  (just  what  I  had 
told  J.  before  we  left  Cambridge),  and  Wilkes  at  once 
accepted  my  terms,  as  I  supposed  he  would.  My  terms 
were  based  on  the  supposition  that  there  is  five  years' 
work  in  preparing  for  the  press  the  collections  left  on 
hand,  and  in  superintending  the  printing.  .  .  . 

We  must  settle  together  the  typographical  form  of 
the  work,  etc.,  when  you  come,  and  we  will  make  the 
other  writers  conform  to  the  plan  we  agree  on,  which 
perhaps  you  have  already  fixed. 

Now  I  want  a  careful  and  active  curator.  What 
young  botanist  can  I  get  ?  .  .  . 

360  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1848, 

27th  Nov.,  1848. 

Wright  is  up  from  Texas  (with  his  mother  at 
Wethersfield,  Connecticut)  ;  he  will  soon  be  here  as 
curator  to  me,  taking  Lesquereux's  1  place,  who  has 
been  with  me  a  little,  but  now,  as  a  consequence  of 
his  visit  to  Columbus,  goes  to  aid  Sullivant,  with  a 
provision  that  makes  the  truly  worthy  fellow  perfectly 
happy.  They  will  do  up  bryology  at  a  great  rate. 
Lesquereux  says  that  the  collection  and  library  of  Sul- 
livant in  muscology  are  "  magnifique,  superbe,  the  best 
he  ever  saw." 


January  24,  1849. 

Halstead,  I  believe,  has  nearly  decided  to  go  on  the 
Panama  Railroad  Survey ;  I  trust  to  get  Wright  at- 
tached to  the  boundary  survey.  I  have  a  letter  from 
Fendler,  in  which  he  expressed  his  willingness  to  go  to 
the  Great  Salt  Lake  country,  if  he  can  get  government 
protection  and  food,  etc.  In  a  few  days  I  shall  write  to 
Marcy ;  send  him  the  sheets  of  "  Plantse  Fendlerianae," 
and  make  a  vigorous  application  for  this  aid.  No 
doubt  I  shall  get  it,  I  think.  But  perhaps  it  might 
be  almost  as  well  for  Fendler  to  go  over  with  a  party 
of  emigrants  directly  to  Mormon  City.  But  probably 
there  will  be  emigrants  bound  for  the  same  place, 
accompanying  the  regiment,  as  near  as  they  go. 
Fendler  can  do  admirably  well  in  that  region,  if  he 
perseveres.  But  will  he  not  take  the  gold-fever  and 
leave  us  in  the  lurch  ?  Will  not  living,  etc.,  be  very 
dear  in  Mormon  City  also  ?  I  fear  it.  I  must  leave 
much  to  your  discretion.  Only  if  you  think  Fendler 

1  Leo  Lesquereux,  1806-1889  ;  the  leading  fossil  botanist  of  Amer- 
ica, and  a  distinguished  bryologist. 

<ET.38.]  TO  GEORGE  ENGELMANN.  361 

has  a  strong  tendency  to  gold-hunting  (which  few  could 
resist)  let  him  go.  And  afterwards,  if  he  chooses  to 
collect  plants,  very  well.  Few  can  withstand  the 
temptation  when  fairly  within  the  infected  region,  and 
we  hear  the  Mormons  have  found  gold  also.  .  .  . 

February  25, 1849. 

I  have  just  received  from  the  secretary  of  war,  Mr. 
Marcy,  and  inclose  to  you,  what  I  think  will  procure 
all  the  facilities  that  Fendler  can  wish  from  United 
States  troops.  If,  as  I  was  informed,  the  secretary 
has  no  right  to  issue  an  order  for  rations  to  Fendler,  he 
has  certainly  done  the  best  thing  by  issuing  a  recom- 
mendation which  will,  if  the  commander  is  favorably 
disposed,  enable  him  to  give  all  without  any  order. 
Indeed,  I  think  we  could  ask  nothing  better.  .  .  . 

In  my  haste,  and  multitude  of  business,  I  have 
shabbily  neglected  to  send  the  copies  of  "  Plantse 
Fendlerianse  "  to  Hamburg  for  Braun.  And  now  the 
Danes  have  blockaded  the  Elbe.  .  .  . 

I  think  I  shall  soon  send  the  smaller  things  to  you 
by  express,  and  retain  the  three  volumes  of  "  Me- 
moirs "  for  some  opportunity  less  expensive.  We  want 
railroad  all  the  way  to  St.  Louis. 

I  am  crowded  —  overwhelmed  —  with  work.  But 
college  work  will  be  over  in  July,  and  the  second  vol- 
ume of  "  Genera,"  which  I  am  now  hard  at  work  on, 
will  soon  be  printed  off;  a  week  more  and  I  shall 
have  finished  the  copy. 

I  must  then  work  at  Exploring  Expedition  Com- 
positse,  and  soon  at  Fendlerianse,  and  (when  the  sets 
arrive)  at  Lindheimer's,  if  you  wish.  I  have  made  a 
genus  of  the  Texan  Rue  —  between  Ruta  and  Aplo- 
phyllum,  —  e.  g.,  Rutosma.  I  think  there  are  some 

A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1849, 

good  remarks  you  will  like  in  the  second  volume  of 
"  Genera." 

I  foresee  an  unusually  good  chance  to  get  rid  of  the 
college  work  a  year  hence,  and  must  therefore  try  to 
overhaul  the  Exploring  Expedition  plants,  so  as  to  get 
them  into  some  shape,  and  next  year  (May  or  April) 
go  abroad  with  them,  sit  down  in  London  and  Paris, 
and  work  them  off.  I  will  then  drum  up  subscribers 
for  Fendler  and  Lindheimer. 

I  want  you  to  help  me  a  little  about  Trees ;  our  na- 
tive trees  up  to  Cornus  inclusive,  for  this  year,  for  the 
report  I  have  promised  the  Smithsonian  Institution.1 
I  wish  I  had  a  good  assistant ;  one  who  could  work  at 
botany.  Perhaps  I  can  find  one  abroad. 


February  26,  1849. 

Having  determined  on  an  expedition  for  Wright, 
you  may  be  sure  I  was  not  going  to  be  altogether  dis- 
appointed. Accordingly  I  have  got  one  all  arranged 
(Lowell 2  and  Greene  subscribing  handsomely)  which 
is  as  much  better  than  Emory's  as  possible,  and  thus 
far  everything  has  wonderfully  conspired  to  favor 
it.  Wright  has  left  me  this  morning  to  go  to  his 
mother's  in  Connecticut  (Wethersfield)  ;  there  to  make 
his  portfolios  and  presses  ;  comes  on  to  New  York 
soon ;  takes  first  vessel  for  Galveston  (I  expect  a  letter 

1  Sprague   made,  under   Dr.   Gray's  directions,  some  drawings  in 
color  of  the  work  planned,  The   Trees  of  North  America.     The  work 
was  never  completed,  too  many  things,  expense,  etc.,  coming  in  the 
way,  but  the  few  plates  printed  and  colored  by  Prestele  were  issued 
in  a  small  quarto  pamphlet  by  the  Smithsonian  Institution  in  1891. 

2  John  Amory  Lowell,  1798-1881 ;   a  Boston  merchant,  and  a  lib- 
eral patron  of  botany.     He  bought  many  valuable  books  and  collected 
a  fine  herbarium.     He  shaped  the  policy  and  direction  of  the  Lowell 
Institute  founded  by  his  cousin,  John  Lowell. 

^T.  38.]  TO  JOHN  TORREY.  363 

from  Hastings  telling  when  it  sails),  and  to  reach 
Austin  and  Fredericksburg  in  time  to  accompany  the 
troops  that  are  about  to  be  sent  up,  by  a  new  road, 
across  a  new  country,  to  El  Paso,  in  New  Mexico. 
Look  on  the  map  (Wislizenus)  and  you  will  see  the 
region  we  mean  him  to  explore  this  summer ;  the  hot 
valley  of  Rio  del  Norte,  early  in  the  season,  the  moun- 
tains east,  and  especially  those  west  in  summer.  He 
will  probably  stay  two  years,  and  get  to  Taos  and 
Spanish  Peaks  this  year  or  next.  We  shall  have 
government  recommendations  to  protection,  and  let- 
ters to  an  officer  (commanding)  who,  through  Henry, 
has  already  made  overtures  to  collect  himself  or  aid  in 
the  matter. 

26th  May,  1849. 

I  have  finished  all  the  copy  of  "  Genera  Illustrata," 
vol.  ii.,  at  length;  the  printer  has  yet  two  or  three 
sheets  to  set  up.  The  plates  are  working  off  in  New 
York.  It  will  now  soon  be  off  my  hands.  It  is  long 
since  I  have  done  anything  at  Exploring  Expedition 
plants.  I  am  now  going  at  them.  It  is  a  shabby,  un- 
satisfactory collection.  .  .  . 

CAMBRIDGE,  November  2,  1849. 

.  .  .  Sorry  I  am  that  you  could  not  be  here  while 
Harvey  is  here ;  he  will  be  south  by  Christmas.  He 
desires  me  to  say  that  he  expects  to  spend  the  first  half 
of  December  in  New  York  at  Dr.  Hosack's,  and  will 
be  most  glad  to  see  you.  I  am  sure  you  will  like  him. 
We  are  perfectly  charmed  with  him.  A  quiet,  unaf- 
fected, pleasant  man  —  extremely  lovable.  He  works 
away  at  a  table  in  my  study.  His  course  is  a  very  in- 
teresting one.  He  is  a  beautiful  writer,  but  not  very 
fluent  extempore,  though  with  more  practice  he  would 
be  a  fine  lecturer.  He  has  a  good  audience.  .  .  . 

364  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.        [1849, 

Sprague  has  promised  now  to  take  up  and  finish 
your  quarto  drawings.  He  says  he  can  work  but  a  little 
while  at  a  time,  from  a  difficulty  of  breathing.  Had 
I  foreseen  his  health  and  vigor  giving  way,  I  should 
not  have  undertaken  the  Trees,  which,  as  to  illustra- 
tions (as  he  is  more  fond  of  them  than  of  anything  else, 
and  has  made  fine  drawings),  we  have  gradually  en- 
larged our  ideas  about  them  much  beyond  the  original 
plan,  as  to  the  figures.  He  must  get  this  volume  off 
his  hands  this  winter,  anyhow.  The  "  Genera  "  will 
lie  in  abeyance.  .  .  . 

My  plan  is  only  to  bring  out  one  volume  of  the  Tree- 
Eeport  next  spring,  and  not  to  go  beyond  the  limits 
of  the  United  States  proper,  those  of  "  Genera  Illus- 
trata,"  except  to  mention  the  trees  of  the  far  West  in 
a  general  way ;  otherwise  it  would  be  far  too  formi- 
dable. .  .  . 

Sir  John  Richardson  dropped  in  on  me  the  very 
day  Harvey  arrived,  expressed  regret  he  could  not 
see  you,  learned  here  the  rumored  news  of  Franklin. 
I  wish  you  could  have  been  here  at  a  little  dinner 
party  we  made  for  them.  He  is  at  home  by  this  time. 

TO   W.    J.    HOOKER. 

December  3,  1849. 

.  .  .  We  are  glad  to  hear  what  fine  discoveries  your 
son  is  making  in  Thibet,  etc. 

I  saw  to-day  for  the  first  time,  at  Green's,  the  Hima- 
laya Rhododendrons.  .  .  . 

I  have  just  parted  from  Harvey,  who  has  passed 
seven  weeks  with  us,  and  having  finished  his  course  at 
the  Lowell  with  much  acceptance  now  joins  his 
friends  at  New  York  and  Philadelphia  till  Christmas, 
and  then  goes  south  to  Florida,  Alabama,  and  proba- 

JET.  39.]  TO  GEORGE  BENTHAM.  365 

bly  either  to  Jamaica  (where  Dr.  Alexander  now  is)  or 
to  the  mountains  at  the  St.  lago  end  of  Cuba,  a  terra 
incognita  nearly.  Harvey  is  a  most  winning  man ;  my 
wife  and  I  have  become  extremely  attached  to  him, 
and  are  sorry  to  part  with  him. 

We  do  not  mean  to  let  any  naturalist  be  idle  who 
comes  to  this  country,  so  he  is  already  engaged  to  give 
illustrations  of  our  peculiar  Algae  for  the  Smithsonian 
contributions  and  to  prepare  (after  his  return  home, 
of  course)  a  manual  of  United  States  Algae  after  the 
fashion  of  his  second  edition  of  "  British  Algae." 
There  will  be  no  small  demand  for  it.  ... 

P.  S.  —  Mr.  Wright  got  through  to  El  Paso  in 
southern  New  Mexico,  and  is  on  his  way  back,  with, 
he  says,  a  fine  collection. 

We  got  some  fine  daguerreotypes  of  Harvey,  so 
much  better,  he  says,  than  he  has  seen  in  England 
that  he  has  had  an  extra  one  taken  for  Lady  Hooker. 


CAMBRIDGE,  January  7,  1850. 

Your  letter  of  December  4th  and  your  very  flattering 
article  in  the  December  number  of  "  Hooker's  Jour- 
nal "  were  both  most  gratifying ;  and  the  remarks  on 
the  Mimosa  were  timely,  as  I  was  just  about  con- 
signing the  manuscript  of  the  earlier  part  of  the  new 
"Plantae  Lindheimerianae "  to  the  printer.  I  like 
what  you  say  about  "  deduplication  "  much,  and  freely 
accept  almost  all.  I  took  the  name  coined  to  my 
hand,  not  feeling  at  liberty  to  coin  a  new  one.  I 
think  the  production  of  new  organs  one  before  the 
other  can  be  pretty  well  explained  morphologically 
and  anatomically,  in  accordance  with  your  hint,  and 
shall  attempt  to  work  it  out  in  the  third  edition  of  my 

366  A   DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.       [1850, 

"  Botanical  Text-Book,"  which  I  am  now  preparing  for 
the  press.     I  shall  be  most  glad  of  any  further  hints. 

May  I  ask  you  what  you  think  of  Adrien  de  Jus- 
sieu's  way  of  explaining  the  regular  alternation  of 
organs  in  the  flower  ?  I  greatly  incline  to  it.  ... 

I  have  to  finish  this  Lindheimer  collection,  finish 
Fendler's,  distribute  and  study  Wright's  collection 
when  I  get  it,  carry  the  "  Botanical  Text-Book " 
through  the  press,  rewriting  and  expanding  it  (thus 
far  I  have  made  it  all  over),  write  the  first  volume  of 
an  elaborate  report  on  the  Trejes  of  United  States 
for  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  in  fact  a  Sylva,  with 
colored  plates  by  Sprague  (which  I  could  not  resist 
taking  in  hand,  as  that  institution  promised  to  bring 
it  out,  and  handsomely,  at  their  expense),  and  give 
my  course  of  lectures  in  the  college  from  March  to 
June.  When  all  this  is  done  I  can  cross  the  At- 
lantic. .  .  .  By  engaging  a  brother  professor  to  take 
the  duties  which  I  have  for  the  autumn  term  (assign- 
ing to  him  pro  rata  from  my  salary),  I  shall  be  free 
until  1st  March  ensuing.  But  I  mean  to  ask  for  leave 
of  absence  for  a  year,  and  trust  I  shall  get  it.  ... 

As  far  as  it  has  yet  shaped  itself  my  plan  is  ... 
to  sit  down  hard  to  work  for  the  autumn  and  winter 
on  the  Exploring  Expedition  plants,  to  go  to  Paris  in 
the  spring  and  settle  such  questions  as  must  be  settled 
there  after  I  come  to  know  better  than  I  now  do  (ex- 
cept in  the  Compositse)  what  they  are.  Excepting 
the  Oregon  and  Californian  plants,  which  are  as- 
signed to  Torrey,  and  the  Sandwich  Islands  Collec- 
tion, a  fine  one,  the  collection  is  a  poor  one,  often 
very  meagre  in  specimens,  too  much  of  an  alongshore 
and  roadside  collection  to  be  of  great  interest.  I  am 
not  familiar  with  tropical  forms  and  have  no  great 

^T.  39.]  TO  GEORGE  BENTHAM.  367 

love  for  them.  I  dislike  to  take  the  time  to  study 
out  laboriously  and  guessingly,  with  incomplete  speci- 
mens, and  no  great  herbaria  and  libraries  to  refer  to, 
these  things  which  are  mostly  well  known  to  botanists, 
though  not  to  me,  and  I  want  to  be  taken  off  from 
North  American  botany  for  as  short  a  time  as  possible. 
I  must  therefore  come  abroad  with  them,  which  the 
pay  that  is  offered  will  enable  me  to  do.  I  have 
found  a  good  deal  to  interest  me  in  the  Composite, 
especially  those  of  Rio  Negro,  of  north  Patagonia  and 
of  the  Andes  of  Peru.  .  .  . 

Now,  will  you  take  it  as  a  bore,  an  imposition  on 
your  kindness,  if  I  frankly  ask  whether  I  can  possibly 
offer  you  any  sort  of  inducement  to  aid  me,  at  least  so 
far  as  to  run  over  the  collections  with  me,  and  name 
those  that  are  familiar  to  you  as  we  pass,  and  refer 
others,  as  nearly  as  one  can  without  study,  to  their 
proper  places?  Your  mere  comments  in  running 
through  would  save  half  my  time. 

It  is  most  natural  that  you  should  not  incline  to 
any  such  trouble,  and  I  know  your  hands  are  always 
full ;  so,  if  you  say  no,  I  shall  feel  it  is  quite  right, 
and  do  the  best  I  can.  .  .  . 

We  shall  be  most  glad  to  visit  you  at  Pontrilas 
House  at  whatever  time  best  suits  Mrs.  Bentham  and 
yourself,  whether  in  summer  or  in  autumn,  any  time 
before  we  settle  down  into  our  winter  quarters.  .  .  . 

With  best  wishes  to  Mrs.  B.  and  yourself  for  the 
new  year,  I  am  very  faithfully  yours,  A.  GRAY. 

TO    W.    J.    HOOKER. 

April  2,  1850. 

We  were  most  glad  to  receive  your  kind  favor  of 
January  29,  which,  however,  lay  over  a  fortnight  in 

368  A  DECADE   OF  WORK  AT  HOME.       [1850, 

England,  and  in  the  mean  time  we  heard  not  only  of 
Dr.  Hooker's  capture,  but  also,  with  much  gratifica- 
tion, of  his  release.  What  an  indefatigable  man  he  is ! 

Finding  myself  greatly  behindhand,  on  account  of 
various  hindrances  and  miscalculation  of  time,  and 
utterly  unable  to  accomplish  half  the  work  I  had  in- 
tended to  do  this  spring,  I  have  decided  to  break  off ; 
and  to  sail,  in  a  packet-ship  from  Boston,  on  the 
5th  of  June,  with  Mrs.  Gray,  for  Liverpool,  which  we 
may  hope  to  reach  by  the  close  of  that  month.  This 
will  give  us  an  opportunity  of  seeing  England  in  its 
summer  dress,  and  to  make,  almost  immediately  fol- 
lowing the  sea  voyage,  a  trip  up  the  Rhine  to  Switzer- 
land. On  our  return  I  must  set  to  work  diligently, 
and  for  a  little  while  with  Mr.  Bentham,  who  has 
kindly  offered  to  look  over  the  tropical  collections, 
which  I  know  little  of,  and  love  as  little. 

The  rewriting  of  all  the  structural  parts  of  my  3d 
edition  of  the  "  Botanical  Text-Book,"  which  I  was 
inadvertently  drawn  into,  has  proved  a  most  time- 
consuming  business.  It  is  not  yet  through  the  press. 

Wright's  collection  of  seeds  I  had  divided  into  two 
parts,  and  I  send  you  one  by  the  hands  of  Mr.  Lowell, 
who  with  his  whole  family  goes  out  by  this  steamer. 
You  will  receive  them  in  good  time  to  raise  them.  .  .  . 

Mr.  Lowell  is  of  great  use  to  us,  in  helping  on 
these  explorations,  and  I  look  to  his  visit  to  Europe, 
the  sight  of  the  great  collections,  and  the  society  of 
naturalists  to  strengthen  his  tastes  and  fire  his  zeal 
in  these  respects. 

I  long  to  have  him  and  Mrs.  Lowell,  a  very  good 
friend  of  ours,  make  your  acquaintance. 


14  DAY  USE 



This  book  is  due  on  the  last  date  stamped  below,  or 

on  the  date  to  which  renewed. 
Renewed  books  are  subject  to  immediate  recall. 

JAN  9     1962 

JAN  OT2( 

LD  21-50m-6,'59 

General  Library 

University  of  California